آرون بر

Aaron Burr
Burr.jpg
3rd Vice President of the United States
في المنصب
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805
الرئيس Thomas Jefferson
سبقه Thomas Jefferson
خلفه George Clinton
United States Senator
from New York
في المنصب
March 4, 1791 – March 4, 1797
سبقه Philip Schuyler
خلفه Philip Schuyler
3rd Attorney General of New York
في المنصب
September 29, 1789 – November 8, 1791
الحاكم George Clinton
سبقه Richard Varick
خلفه Morgan Lewis
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد (1756-02-06)فبراير 6, 1756
Newark, New Jersey, British America
توفي سبتمبر 14, 1836(1836-09-14) (عن عمر 80 عاماً)
New York City, New York, U.S.
المدفن Princeton Cemetery
الحزب Democratic-Republican
الزوج Theodosia Bartow Prevost (1782–1794)
Eliza Jumel (1833–1836)
الأنجال Theodosia
الوالدان Aaron Burr Sr.
Esther Edwards
الجامعة الأم Princeton University
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاء  الولايات المتحدة
الخدمة/الفرع Continental Army
سنوات الخدمة 1775–1779
الرتبة Lieutenant Colonel
المعارك/الحروب American Revolutionary War

Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician. He was the third Vice President of the United States (1801–1805), serving during President Thomas Jefferson's first term.

Burr served as a Continental Army officer in the Revolutionary War, after which he became a successful lawyer and politician. He was elected twice to the New York State Assembly (1784–1785, 1798–1799),[1] was appointed New York state attorney general (1789–1791), was chosen as a United States senator (1791–1797) from the state of New York, and reached the apex of his career as vice president.

The highlight of Burr's tenure as president of the senate (one of his few official duties as vice president) was the Senate's first impeachment trial, that of Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase. In 1804, the last full year of his single term as vice president, Burr killed his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel—a man whom he had rescued during the Revolutionary War. Burr was never tried for the illegal duel, and all charges against him were eventually dropped, but Hamilton's death ended Burr's political career.

After leaving Washington, Burr traveled west seeking new opportunities, both economic and political. His activities eventually led to his arrest on charges of treason in 1807. The subsequent trial resulted in acquittal, but Burr's western schemes left him with large debts and few influential friends. In a final quest for grand opportunities, he left the United States for Europe. He remained overseas until 1812, when he returned to the United States to practice law in New York City. There he spent the rest of his life in relative obscurity.

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النشأة



السياسة

بداية عمله في المحاماة ثم السياسة

نائب رئيس الجمهورية

لوح تذكاري قدمته مفوضية الاحتفال بمرور مائة وخمسين عاماً على إنشاء الكاپيتول الأمريكي 1951


المبارزة مع ألكسندر هاملتون

ألكسندر هاملتون يتأهب لمبارزته القاتلة مع نائب الرئيس ’رون بر.

قالب:Wikisourcehas When it became clear that Jefferson would drop Burr from his ticket in the 1804 election, the Vice President ran for Governor of New York instead. Burr lost the election to little known Morgan Lewis, in what was the largest margin of loss in New York's history up to that time.[2] Burr blamed his loss on a personal smear campaign believed to have been orchestrated by his party rivals, including New York governor George Clinton. Alexander Hamilton also opposed Burr, due to his belief that Burr had entertained a Federalist secession movement in New York.[3] In April, the Albany Register published a letter from Dr. Charles D. Cooper to Philip Schuyler, which relayed Hamilton's judgment that Burr was "a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government", and claiming to know of "a still more despicable opinion which General Hamilton has expressed of Mr. Burr".[4] In June, Burr sent this letter to Hamilton, seeking an affirmation or disavowal of Cooper's characterization of Hamilton's remarks.[5]

Hamilton replied that Burr should give specifics of Hamilton's remarks, not Cooper's. He said he could not answer regarding Cooper's interpretation. A few more letters followed, in which the exchange escalated to Burr's demanding that Hamilton recant or deny any statement disparaging Burr's honor over the past 15 years. Hamilton, having already been disgraced by the Maria Reynolds adultery scandal and mindful of his own reputation and honor, did not. According to Thomas Fleming, Burr would have immediately published such an apology, and Hamilton's remaining power in the New York Federalist party would have been impaired.[6] Burr responded by challenging Hamilton to personal combat under the code duello, the formalized rules of dueling. Hamilton's eldest son Philip had died in a duel in 1801.

Dueling had been outlawed in New York; the sentence for conviction of dueling was death. It was illegal in New Jersey as well, but the consequences were less severe. On July 11, 1804, the enemies met outside Weehawken, New Jersey, at the same spot where Hamilton's son had died. Both men fired, and Hamilton was mortally wounded by a shot just above the hip.[7]

The observers disagreed on who fired first. They did agree that there was a three-to-four second interval between the first and the second shot, raising difficult questions in evaluating the two camps' versions.[8] Historian William Weir speculates that Hamilton might have been undone by his own machinations: secretly setting his pistol's trigger to require only a half pound of pressure as opposed to the usual 10 pounds. Burr, Weir contends, most likely had no idea that the gun's trigger pressure could be reset.[9][صفحة مطلوبة] Louisiana State University history professors Nancy Isenberg and Andrew Burstein concur with this. They note that "Hamilton brought the pistols, which had a larger barrel than regular dueling pistols, and a secret hair-trigger, and were therefore much more deadly,"[10] and conclude that "Hamilton gave himself an unfair advantage in their duel, and got the worst of it anyway."[10]

David O. Stewart, in his biography of Burr, American Emperor, notes that the reports of Hamilton's intentionally missing Burr with his shot began to be published in newspaper reports in papers friendly to Hamilton only in the days after his death.[11][صفحة مطلوبة] But Ron Chernow, in his biography, Alexander Hamilton, states Hamilton told numerous friends well before the duel of his intention to avoid firing at Burr. Additionally, according to Chernow, Hamilton wrote a number of letters dated before the duel that also attest to this intention.[12][صفحة مطلوبة] The two shots, witnesses reported, followed one another in close succession, and none of those witnesses could agree as to who fired first. Prior to the duel proper, Hamilton took a good deal of time getting used to the feel and weight of the pistol (which had been used in the duel at the same Weehawken site in which his 19-year-old son had been killed), as well as putting on his eyeglasses in order to see his opponent more clearly. His seconds placed him so that Burr would have the rising sun behind him, though during the brief duel, one witness reported, Hamilton seemed to be hindered by this placement as the sun was in his eyes.

In any event, Hamilton's shot missed Burr, but Burr's shot was fatal. The bullet entered Hamilton's abdomen above his right hip, piercing Hamilton's liver and spine. Hamilton was evacuated to Manhattan; he lay in the house of a friend, receiving visitors including clergy, in order to be baptized before he died the following day. Burr was charged with multiple crimes, including murder, in New York and New Jersey, but was never tried in either jurisdiction.

He fled to South Carolina, where his daughter lived with her family, but soon returned to Philadelphia and then to Washington to complete his term as Vice President. He avoided New York and New Jersey for a time, but all the charges against him were eventually dropped. In the case of New Jersey, the indictment was thrown out on the basis that, although Hamilton was shot in New Jersey, he died in New York.


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المؤامرة والمحاكمة

مقال رئيسي: مؤامرة بر

After Burr left the Vice-Presidency at the end of his term in 1805, he journeyed into what was then the Western frontier, areas west of the Allegheny Mountains and down the Ohio River Valley eventually reaching the lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. Burr had leased 40,000 acres (16,000 ha) of land—known as the Bastrop Tract—along the Ouachita River, in what is now Louisiana, from the Spanish government. Starting in Pittsburgh and then proceeding to Beaver, Pennsylvania, and Wheeling, Virginia, and onward he drummed up support for his plans.[13]

His most important contact was General James Wilkinson, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army at New Orleans and Governor of the Louisiana Territory. Others included Harman Blennerhassett, who offered the use of his private island for training and outfitting Burr's expedition. Wilkinson was later proved to be a bad choice.[14]

Burr saw war with Spain as a distinct possibility. In case of a war declaration, أندرو جاكسون stood ready to help Burr, who would be in position to immediately join in. Burr's expedition of about eighty men carried modest arms for hunting, and no materiel was ever revealed, even when Blennerhassett Island was seized by Ohio militia.[15] His "conspiracy", he always avowed, was that if he settled there with a large group of (armed) "farmers" and war broke out, he would have an army with which to fight and claim land for himself, thus recouping his fortunes. However, the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty secured Florida for the United States without a fight, and war in Texas did not occur until 1836, the year Burr died.

After a near-incident with Spanish forces at Natchitoches, Wilkinson decided he could best serve his conflicting interests by betraying Burr's plans to President Jefferson and to his Spanish paymasters. Jefferson issued an order for Burr's arrest, declaring him a traitor before any indictment. Burr read this in a newspaper in the Territory of Orleans on January 10, 1807. Jefferson's warrant put Federal agents on his trail. Burr twice turned himself in to the Federal authorities. Two judges found his actions legal and released him.

Jefferson's warrant, however, followed Burr, who fled toward Spanish Florida. He was intercepted at Wakefield, in Mississippi Territory (now in the state of Alabama), on February 19, 1807. He was confined to Fort Stoddert after being arrested on charges of treason.[16] Burr was treated well there. For example, in the evening of February 20, 1807, when Burr appeared at the dinner table, he was introduced to Frances Gaines, the wife of the commandant Edmund P. Gaines. She was also the daughter of Judge Harry Toulmin, who had issued Burr's arrest warrant. Mrs. Gaines and Burr played chess that evening and continued this entertainment during his confinement at the fort.

Burr's secret correspondence with Anthony Merry and the Marquis of Casa Yrujo, the British and Spanish ministers at Washington, was eventually revealed. He had tried to secure money and to conceal his true designs, which was to help Mexico overthrow Spanish power in the Southwest. Burr intended to found a dynasty in what would have become former Mexican territory.[17] This was a misdemeanor, based on the Neutrality Act of 1794, which Congress passed to block filibuster expeditions against US neighbors, such as those of George Rogers Clark and William Blount. Jefferson, however, sought the highest charges against Burr.

In 1807, Burr was brought to trial on a charge of treason before the United States Circuit Court at Richmond, Virginia. His defense lawyers included Edmund Randolph, John Wickham, Luther Martin, and Benjamin Gaines Botts.[18] Burr had been arraigned four times for treason before a grand jury indicted him. The only physical evidence presented to the Grand Jury was Wilkinson's so-called letter from Burr, which proposed the idea of stealing land in the Louisiana Purchase. During the Jury's examination, the court discovered that the letter was written in Wilkinson's own handwriting. He said he had made a copy because he had lost the original. The Grand Jury threw the letter out as evidence, and the news made a laughingstock of the general for the rest of the proceedings.

The trial, presided over by Chief Justice of the United States John Marshall, began on August 3. Article 3, Section 3 of the United States Constitution requires that treason either be admitted in open court, or proved by an overt act witnessed by two people. Since no two witnesses came forward, Burr was acquitted on September 1, in spite of the full force of the Jefferson administration's political influence thrown against him. Burr was immediately tried on a misdemeanor charge and was again acquitted.[19]

Given that Jefferson was using his influence as president in an effort to obtain a conviction, the trial was a major test of the Constitution and the concept of separation of powers. Jefferson challenged the authority of the Supreme Court and its Chief Justice John Marshall, an Adams appointee who clashed with Jefferson over John Adams' last-minute judicial appointments. Jefferson believed that Burr's treason was obvious. Burr sent a letter to Jefferson in which he stated that he could do Jefferson much harm. The case as tried was decided on whether Aaron Burr was present at certain events at certain times and in certain capacities. Thomas Jefferson used all of his influence to get Marshall to convict, but Marshall was not swayed.

Historians Nancy Isenberg and Andrew Burstein write that Burr:

was not guilty of treason, nor was he ever convicted, because there was no evidence, not one credible piece of testimony, and the star witness for the prosecution had to admit that he had doctored a letter implicating Burr.[10]

David O. Stewart, on the other hand, insists that while Burr was not explicitly guilty of treason according to Marshall's definition, evidence exists that links him to treasonous crimes. For example, Bollman admitted to Jefferson during an interrogation that Burr planned to raise an army and invade Mexico. He said that Burr believed that he should be Mexico's monarch, as a republican government was not right for the Mexican people.[20] Many historians believe the extent of Burr's involvement may never be known.

حياته اللاحقة ووفاته

پورتريه لاحق لـبر، في مطلع ع1800.

By this point all of Burr's hopes for a political comeback had been dashed, and he fled America and his creditors[21] for Europe, where he tried to regain his fortunes. He lived abroad from 1808 to 1812, passing most of his time in England, where he occupied a house on Craven Street in London. He became a good friend, even confidant, of the English Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, and on occasion lived at Bentham's home. He also spent time in Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and France. Ever hopeful, he solicited funding for renewing his plans for a conquest of Mexico, but was rebuffed. He was ordered out of England and Napoleon Bonaparte refused to receive him,[17] although one of his ministers held an interview concerning Burr's goals for Spanish Florida or British possessions in the Caribbean.

After returning from Europe, Burr used the surname "Edwards", his mother's maiden name, for a while to avoid creditors. With help from old friends Samuel Swartwout and Matthew L. Davis, Burr returned to New York and his law practice. Later he helped the heirs of the Eden family in a financial lawsuit. The remaining members of the household soon became a second family to him. He also adopted two boys during this period: Aaron Burr Columbe (born 1808 in Paris) and Charles Burdett; the former was rumored to be his "natural" son by a Frenchwoman.[22][23] He lived the remainder of his life in relative peace.[24]

In 1833, at age 77, Burr married Eliza Jumel, a wealthy widow who was 19 years his junior. Soon, she realized her fortune was dwindling due to her husband's land speculation losses.[25] She separated from Burr after four months of marriage; their divorce was officially completed on September 14, 1836, coincidentally the day of Burr's death.[26] They lived together briefly at her residence which she had acquired with her first husband, the Morris-Jumel Mansion in Manhattan. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is now preserved and open to the public.[27]

آرون بر، قناع الوفاة.

Burr suffered a debilitating stroke in 1834, which rendered him immobile. In 1836, Burr died on Staten Island in the village of Port Richmond, in a boardinghouse. This was later adapted and operated as the St. James Hotel.[28] He was buried near his father in Princeton, New Jersey.


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Character

Aaron Burr was a man of complex character who made many friends, but also many powerful enemies. He may be the most controversial of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was indicted for murder after the death of Hamilton, but never prosecuted;[29] he was reported by acquaintances to be curiously unmoved by Hamilton's death, expressing no regret for his role in the result. He was arrested and prosecuted for treason by President Jefferson, but acquitted.[30]

Notes

  1. ^ OOA n.d.
  2. ^ Stewart 2011, p. 29.
  3. ^ Kerber 1980, p. 148.
  4. ^ Fleming 1999, p. 233.
  5. ^ Fleming 1999, p. 284.
  6. ^ Fleming 1999, pp. 287–89.
  7. ^ Buescher 2010.
  8. ^ Ellis 2000, pp. 20–47.
  9. ^ Weir 2003.
  10. ^ أ ب ت Isenberg & Burstein 2011.
  11. ^ Stewart 2011.
  12. ^ Chernow 2004.
  13. ^ McFarland 1979, p. 62.
  14. ^ Parmet & Hecht 1967, p. 259.
  15. ^ Parmet & Hecht 1967, p. 268.
  16. ^ Pickett 1900.
  17. ^ أ ب Chisholm 1911, p. 862.
  18. ^ Wandell & Minnigerode 1925, p. 182.
  19. ^ Peter Charles Hoffer, The treason trials of Aaron Burr (U. Press of Kansas, 2008)
  20. ^ Stewart 2011, pp. 213–14.
  21. ^ Isenberg 2007, p. 380.
  22. ^ Schachner 1961, p. 513:Schachner described Aaron Columbus Burr as "the product of a Paris adventure," conceived presumably during Aaron Burr's exile from the United States between 1808–1814.
  23. ^ Lomask 1982, pp. 387–88.
  24. ^ Isenberg 2007, pp. 396–97.
  25. ^ Brown 1901, pp. 3–4.
  26. ^ Nolan 1980, pp. 41–43.
  27. ^ Ward 2000, p. 39.
  28. ^ Walsh 2009.
  29. ^ Berkin et al. 2013, p. 200.
  30. ^ Newmyer 2012, p. 182.

وصلات خارجية

Wikiquote-logo.svg اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بآرون بر، في معرفة الاقتباس.
مناصب قانونية
سبقه
Richard Varick
Attorney General of New York
1789–1791
تبعه
Morgan Lewis
مناصب حزبية
حزب جديد Democratic-Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
(Class 1)

1791, 1797
تبعه
John Addison
سبقه
George Clinton(a)
Democratic-Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States(1)
1796(b), 1800(b)
تبعه
George Clinton
مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي
سبقه
Philip Schuyler
United States Senator (Class 1) from New York
1791–1797
خدم بجانب: Rufus King, John Laurance
تبعه
Philip Schuyler
مناصب سياسية
سبقه
Thomas Jefferson
Vice President of the United States
1801–1805
تبعه
George Clinton
Notes and references
1. Before passage of the Twelfth Amendment, in 1804, each presidential elector would cast two votes; the candidate who received a majority of votes would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President.

a. In 1792, with George Washington as the candidate favored to be elected President, the Democratic-Republican Party nominated George Clinton; their intention was that he be elected Vice President.
b. Aaron Burr was a presidential candidate in the elections in 1796 and 1800, although the Democratic-Republican Party also nominated Thomas Jefferson; their intention was that Jefferson be elected President and Burr be elected Vice President.

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).