غزو گرينادا

(تم التحويل من غزو گرنادا)
عملية الغضب العاجل
Operation Urgent Fury
جزء من الحرب الباردة
CH-53D HMM-261 Grenada Okt1983.jpeg
مروحية سيكورسكي CH-53D Sea Stallion helicopter of the U.S. Marine Corps hovers above the ground near an abandoned Soviet ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft weapon during the invasion of Grenada in 1983.
التاريخ 25–29 October 1983[2]
الموقع گرينادا
النتيجة

US-CPF victory

  • Grenadian PRG government deposed
  • Restoration of former government
  • Cuban military presence defeated
المتحاربون

 الولايات المتحدة
گرينادا Grenadan opposition
Caribbean Peace Force:

گرينادا PRG of Grenada
 كوبا
Military advisors:

القادة والزعماء
الولايات المتحدة Ronald Reagan
الولايات المتحدة Joseph Metcalf III
الولايات المتحدة Norman Schwarzkopf
گرينادا Nicholas Brathwaite
بربادوس Tom Adams
جامايكا Edward Seaga
أنتيگا وبربودا Vere Bird
دومنيكا Eugenia Charles
سانت كيتس ونڤيس Kennedy Simmonds
سانت لوشيا John Compton
سانت ڤنسنت والگرنادينز Milton Cato

گرينادا Hudson Austin

  1. تحويل قالب:استسلم
    كوبا Fidel Castro
    كوبا Pedro Tortoló
  2. تحويل قالب:استسلم
القوة
United States: 7,300
CPF: 353
Grenada: ~1,200
Cuba: 780[3]:6, 26, 62
Soviet Union: 49
North Korea: 24[1]
East Germany: 16
Bulgaria: 14
Libya: 3 or 4
الإصابات والخسائر
United States:
19 killed[4]
116 wounded[3]:6, 62
9 helicopters lost

Grenada:
45 killed
337 wounded
Cuba:
24 killed
59 wounded[5]
638 captured[3]
2 transport aircraft
Soviet Union:
Large weapons cache seized:

  • 12 APCs
  • 12 anti-aircraft guns
  • 291 submachine guns
  • 6,330 rifles
  • 5.6 million rounds of ammunition[6]
Civilian casualties:
24 killed

غزو گرينادا كان غزواً في 1983 بقيادة الولايات المتحدة للدولة الجزيرة في الكاريبي گرينادا، التي كان عدد سكانها يناهز 91,000 وتقع على بعد 160 كم شمال ڤنزويلا، وقد أسفر عن نصر أمريكي في غضون أسابيع. Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, it was triggered by the internal strife within the People's Revolutionary Government that resulted in the house arrest and the execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, and the establishment of a preliminary government, the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman. The invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then.[ممن؟]

Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974. The leftist New Jewel Movement seized power in a coup in 1979 under Maurice Bishop, suspending the constitution and detaining a number of political prisoners. In 1983, an internal power struggle began over Bishop's relatively moderate foreign policy approach, and on 19 October, hard-line military junta elements captured and executed Bishop, his partner Jacqueline Creft, along with three cabinet ministers and two union leaders. Subsequently, following appeals by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States and the Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, the Reagan Administration in the U.S. quickly decided to launch a military intervention. From the U.S. perspective, a justification for the intervention was in part explained as "concerns over the 600 U.S. medical students on the island" and fears of a repeat of the Iran hostage crisis.

The U.S. invasion began six days after Bishop's death, on the morning of 25 October 1983. The U.S. Army's Rapid Deployment Force (1st, 2nd Ranger Battalions and 82nd Airborne Division Paratroopers), U.S. Marines, U.S. Army Delta Force, and U.S. Navy SEALs and other combined forces constituted the 7,600 troops from the United States, Jamaica, and members of the Regional Security System (RSS)[7] defeated Grenadian resistance after a low-altitude airborne assault by the 75th Rangers on Point Salines Airport on the southern end of the island, and a Marine helicopter and amphibious landing occurred on the northern end at Pearl's Airfield shortly afterward. The military government of Hudson Austin was deposed and replaced by a government appointed by Governor-General Paul Scoon until elections were held in 1984.

The invasion was criticized by several countries including Canada. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher privately disapproved of the mission and the lack of notice she received, but publicly supported the intervention.[8] The United Nations General Assembly, on 2 November 1983 with a vote of 108 to 9, condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law".[9] Conversely, it enjoyed broad public support in the United States[10] and, over time, a positive evaluation from the Grenadian population, who appreciated the fact that there had been relatively few civilian casualties, as well as the return to democratic elections in 1984.[11][بحاجة لمصدر أفضل][12] The U.S. awarded more than 5,000 medals for merit and valor.[13][14]

The date of the invasion is now a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, which commemorates the freeing, after the invasion, of several political prisoners, who were subsequently elected into office. A truth and reconciliation commission was launched in 2000 to re-examine some of the controversies of the era; in particular, the commission made an unsuccessful attempt to find Bishop's body, which had been disposed of under Hudson Austin's orders, and never found.

For the U.S., the invasion also highlighted problematic issues with communication and coordination between the different branches of the United States military when operating together as a joint force, contributing to investigations and sweeping changes in the form of the Goldwater-Nichols Act and other reorganizations.

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خلفية

موريس بيشوپ ووزير خارجيته يونيسون ويتمان في ألمانيا الشرقية، 1982


الهجوم الجوي على پوينت سالينز

مناطق الغزو الأولية


مروحية هجومية من طراز AH-1S كوبرا تابعة للجيش الأمريكي تفتح النار على مواقع معادية.


رد الفعل في الولايات المتحدة

Leaflet distributed during the invasion by 9th PSYOP Bn

ردود الأفعال العالمية

خريطة الغزو


الأعقاب

American students waiting to be evacuated from Grenada


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آخرون

SGU Campus Memorial

October 25 is a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, to commemorate the invasion.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب "Operation Urgent Fury"' GlobalSecurity.org
  2. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. Operation Urgent Fury: The Invasion of Grenada, October 1983 (PDF). United States Army.
  3. ^ أ ب ت Cole, Ronald (1997). "Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2006.
  4. ^ "Medals Outnumber G.I.'S In Grenada Assault". The New York Times. 30 March 1984.
  5. ^ "PBS.org:The Invasion of Grenada".
  6. ^ "Soldiers During the Invasion of Grenada". CardCow Vintage Postcards.
  7. ^ "Caribbean Islands – A Regional Security System". country-data.com.
  8. ^ Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith (2016) p. 130.
  9. ^ "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7". United Nations. 2 November 1983. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  10. ^ Magnuson, Ed (21 November 1983). "Getting Back to Normal". Time.
  11. ^ Associated Press report in 2012, printed in Fox News
  12. ^ Steven F. Hayward. The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. Crown Forum. ISBN  1-4000-5357-9 .
  13. ^ Tessler, Ray (19 August 1991). "Gulf War Medals Stir Up Old Resentment". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Overdecorated". Time. 9 April 1984.

المصادر الرئيسية

للاستزادة

  • Adkin, Mark (1989). Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada: The Truth Behind the Largest U.S. Military Operation Since Vietnam. Lexington Books. ISBN  0-669-20717-9 .
  • Brands, H. W., Jr. (1987). "Decisions on American Armed Intervention: Lebanon, Dominican Republic, and Grenada". Political Science Quarterly. 102 (4): 607–624. JSTOR 2151304.
  • Cole, Ronald H. (1997). Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada, 12 October - 2 November 1983 (PDF). Washington, D.C. Official Pentagon study.
  • Gilmore, William C. (1984). The Grenada Intervention: Analysis and Documentation. New York: Facts on File. ISBN  0-87196-920-3 .
  • Moore, Charles. Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith in London, Washington and Moscow (2016) pp. 117–35.
  • Payne, Anthony. "The Grenada crisis in British politics." The Round Table 73.292 (1984): 403–410. online
  • Russell, Lee (1985). Grenada 1983. London: Osprey. ISBN  0-85045-583-9 . , A military history.
  • Williams, Gary. US-Grenada Relations: Revolution and Intervention in the Backyard (Macmillan, 2007).


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وصلات خارجية