النزاع التركي الكردي (1978–الآن)

النزاع التركي الكردي (1978–الآن)
جزء من التمردات الكردية
PKK-Conflict-de.png
خريطة مواضعية، نظرة عامة للنزاع التركي-الكردي
التاريخc. 27 نوفمبر 1978–الآن
(44 سنة, 2 شهر, 3 أسبوع و 2 يوم)
الموقع
الوضع

مستمر:

المتحاربون

تركيا تركيا

قوات أخرى:


Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK)

YDG-H:

HBDH



Kurdistan Freedom Hawks
القادة والزعماء

القادة الحاليون
تركيا رجب طيب أردوغان
تركيا بن علي يلدرم
تركيا خلوصي أكار


القادة الحاليون
Murat Karayılan
Bahoz Erdal
Cemil Bayık
Mustafa Karasu
Duran Kalkan
Ali Haydar Kaytan (tr)
Zübeyir Aydar
Haji Ahmadi[32]

القوى
القوات المسلحة التركية: 639,551:[33]
Gendarmerie: 148,700[34]
الشرطة: 225,000
حرس القرى: 65,000[35]
تركيا Total: 948,550
(ليس لهم جميعاً تدخل مباشر في النزاع)

حزب العمال الكردستاني: 4,000–32,800[36][37]

PJAK: 1,000[38]–3,000[39]
TAK: A few dozen[40]
Total: ≈5,000–32,800[37]
الضحايا والخسائر

5,347 جندي، 283 شرطي و1,466 حارس قروي قتيل، 95 أسير (24 currently held)[41][42]
الإجمالي: 7,230 قتيل و21,128 مصاب
(الادعاءات التركية)[43][44]


الإجمالي: 12,522 قتيل و33,788 مصاب[45][46][47][48]

(حسب ادعاءات حزب العمال الكردستاني)
الإجمالي: 33,542-45,668+ قتيل و19,698+ مصاب
(الادعاءات التركية)[49][50][51]

إجمالي القتلى: 50,000–55,000[52][53][54]


الضحايا المدنيون:
6,741 قتيل و14,257 مصاب (الادعاءات التركية)[44]
5,000 killed (until 2000; 3,438 by the Turkish government & 1,205 by the PKK; independent research and NGOs)[55]
18,000–20,000 كردي تم إعدامهم و2,400–4,000+ قرية دمرتها الحكومة التركية (تقارير حقوق إنسان مستقلة وتقديرات أخرى)[56][57][58][59]

3,000,000+ displaced[60]
Turkish Hezbollah also known as Kurdish Hezbollah or just Hizbullah in Turkey, is a mainly Sunni Islamist militant organization, active against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Government of Turkey.[61][62][63][64][65]

النزاع التركي الكردي[15]، هو نزاع مسلح بين جمهورية تركيا وجماعات كردية متمردة مختلفة،[66] التي تطالب بالانفصال عن تركيا لتأسيس دولة كردستان المستقلة]]،[40][67] أو الحصول على حكم ذاتي[68][69] والمزيد من الحقوق السياسية والثقافية للأكراد داخل الجمهورية التركية.[70] الجماعة المتمردة الرئيسية هي حزب العمال الكردستاني[71] (بالكردية: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan). بالرغم من قيام المتمردين بهجمات في الكثير من مناطق تركيا،[72] إلا أن التمرد يتركز بصفة أساسية في جنوب شرق تركيا.[73] وجود حزب العمال الكردستاني في منطقة كردستان بالعراق والتي يقومون بشن الهجمات من داخلها، أسفر عن قيام القوات المسلحة التركية بهجمات جوية وبرية ومدفعية في تلك المنطقة.[74][75] كلف النزاع الاقتصاد التركي 300-400 بليون دولار، معظمها خسائر عسكرية. كما أثر النزاع على السياحة في تركيا.[76][77][78]


The group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice) by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan.[79] The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey.[80][81] By then, the use of Kurdish language, dress, folklore, and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas.[82] In an attempt to deny their existence, the Turkish government categorized Kurds as "Mountain Turks" until 1991.[82][83][84][85] The words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were officially banned by the Turkish government.[86][87] Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was officially prohibited in public and private life.[88] Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were arrested and imprisoned.[89] The PKK was then formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic, cultural, and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority.[90]

The full-scale insurgency, however, did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 have died, most of whom were Kurdish civilians.[91] The European Court of Human Rights has condemned Turkey for thousands of human rights abuses.[92][93] Many judgments are related to systematic executions of Kurdish civilians,[94] torturing,[95] forced displacements,[96] destroyed villages,[97][98][99] arbitrary arrests,[100] murdered and disappeared Kurdish journalists, activists and politicians.[101][102][103]

The first insurgency lasted until 1 September 1999,[67][104] when the PKK declared a unilateral ceasefire. The armed conflict was later resumed on 1 June 2004, when the PKK declared an end to its ceasefire.[105][106] Since summer 2011, the conflict has become increasingly violent with resumption of large-scale hostilities.[78] In 2013 the Turkish Government and the jailed PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan started talks. On 21 March 2013, Öcalan announced the "end of armed struggle" and a ceasefire with peace talks.[31][107] On July 25, 2015, the PKK finally cancelled their 2013 ceasefire after a year of tension due to various events, including the Turks bombing PKK positions in Iraq,[108] in the midst of the Kurds' battle against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. With the resumption of violence, hundreds of ethnic Kurdish civilians have been killed and numerous human rights violations have occurred including torture, rape and widespread destruction of property.[109][110] Turkish authorities have destroyed substantial parts of many Kurdish inhabited cities including Diyarbakır, Şırnak, Mardin, Cizre, Nusaybin, and Yüksekova.[110][111] Following mainly secret negotiations, a largely successful ceasefire was put in place by AKP and PKK. The ceasefire broke in summer 2015 due to political tensions.


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خلفية


التاريخ

البدايات

التمرد الأول

1984–93

OHAL region—defining areas in Turkey under a state of emergency—in red with neighbouring provinces in orange, 1987–2002


1993–1999

وقف إطلاق النار أحادي الجانب

KADEK flag
KONGRA-GEL flag


التمرد الثاني

مناصرو حزب العمال الكردستاني في لندن، أبريل 2003.
مظاهرة ضد حزب العمال الكردستاني في إسطنبول، 22 أكتوبر 2007.


جهود حل النزاع

متمردو حزب العمال الكردستاني يحتفلون بعيد النيروز في قنديل، 23 مارس، 2014.


التصعيد

2015–الآن


سرهلدان

مقال رئيسي: سرهلدان


الحركة السياسية الكردية

الاسم الاختصار الزعيم النشاط
حزب عمال الشعب HEP Ahmet Fehmi Işıklar 1990–1993
الحزب الديمقراطي DEP Yaşar Kaya 1993–1994
حزب ديمقرطية الشعب HADEP Murat Bozlak 1994–2003
حزب الشعب الديمقراطي DEHAP Tuncer Bakırhan 1997–2005
حركة المجتمع الديمقراطي DTH Leyla Zana 2005
الحزب الاجتماعي الديمقراطي DTP Ahmet Türk 2005–2009
حزب السلام والديمقراطية BDP Gültan Kışanak, Selahattin Demirtaş 2008–2014
حزب المناطق الديمقراطية DBP Emine Ayna, Kamûran Yüksek 2014–present
حزب الديمقراطية الشعبية HDP Figen Yüksekdağ, Selahattin Demirtaş 2012–الآن


مناصرو حزب الديمقراطية الشعبية يحتلفون بنتائج حزبهم في الانتخابات، إسطنبول، 8 يونيو 2015.



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الخسائر


التأثير الديمغرافي


انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان


انتهاكات من الجانب التركي

انتهاكات من حزب العمال الكردستاني

انظر أيضاً

الهوامش

  • ^note The Turkey–PKK conflict is also known as the Kurdish conflict,[112][113][114][115][116][117] the Kurdish question,[118] the Kurdish insurgency,[119][120][121][122][123][124] the Kurdish rebellion,[125][126][127][128][129] the Kurdish–Turkish conflict,[130] or PKK-terrorism[67][131][132] as well as the latest Kurdish uprising[133] or as a civil war.[134][135][136][137][138]
  • ^note According to official figures, in the period during and after the coup, military agencies collected files on over 2 million people, 650,000 of which were detained, 230,000 of which were put on trial under martial law. Prosecutors demanded the death penalty against over 7 thousand of them, of which 517 were sentenced to death and fifty were actually hanged. Some 400,000 people were denied passports and 30,000 lost their jobs after the new regime classified them as dangerous. 14,000 people were stripped of their Turkish citizenship and 30,000 fled the country as asylum seekers after the coup. Aside from the fifty people that were hanged, some 366 people died under suspicious circumstances (classified as accidents at the time), 171 were tortured to death in prison, 43 were claimed to have committed suicide in prison and 16 were shot for attempting to escape.[139]
  • ^note According to an article published in Defence and Peace Economics by Mete Feridun of University of Greenwich titled "Fighting terrorism: Are military measures effective? Empirical evidence from Turkey", military anti-terrorism measures alone are not sufficient to prevent PKK terrorism in Turkey.[140]
  • ^note A recent article published in Applied Research in Quality of Life by Mete Feridun of University of Greenwich investigates the impact of education and poverty on terrorism in Turkey using econometric techniques.[141]

المصادر

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