ماديرا

ماديرا Madeira
منطقة ذاتية (Região Autónoma)
Funchal St. Clara Sé.JPG
منظر فونشال، عاصمة المنطقة ذات الاستقلال الذاتي.
Official name: Região Autónoma da Madeira
Name origin: madeira، في البرتغالية تعني غابة
Motto: Das Ilhas as Mais Belas e Livres
(الترجمة: بين كل الجزر، الأجمل والحرة)
البلد  الپرتغال
منطقة ذاتية  ماديرا
المنطقة المحيط الأطلسي
Subregion Tore-Madeira Ridge
Position Madeira Platform,
Savage Islands submarine mount
جزر ماديرا, Porto Santo, Desertas, Selvagens
العاصمة فونشال
أكبر مدينة فونشال
 - الإحداثيات 32°39′4″N 16°54′35″W / 32.65111°N 16.90972°W / 32.65111; -16.90972الإحداثيات: 32°39′4″N 16°54′35″W / 32.65111°N 16.90972°W / 32.65111; -16.90972
أعلى نقطة Pico Ruivo
 - الموقع Paul da Serra, سانتانا, ماديرا
 - المنسوب 1,862 m (6,109 ft)
أوطى نقطة Sea level
 - الموقع المحيط الأطلسي, ماديرا
 - المنسوب 0 m (0 ft)
المساحة 801 km2 (309 sq mi)
التعداد 267٬785 (2011) Estimate[1]
الكثافة 308.5/km2 (799/sq mi)
مستوطنة ح. 1420
 - استقلال ذاتي اداري ح. 1895
 - الاستقلال الذاتي 1 يوليو 1976
الاكتشاف ح. 1415
Management
 - location Assembleia Regional, , فونشال
 - elevation 16 m (52 ft)
 - الاحداثيات 32°38′49.96″N 16°54′29.59″W / 32.6472111°N 16.9082194°W / 32.6472111; -16.9082194
الحكومة
 - location Quinta Vigia, , فونشال
 - elevation 51 m (167 ft)
 - الإحداثيات 32°38′42.39″N 16°54′57.16″W / 32.6451083°N 16.9158778°W / 32.6451083; -16.9158778
الرئيس (الحكومة) Miguel Albuquerque
 - President (Assembleia) José Miguel Jardim d´Olival de Mendonça (PPD-PSD})
Timezone WET (UTC+0)
 - summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
ISO 3166-2 code PT-30
Postal code 9XXX-XXX
Area code (+351) 291 XXX XXX
ccTLD .pt
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drive right-side
Demonym Madeiran; Madeirense
القديس الحامي Nossa Senhora do Monte
Holiday 1 يوليو
Anthem A Portuguesa (national)
Hino da Madeira (regional)
Currency Euro (€)[2]
GDP (nominal) تقدير 2010
- Total € 5.224 بليون[3]
- Per capita € 21,100[3]
EU-Portugal with Madeira circled.svg
Location of Madeira relative to Portugal (green) and the rest of the European Union (light green)
Madeira topographic map-fr.svg
Distribution of the islands of the archipelago (not including the Savage islands)
Wikimedia Commons: Madeira
إحصائيات: Instituto Nacional de Estatística[4]
الموقع: www.gov-madeira.pt
Geographic detail from CAOP (2010)[5] produced by Instituto Geográfico Português (IGP)

ماديرا (Madeira؛ /məˈdɪərə/ mə-DEER أو /məˈdɛərə/ mə-DAIR; البرتغالية: [mɐˈðejɾɐ] أو [mɐˈðɐjɾɐ]) هي أرخبيل برتغالي يقع في شمال المحيط الأطلسي، غرب وإلى الجنوب قليلاً من البرتغال. بلغ تعداد سكانها في عام 2011 نحو 267,785.

وتقع جزر ماديرا في شمال غربي أفريقيا وعاصمة الجزر فونشال.

يبلغ سكان ماديرا حوالي 250,000 نسمة، وهاجر اليها المسلمين من المغرب، ويعتقد أنهم يشكلون حوالي 10% من سكان الجزر.

It is just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) north of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Since 1976, the archipelago has been one of the two Autonomous regions of Portugal (the other being the Azores, located to the northwest). It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. It is an outermost region of the European Union.[6]

Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince هنري الملاح in 1419, and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to 1542.

Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about one million tourists.[7] The region is noted for its Madeira wine, flowers, landscapes and embroidery artisans. Its annual New Year celebrations feature the largest fireworks show in the world, as officially recognised by Guinness World Records in 2006.[8][9] The main harbour in Funchal is the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings,[10] being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.

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التاريخ


الاستكشاف

Pliny mentioned certain "Purple Islands", their position corresponding to the location of the Fortunate Isles (or Canary Islands), that may have referred to islands of Madeira. Plutarch (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz: "...The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blessed...". The estimated distance from Africa, 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), and the closeness of the two islands, seem to describe the similar position of the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo.

Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900-1030 AD.[11] This is based on carbon-dated Scandinavian mice bones found on the island and the following extinction of various bird species.

الأسطورة

During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to flee from England to France in 1346. They were driven off their course by a violent storm and their ship went aground along the coast of an island, that may have been Madeira. Later this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico, in memory of the young lovers. Its name was transliterated from the name of the young man in the tale.[12]

الاكتشاف

Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339.[13] From a portolan dating to 1351, and preserved in Florence, Italy, the islands of Madeira appeared to have been discovered long before Portuguese explorers reached them. In Libro del Conocimiento (1348–1349), a Castilian monk identified the location of the islands in their present location, naming them as Leiname (modern Italian legname, cognate of Portuguese madeira, "wood"), Diserta, and Puerto Santo. [بحاجة لمصدر]

The Santa Maria de Colombo, a replica of the types of ship typical during the Portuguese discovery, built by craftsmen from Câmara de Lobos، ماديرا
كاتدرائية فونشال ببرجها من القرن الخامس عشر بالطراز القوطي في الخلفية

In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off-course by a storm to an island which they named Porto Santo (بالعربية: الميناء المقدس) in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck. The following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, and Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown. Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest."[14] Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island they called Madeira.[15]


الجغرافيا

ماديرا Madeira
جزيرة (Ilha)
Madeira 3d este luisfreitas.png
A three-dimensional rendering of topographic maps characterizing the island of Madeira
Official name: Ilha da Madeira
Name origin: madeira, Portuguese for the wood
Motto: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres
(Of all islands, the most beautiful and free)
Nickname: Pérola do Atlântico
(Pearl of the Atlantic)
البلد Portugal
Autonomous Region Madeira
Location Tore-Madeira Ridge, African Tectonic Plate, Atlantic Ocean
Archipelago Madeira
أعلى نقطة Pico Ruivo
 - الموقع Pico Ruivo, [(Santana)], Santana
 - المنسوب 1,862 m (6,109 ft)
أوطى نقطة Sea level
 - الموقع Atlantic Ocean
 - المنسوب 0 m (0 ft)
الطول 57 km (35 mi), West-East
الاتساع 22 km (14 mi), North-South
المساحة 740.7 km2 (286 sq mi)
Biomes Temperate, Mediterranean
الجيولوجيا Alkali basalt, Tephra, Trachyte, Trachybasalt
Orogeny Volcanism
الفترة Miocene
Demonym Madeirense; Madeiran
Ethnic groups Portuguese
Wikimedia Commons: Madeira
الموقع: http://www.gov-madeira.pt
Statistics from INE (2001); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)
The interior of Madeira around Curral das Freiras
Sights from Bica da Cana showing Madeira's high orography
A reef on Selvagem Pequena, Savage Islands
The Desertas Islands in the distance at sunrise

The archipelago of Madeira is located 520 km (280 nmi) from the African coast and 1,000 km (540 nmi) from the European continent (approximately a one-and-a-half hour flight from the Portuguese capital of Lisbon).[16] It is found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira Ridge, a bathymetric structure of great dimensions oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis that extends for 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi). This submarine structure consists of long geomorphological relief that extends from the abyssal plain to 3500 metres; its highest submersend point is at a depth of about 150 metres (around latitude 36ºN). The origins of the Tore-Madeira Ridge are not clearly established, but may have resulted from a morphological buckling of the lithosphere.[17][18]


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الجزر والجـُزَيرات

Madeira (740.7 km2), including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest);


Porto Santo (42.5 km2), including Ilhéu de Baixo ou da Cal, Ilhéu de Ferro, Ilhéu das Cenouras, Ilhéu de Fora, Ilhéu de Cima;

Desertas Islands (14.2 km2), including the three uninhabited islands: Deserta Grande Island, Bugio Island and Ilhéu de Chão;

Savage Islands (3.6 km2), archipelago 280 km south-southeast of Madeira Island including three main islands and 16 uninhabited islets in two groups: the Northwest Group (Selvagem Grande Island, Ilhéu de Palheiro da Terra, Ilhéu de Palheiro do Mar) and the Southeast Group (Selvagem Pequena Island, Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu Sul, Ilhéu Pequeno, Ilhéu Fora, Ilhéu Alto, Ilhéu Comprido, Ilhéu Redondo, Ilhéu Norte).

جزيرة ماديرا

Detailed, true-colour image of Madeira. The image shows that deep green forest Laurissilva survives intact on the steep northern slopes of the island, but in the south, where terrain is gentler, the terracotta colour of towns and the light green colour of agriculture are more dominant

The island of Madeira is at the top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km (20,000 ft) from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, on the Tore underwater mountain range. The volcano formed atop an east-west rift[19][20] in the oceanic crust along the African Plate, beginning during the Miocene epoch over 5 million years ago, continuing into the Pleistocene until about 700,000 years ago.[21] This was followed by extensive erosion, producing two large amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island. Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cones and lava flows atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were on the west-central part of the island only 6,500 years ago, creating more cinder cones and lava flows.[21]

Madeira Island represents 93% of the archipelago's area, with 90% of the landmass above 500 m. [بحاجة لمصدر] It is the largest island of the group with an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi), a length of 57 km (35 mi) (from Ponte de São Lourenço to Ponte do Pargo), while approximately 22 km (14 mi) at its widest point (from Ponte da Cruz to Ponte São Jorge), with a coastline of 150 km (90 mi).

Porto Santo's lack of higher mountains, results in a paradoxical landscape when comparing it with its brother island, Madeira

جزيرة ماديرا تشكلت من مجموعة براكين قاعدية، متجمعة في ماسيفين:

View from Pico do Arieiro
Lava pools[22] in Porto Moniz


المناخ

بيانات مناخ فونشال، عاصمة ماديرا
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 19.1
(66.4)
19.1
(66.4)
19.5
(67.1)
19.6
(67.3)
20.9
(69.6)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
25.6
(78.1)
25.7
(78.3)
24.2
(75.6)
22.0
(71.6)
20.0
(68)
21٫8
(71٫2)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 16.1
(61)
16.0
(60.8)
16.3
(61.3)
16.5
(61.7)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
21.2
(70.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
20.9
(69.6)
18.8
(65.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18٫6
(65٫5)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 13.1
(55.6)
12.8
(55)
13.0
(55.4)
13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
16.5
(61.7)
18.0
(64.4)
18.9
(66)
18.9
(66)
17.6
(63.7)
15.6
(60.1)
13.9
(57)
15٫5
(59٫9)
سقوط الأمطار mm (inches) 102.7
(4.043)
87.2
(3.433)
63.6
(2.504)
38.9
(1.531)
18.9
(0.744)
11.9
(0.469)
25
(0.98)
31
(1.22)
36.7
(1.445)
75.0
(2.953)
100.8
(3.969)
99.9
(3.933)
691٫6
(27٫228)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 11 10 8 5 3 1 2 6 9 11 13 91
Sunshine hours 167.4 171.1 204.6 225.0 213.9 198.0 244.9 260.4 225.0 204.6 168.0 164.3 2٬447٫2
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[23] Climatetemp.info[24] for Sunshine hours data


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حرائق الغابات

NASA satellite image of wildfires on the island of Madeira from 19 July 2012
Typical Madeiran flowers

الحيوم

Madeiran wall lizard, endemic to the island
Atlantic spotted dolphin مقابل ماديرا


معرض صور الطيور الأصلية


معرض صور النبيت الأصلي

ليڤادا

جزيرة ماديرا مطيرة في الشمال الغربي ولكنها جافة في الجنوب الشرقي. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas or aqueducts to carry water to the agricultural regions in the south. The most recent were built in the 1940s. Madeira is very mountainous, and building the levadas was difficult and often sentenced criminals or slaves were used. Many are cut into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles (40 km) of tunnels, some of which are still accessible.

الحوكمة

Lido, São Martinho
Partial view of the capital as seen from the mountains above it
Sea port of Funchal
Hotels in Lido, Funchal's hotel zone
Promenade in Funchal

Administratively, Madeira (with a population of 267,302 inhabitants in 2011[4]) and covering an area of 768.0 km2 (296.5 sq mi) is organised into eleven municipalities:[25]

Municipality Population
(2011)[4]
Area Main settlement Parishes
Funchal[26] 111,892 75.7 km2 (29.2 sq mi) Funchal 10
Santa Cruz[27] 43,005 68.0 km2 (26.3 sq mi) Santa Cruz 5
Câmara de Lobos 35,666 52.6 km2 (20.3 sq mi) Câmara de Lobos 5
Machico 21,828 67.6 km2 (26.1 sq mi) Machico 5
Ribeira Brava 13,375 64.9 km2 (25.1 sq mi) Ribeira Brava 4
Calheta 11,521 110.3 km2 (42.6 sq mi) Calheta 8
Ponta do Sol 8,862 46.8 km2 (18.1 sq mi) Ponta do Sol 3
Santana 7,719 93.1 km2 (35.9 sq mi) Santana 6
São Vicente 5,723 80.8 km2 (31.2 sq mi) São Vicente 3
Porto Santo[28] 5,483 42.4 km2 (16.4 sq mi) Vila Baleira 1
Porto Moniz 2,711 82.6 km2 (31.9 sq mi) Porto Moniz 4

فونشال

Funchal is the capital and principal city of the Madeira Autonomous Region, located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira. It is a modern city, located within a natural geological "amphitheatre" composed of vulcanological structure and fluvial hydrological forces. Beginning at the harbour (Porto de Funchal), the neighbourhoods and streets rise almost 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), along gentle slopes that helped to provide a natural shelter to the early settlers.

الشتات

Map of the European Union in the world, with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR) for which Madeira is included

Madeiran immigrants in North America mostly clustered in the New England and mid-Atlantic states,Toronto Northern California, and Hawaii. They also settled in Rhode Island and Massachusetts to participate in the flourishing American whaling industry. [بحاجة لمصدر] By 1980, the U.S. Census registered more than a million Americans of Portuguese descent, a large portion Madeirans. [بحاجة لمصدر] The city of New Bedford is especially rich in Madeirans, hosting the Museum of Madeira Heritage, as well as the annual Madeiran and Luso-American celebration, the Feast of the Blessed Sacrament, the world's largest celebration of Madeiran heritage, regularly drawing crowds of tens of thousands to the city's Madeira Field. A Large group of Madeirans and Madeiran decedents are centered around the Greater Toronto Area having emigrated from the Madeiran Island in the early 50's and 60's. They are proud members of the Multicultural mix of Toronto.

الاقتصاد

ميناء فونشال


السياحة

Madeira's landscapes.
The manufactured coastal beach of Calheta: replacing the dark rock/sand of the volcanic island with beach sand.


النقل

Part of Madeira Airport's runway.
A ferry makes daily trips between Madeira and Porto Santo.


الثقافة

Bailinho da Madeira
Black scabbardfish with banana
"Lapas", the true limpet species Patella vulgata
Bottles of Madeira labelled by the different grape varieties used to produce the many styles of wine
Coral Beer
Poncha, a traditional drink of Madeira


الموسيقى

المقاطعات الشقيقة

Madeira Island has the following sister provinces:

الجاليات الماديرية

Madeira Island has large Cultural Communities around the world :

طوابع بريدية

Portugal has issued postage stamps for Madeira during several periods, beginning in 1868.

أبناء بارزون

كريستيانو رونالدو، وُلِد في ماديرا، والذي اختارته الفيفا أفضل لاعب كرة قدم في العالم لأعوام 2008، 2013 و 2014.

The following people were either born or have lived part of their lives in Madeira:

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

ملاحظات
  1. ^ http://www.ine.pt/scripts/flex_v10/Main.html
  2. ^ Until 2002, the Portuguese escudo was used in financial transactions, and until 1910 the Portuguese real was the currency used by the monarchy of Portugal.
  3. ^ أ ب "Regiões de Portugal". AICEP.
  4. ^ أ ب ت INE, ed. (2010) (in Portuguese), Censos 2011 - Resultadas Preliminares, Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, http://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=INE&xpgid=ine_publicacoes&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=122114780&PUBLICACOESmodo=2, retrieved on 1 July 2011  خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "INE" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  5. ^ IGP, ed. (2010) (in Portuguese), Carta Administrativa Oficial de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português, http://www.igeo.pt/produtos/cadastro/caop/download/Areas_Freg_Mun_Dist_CAOP2010.zip, retrieved on 1 July 2011 
  6. ^ "EUROPA - Glossary - Outermost regions". Europa.eu. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  7. ^ "Hotelaria da Madeira suaviza quebras em 2010 apesar de impacto devastador dos temporais". presstur.com. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ "A Guinness World Record Fireworks Show – Madeira Island, 2006-2007 New Year Eve at Wayfaring Travel Guide". Wayfaring.info. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  10. ^ "Madeira welcomes most cruisers". The Portugal News. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  11. ^ World Archaeology, Issue 66, August/September 2014, Volume 6, No. 6, page 64.
  12. ^ Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.11-17
  13. ^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2004). "Machim (supp. fl. 14th cent.)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17535. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
  14. ^ Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.20
  15. ^ The discoveries of Porto Santo and Madeira were first described by Gomes Eanes de Zurara in Chronica da Descoberta e Conquista da Guiné. (Eng. version by Edgar Prestage in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896–1899: The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest of Guinea.) French author Arkan Simaan refers to these discoveries in his historical novel based on Azurara's Chronicle: L'Écuyer d'Henri le Navigateur (2007), published by Éditions l'Harmattan, Paris.
  16. ^ "Madeira Islands Tourism". Madeiraislands.travel. Retrieved 30 July 2010. [dead link]
  17. ^ Ribeiro et al., 1996
  18. ^ Kullberg & Kullberg, 2000
  19. ^ Geldemacher et al., 2000
  20. ^ Ribeiro, 2001
  21. ^ أ ب You must specify vnum when using {{cite gvp}}.
  22. ^ http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g644297-d1928951-Reviews-Lava_Pools-Porto_Moniz_Madeira_Madeira_Islands.html
  23. ^ "Weather Information for Funchal". June 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  24. ^ "Funchal, Madeira Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/Precipitation, Sunshine".
  25. ^ Map of municipalities at FreguesiasDePortugas l.com
  26. ^ Statistics include Savage Islands, which are administered by the parish of
  27. ^ Statistics include the mainland parish of Santa Cruz and the islands of the Desertas
  28. ^ Statistics represent island population; Porto Santo is the second largest island in the archipelago of Madeira
مراجع
  • Pitta, Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt (1812). Account of the Island of Madeira. London, England: C.Stewart Printer.

81. Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora, by James Walvin, 2000.

مصادر

  1. الأقليات المسلمة في أفريقيا - سيد عيد المجيد بكر

وصلات خارجية