صفة المواطن

(تم التحويل من Demonym)
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A demonym ( /ˈdɛmənɪm/; from Ancient Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and ὄνυμα, ónuma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens")[1] is a word that identifies a group of people (inhabitants, residents, natives) in relation to a particular place.[2] Demonyms are usually derived from the name of the place (village, city, region, province, state, continent).[3] Demonyms are used to designate all people (general population) of a particular place, regardless of ethnic, linguistic, religious or other cultural differences that may exist within the population of that place. Examples of demonyms include Cochabambino, for someone from the city of Cochabamba; American for a person from the United States of America; and Swahili, for a person of the Swahili coast.

As a sub-field of anthroponymy, the study of demonyms is called demonymy or demonymics.

Since they are referring to territorially defined groups of people, demonyms are semantically different from ethnonyms (names of ethnic groups). In the English language, there are many polysemic words that have several meanings (including demonymic and ethonymic uses), and therefore a particular use of any such word depends on the context. For example, word Thai may be used as a demonym, designating any inhabitant of Thailand, while the same word may also be used as an ethnonym, designating members of the Thai people. Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a British person, a Briton or, informally, a Brit.

Some demonyms may have several meanings. For example, the demonym Macedonians may refer to population of North Macedonia, or more generally to the entire population of the region of Macedonia, a significant portion of which is in Greece. In some languages, a demonym may be borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective for a group of people: for example, "Québécois(e)" is commonly used in English for a native of Quebec (though "Quebecker" is also available).

In English, demonyms are always capitalized.[4] Often, they are the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek, though a few exceptions exist, generally for places in Europe; for instance, the adjectival form of Spain is "Spanish", but the demonym is "Spaniard".

English commonly uses national demonyms such as "Ethiopian" or "Guatemalan", while the usage of local demonyms such as "Chicagoan", "Okie", or "Parisian", is more rare. Many local demonyms are rarely used and many places, especially smaller towns and cities, lack a commonly used and accepted demonym altogether.[5][6][7] Often, in practice, the demonym for states, provinces or cities is simply the name of the place, treated as an adjective; for instance, Kennewick Man.

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علم أصول الكلمات

List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

اللحق

-(a)n

القارات والمناطق

البلدان

الولايات والمقاطعات والأقاليم المكونة

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المدن

-ian

البلدان

الولايات والمقاطعات والمناطق والمدن المكونة

-anian

-nian

-in(e)

-a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a

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البلدان والمناطق

المدن

-ite

-(e)r

-(i)sh

-ene

-ensian

-ard

-ese, -nese or -lese

-i(e) or -i(ya)

البلدان

الولايات والمقاطعات والمحافظات والمدن

-iot or -iote

-k

-asque

-(we)gian

-onian

-vian

-ois(e), -ais(e)

من اللاتينية أو اللاتينية

بادئة

أمثلة غير قياسية

رسمي

غير رسمي

Demonyms and ethnonyms

Since names of places, regions and countries (toponyms) are morphologically often related to names of ethnic groups (ethnonyms), various ethnonyms may have similar, but not always identical forms as terms for general population of those places, regions or countries (demonyms).

خيال

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between Serbia and the local Albanian majority. The Assembly of Kosovo declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by Serbia, which claims it as part of its sovereign territory.

المصادر

  1. ^ "Dictionary". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  2. ^ Roberts 2017, p. 205.
  3. ^ George H. Scheetz (1988). Names' Names: A Descriptive and Pervasive Onymicon. Schütz Verlag.
  4. ^ "Gramática Inglesa. Adjetivos Gentilicios". mansioningles.com.
  5. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.
  6. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.
  7. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.

المراجع

وصلات خارجية

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