نظام معاهدة أنتارتيكا

(تم التحويل من Antarctic Treaty System)
Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic Treaty
بالفرنسية: Traité sur l'Antarctique
بالروسية: Договор об Антарктике
بالاسپانية: Tratado Antártico
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النوعCondominium
التوقيعDecember 1, 1959[1]
المكانWashington, D.C., United States
تاريخ السريانJune 23, 1961
الحالةRatification of all 12 signatories
الموقعون12[2]
الأطراف54[2]
المودع لديهFederal government of the United States[2]
اللغاتEnglish, French, Russian, and Spanish
Antarctic Treaty في معرفة المصادر
A satellite composite image of Antarctica.

نظام معاهدة أنتارتيكا Antarctic Treaty والاتفاقيات ذات الصلة، تُعرَف جمعاً بإسم نظام معاهدة أنتارتيكا (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 54 parties.[2] The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[3]

معاهدات الملكية الدولية
نظام معاهدات القارة القطبية الجنوبية
قانون البحار
معاهدة الفضاء الخارجي
معاهدة القمر
المياه الدولية
Extraterrestrial real estate

The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23, 1961.[4] The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–58. The twelve countries that had significant interests in Antarctica at the time were: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[1] These countries had established over 55 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific co-operation that had been achieved "on the ice".

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التاريخ

النزاعات الدولية

Various international conflicts motivated the creation of an agreement for the Antarctic.[5] After the Second World War, the U.S. considered establishing a claim in Antarctica. From August 26, 1946, and until the beginning of 1947, Operation Highjump was carried out, the largest military expeditionary force that the United States has sent to Antarctica to the present, consisting of 13 ships, 4700 men and numerous aerial devices.[6] Its goals were to train military personnel and test material in conditions of extreme cold for an eventual war in the Antarctic.


الأطراف

Map of research stations and territorial claims in Antarctica (2002)

As of 2019, there are 54 states party to the treaty,[2] 29 of which, including all 12 original signatories to the treaty, have consultative (voting) status.[7] The consultative members include the 7 countries that claim portions of Antarctica as their territory. The 47 non-claimant nations either do not recognize the claims of others, or have not stated their positions. 40 parties to the Antarctic Treaty have also ratified the "Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty".[8]

██ Parties with consulting status making a claim to Antarctic territory ██ Parties with consulting status reserving the right to make a territorial claim ██ Other parties with consulting status ██ Parties without consulting status ██ Non-party UN member states and observers
Country[2][7][9][10] Signature Ratification/
Accession
Consultative
status[7][10]
Notes
 الأرجنتين (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 أستراليا (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 النمسا No Aug 25, 1987
 بلاروس No Dec 27, 2006
 بلجيكا Dec 1, 1959 Jul 26, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 البرازيل No May 16, 1975 Sep 27, 1983
 بلغاريا No Sep 11, 1978 Jun 5, 1998
 كندا No May 4, 1988
 تشيلي (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 الصين No Jun 8, 1983 Oct 7, 1985
 كولومبيا No Jan 31, 1989
 كوبا No Aug 16, 1984
 التشيك No Jan 1, 1993 Apr 1, 2014 Succession from  تشيكوسلوڤاكيا, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[11]
 الدنمارك No May 20, 1965
 الإكوادور No Sep 15, 1987 Nov 19, 1990
 إستونيا No May 17, 2001
 فنلندا No May 15, 1984 Oct 20, 1989
 فرنسا (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Sep 16, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 ألمانيا (not formally claimed) No Feb 5, 1979 Mar 3, 1981 Ratified as  ألمانيا الغربية.

 ألمانيا الشرقية also acceded on November 19, 1974, and received consultative status on October 5, 1987, prior to its reunification with West Germany.[10][12]

 اليونان No Jan 8, 1987
 گواتيمالا No Jul 31, 1991
 المجر No Jan 27, 1984
 آيسلندا No Oct 13, 2015[13]
 الهند No Aug 19, 1983 Sep 12, 1983
 إيطاليا No Mar 18, 1981 Oct 5, 1987
 اليابان (not formally claimed) Dec 1, 1959 Aug 4, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 قزخستان No Jan 27, 2015
 ماليزيا No Oct 31, 2011
 موناكو No May 31, 2008
 منغوليا No Mar 23, 2015
 هولندا No Mar 30, 1967 Nov 19, 1990
 نيوزيلندا (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Nov 1, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 كوريا الشمالية No Jan 21, 1987
 النرويج (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Aug 24, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 پاكستان No Mar 1, 2012
 پاپوا غينيا الجديدة No Mar 16, 1981 Succession from  أستراليا. Effective from their independence on September 16, 1975.[14]
 پيرو No Apr 10, 1981 Oct 9, 1989
 پولندا No Jun 8, 1961 Jul 29, 1977
 الپرتغال No Jan 29, 2010
 رومانيا No Sep 15, 1971
 روسيا** Dec 1, 1959 Nov 2, 1960 Jun 23, 1961 Ratified as the  الاتحاد السوڤيتي.[15]
 سلوڤاكيا No January 1, 1993 Succession from  تشيكوسلوڤاكيا, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[16]
 سلوڤنيا No April 22, 2019
 جنوب أفريقيا[17] Dec 1, 1959 Jun 21, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 كوريا الجنوبية No Nov 28, 1986 Oct 9, 1989
 إسپانيا No Mar 31, 1982 Sep 21, 1988
 السويد No Apr 24, 1984 Sep 21, 1988
 سويسرا No Nov 15, 1990
 تركيا No Jan 24, 1996
 أوكرانيا No Oct 28, 1992 Jun 4, 2004
 المملكة المتحدة (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 May 31, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 الولايات المتحدة** Dec 1, 1959 Aug 18, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 أوروگواي No Jan 11, 1980 Oct 7, 1985
 ڤنزويلا No May 24, 1999

* Has an overlapping claim with another one or two claimants.
** Reserved the right to make a claim.


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سكرتارية معاهدة أنتارتيكا

The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2004 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM). Jan Huber (Netherlands) served as the first Executive Secretary for five years until August 31, 2009. He was succeeded on September 1, 2009, by Manfred Reinke (Germany).

The tasks of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat can be divided into the following areas:

  • Supporting the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and the meeting of the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP).
  • Facilitating the exchange of information between the Parties required in the Treaty and the Environment Protocol.
  • Collecting, storing, arranging and publishing the documents of the ATCM.
  • Providing and disseminating public information about the Antarctic Treaty system and Antarctic activities.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب "Antarctic Treaty" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 439.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح "Antarctic Treaty". United States Department of State. April 22, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  3. ^ "ATS – Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". ats.aq.
  4. ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. United Nations. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  5. ^ Orrego Vicuna, Francisco (1986). "Antarctic Conflict and International Cooperation". Antarctic Treaty System: An Assessment: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Beardmore South Field Camp, Antarctica, January 7–13, 1985. Washington: National Academy Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780309036405.
  6. ^ Antarctic Treaty System : an Assessment : Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Beardmore South Field Camp, Antarctica, January 7–13, 1985. National Research Council (U.S.). Polar Research Board., National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1986. ISBN 0-585-26158-X. OCLC 45730572.CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ أ ب ت "Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty: Parties". Retrieved May 23, 2009.
  8. ^ "Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty". United States Department of State. October 27, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  9. ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  10. ^ أ ب ت "The Antarctic Treaty System: Introduction" (PDF). United States Department of State. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  11. ^ "Czech Republic: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  12. ^ "Germany: Accession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  13. ^ Johnstone, Rachael Lorna; Jabour, Julia; Tamm, Sune (December 8, 2018). "Iceland's Accession to the Antarctic Treaty". The Yearbook of Polar Law Online. 9 (1): 262–281. doi:10.1163/22116427_009010012. ISSN 2211-6427.
  14. ^ "Papua New Guinea: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  15. ^ "Russia: Ratification to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  16. ^ "Slovakia: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  17. ^ "Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved October 5, 2010.

وصلات خارجية

اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

The Antarctic Treaty