قرن 15

(تم التحويل من القرن الخامس عشر)
الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون:
خطوط زمنية:
زعماء الدول:
  • القرن 14
  • القرن 15
  • القرن 16
العقود:
التصنيفات: المواليدالوفيات
التأسيساتالانحلالات
Ottoman's Mehmed II, the Islamic conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Age.
Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting.
Coat of arms of Alcanadre. La Rioja, Spain. Depicting heads of slain Muslims after the Reconquista.

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective and the field which is known today as accounting were founded in Italy.

Constantinople, known as the Capital of the world and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.[1] This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.[2][3] The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion,[4] ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France back to Christian rulers.

The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanate[5] led to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.

The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In Asia, the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty is founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.

In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.

Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

أحداث

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War.

1400s

1410s

1420s

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era.

1430s

1440s

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.
King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor
  • 1456: The Siege of Belgrade halts the Ottomans' advance into Europe.
  • 1456: Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III, becomes ruler of Majapahit.[9]

1460s

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.
The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1470s

1480s

1490s-1500


Significant people


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators

See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Literature

Musicians and composers

Exploration

Science, invention and philosophy

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

List of 15th century inventions


References

  1. ^ Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN 0-571-22185-8. (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
  3. ^ McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002
  4. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 14.
  5. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  6. ^ Winstedt, R. O. (1948). "The Malay Founder of Medieval Malacca". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. 12 (3/4): 726–729. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00083312. JSTOR 608731.
  7. ^ "An introduction to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644)". Khan Academy. Asian Art Museum. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  8. ^ Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. by Geoffrey Wade
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ Ricklefs (1991), page 18.
  10. ^ Leinbach, Thomas R. (February 20, 2019). "Religions". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  11. ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.
  12. ^ Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012815-2.
  13. ^ Also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d'Ecle, d'Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p. 93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN 0-690-01654-9
  14. ^ Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris). New York: G. Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-0989-7.
  15. ^ Tolley
  16. ^ Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338
  17. ^ "Hans Holbein". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-18.

Sources

  • Tolley, Thomas (2001). "Eyck, Barthélemy d'". In Hugh Brigstocke (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3.
ع1390 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399
ع1400 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409
ع1410 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419
ع1420 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429
ع1430 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439
ع1440 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449
ع1450 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459
ع1460 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469
ع1470 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479
ع1480 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489
ع1490 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499
ع1500 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509

ru-sib:15-о столетте