قوات الحلفاء (الحرب العالمية الأولى)

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
Allies of World War I

Entente Powers
1914–1918
*     Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies) *     Central Powers (and their colonies) *     Neutral Powers
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers
المكانةMilitary alliance
الحقبة التاريخيةWorld War I
• تأسست
1914
• Disestablished
1918
European military alliances prior to the war.

قوى الوفاق (الحلفاء) في فترة الحرب العالميّة الأولى (1914 – 1918م ) الدّول التاليّة: بريطانيا ، فرنسا ، روسيا .

ضمت مجموعة (المحور ، الدّول التاليّة: ألمانيا ، الإمبراطوريّة النمساويّة المجريّة، تركيا.

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التاريخ

ملصق روسي يصور الوفاق الثلاثي

اتخذ المجتمع الدولي إجراءات عقابيّة ضد ألمانيا فيما عرف بمعاهدة ڤرساي 1919م، وذلك بعد انتهاء الحرب العالميّة الأولى. خسرت ألمانيا بموجب تلك الإجراءات العقابيّة (معاهدة فرساي ) كما جاء في مصادر التوثيق الدوليّة: 12,5% من مساحتها الجغرافيّة، وحوالي 12% من تعداد سكانها، وما يقارب عن 15% من إنتاجها الزراعي، وحوالي 10% من منتوجها الصناعي وما يقارب عن 75% من إنتاجها من خام الحديد. وإلى جانب ذلك، قيدت معاهدة فرساي حركة وصلاحيات الجيش الألماني حيث نصت على ألا يزيد عدد المنتسبين إلى الجيش الألماني عن مائة ألف جندي، كذلك، ألزمت ألمانيا بدفع تعويضات كبيرة للحلفاء.

The direction of the war changed on April 6, 1917, with the entrance of the الولايات المتحدة and its American allies.[بحاجة لمصدر] Liberia, China, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on November 10, 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Statistics of the Allied Powers[1]
التعداد المساحة GDP
Russian Empire (plus Finland), 1914 173.2m (176.4m) 21.7m km2 (22.1m km2) $257.7b ($264.3b)
French Third Republic (plus colonies), 1914 39.8m (88.1m) 0.5m كم2 (11.2m km2) $138.7b ($170.2b)
United Kingdom (plus colonies and Dominions), 1914 46.0m (446.1m) 0.3m كم2 (33.3m km2) $226.4b ($561.2b)
امبراطورية اليابان (plus colonies), 1914 55.1m (74.2m) 0.4m km2 (0.7m km2) $76.5b ($92.8b)
Kingdom of Italy (plus colonies), 1915 35.6m (37.6m) 0.3m km2 (2.3m 2 ) $91.3b ($92.6b)
الولايات المتحدة (plus overseas dependencies),[2] 1917 96.5m (106.3m) 7.8m km2 (9.6m km2) $511.6b ($522.2b)
Allied approximate Total by 1917 928.7m 79.2m km2 $1,703.3b


الزعماء

المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة/الامبراطورية البريطانية

كندا دومنيون كندا

أستراليا كومنولث أستراليا


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الراج البريطاني الامبراطورية الهندية

اتحاد جنوب أفريقيا اتحاد جنوب أفريقيا

الإمبراطورية الروسية روسيا

فرنسا فرنسا


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مملكة صربيا صربيا

مملكة الجبل الأسود الجبل الأسود

بلجيكا بلجيكا

مملكة إيطاليا إيطاليا

مملكة رومانيا رومانيا

الولايات المتحدة الولايات المتحدة

إمبراطورية اليابان اليابان

البرازيل البرازيل

الپرتغال البرتغال

تايوان الصين

العديد والخسائر

Pie chart showing military deaths of the Allied Powers.
قوى الحلفاء الحشود قتلى الوغى جرحى الوغى إجمالي الخسائر الخسائر كنسبة من إجمالي الحشود
أستراليا 412,953[48] 61,928[4] 152,171 214,099 52%
بلجيكا 267,000[49] 38,172[5] 44,686 82,858 31%
كندا 628,964[50] 64,944[6] 149,732 214,676 34%
فرنسا 8,410,000[51] 1,397,800[7] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
اليونان 230,000[52] 26,000[8] 21,000 47,000 20%
الهند 1,440,437[53] 74,187[9] 69,214 143,401 10%
إيطاليا 5,615,000[54] 651,010[10] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
اليابان 800,000[55] 415[11] 907 1,322 <1%
الجبل الأسود 50,000[56] 3,000 10,000 13,000 26%
نـِپال 200,000 30,000 ? ? ?
نيوزيلندا 128,525[57] 18,050[12] 41,317 59,367 46%
البرتغال 100,000[58] 7,222[13] 13,751 20,973 21%
رومانيا 750,000[59] 250,000[14] 120,000 370,000 49%
روسيا 12,000,000[60] 1,811,000[15] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
صربيا 707,343[61] 275,000[16] 133,148 408,148 58%
جنوب أفريقيا 136,070[62] 9,463[17] 12,029 21,492 16%
المملكة المتحدة 6,211,922[63] 886,342[18] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
الولايات المتحدة 4,355,000[64] 116,708[19] 205,690 322,398 7%
الإجمالي 42,243,214 5,691,241 12,809,280 18,500,521 44%

ملخص إعلانات الحرب من قِبل الحلفاء على القوى المركزية

List of the 23 member States of the Entente:

بعد اغتيال فرانتس فرديناند

بعد معجزة المارن

بعد الثورة الروسية

حالة خاصة: الامبراطورية البريطانية

Six Dominions of the British Empire, which were subordinate to London under international law, were admitted to the Conference of Versailles in recognition of their huge military involvement:

حالة خاصة: حلفاء إسمياً

Countries that declared war on Central Powers but had no military involvement in the conflict:

Countries that severed relationships with Central Powers but did not declare war and had no military involvement:

حالة خاصة: قوميات ثائرة

Four insurgent nationalities, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

  • پولندا Poles
  • بوهميا Czechoslovak Legions: armed by France, Italy and Russia
  •  مملكة الحجاز: armed by Britain in Arabia
  • أرمنيا Armenians: seceded from Russia and fought against Ottoman Empire (many ethnic Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire fought for the Ottoman Empire until the Ottomans turned on them)

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ S.N. Broadberry, Mark Harrison. The Economics of World War I. illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press, 2005, pgs. 7-8.
  2. ^ As هاوائي وألاسكا were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the parenthetical figures.
  3. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  4. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[1]-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[2]-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919-21[3]-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead[4].
  5. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[5] Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." [6].
  6. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.[7]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[8]
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919-21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths[9]-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead[10].
  7. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[11]. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. [12]-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.[13]
  8. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing[14], The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease[15]
  9. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[16].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[17]
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919-21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead[18]. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead[19]
  10. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[20]
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data[21].
  11. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army[22].
  12. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[23].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[24]
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919-21[25]. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead[26].
  13. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW[27].
  14. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"[28]. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[29].
  15. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[30]. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.[31]
  16. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[32].The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis[33]
  17. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[34]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[35]
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919-21[36]. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead[37].
  18. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[38].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[39]
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919-21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths[40]. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK[41], 507 from "Other colonies"[42] and the Royal Navy (32,287)[43].
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately [44]; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK[45].
  19. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[46], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead [47].
  20. ^ "Peace Conference Delegates at Paris". American Journal of International Law. 13 (1): 79–81. January 1919. JSTOR 2187975. OCLC 482602928. Newfoundland Prime Minister Sir William F. Lloyd was a British Empire delegate at Versailles.
  21. ^ "World War I Ends in Andorra". The New York Times. UPI. 25 September 1958. p. 66.

المراجع

المصادر

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900-1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)