آلانيا، تركيا

(تم التحويل من Alanya)
Alanya
District
A colorful city with red roofs rising out from a curving harbor with blue water and cruise ship docked by a long pier.
Alanya city center and harbor
A dark-yellow circular seal with a smaller circle inside it that portrays a fortified tower and wall behind blue waves. The smaller circle is enclosed by a black two-headed bird with the text T.C. above and Alanya Belediyesi below.
Seal
The word Alanya in blue text except for the letter Y which is elongated and in yellow.
Nickname(s): 
Güneşin Gülümsediği Yer
("Where the Sun Smiles")
Alanya is located in تركيا
Alanya
Alanya
Location of Alanya
الإحداثيات: 36°33′N 32°00′E / 36.550°N 32.000°E / 36.550; 32.000
Country  تركيا
Region Mediterranean
Province Antalya
Incorporated 1872
الحكم
 • النوع Strong Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Adem Murat Yücel (MHP)
 • Governor Dr. Hasan Tanrıseven
المساحة[1]
 • District 1٬598٫51 كم² (617٫19 ميل²)
الارتفاع 0–250 m (0–820 ft)
التعداد(2012)[2]
 • الحضر 104٬573
 • District 264٬692
 • District كثافة 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
صفة المواطن Alanyalılar
منطقة التوقيت FET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+3)
Postal code 07400
مفتاح الهاتف +90 242
Licence plate 07
الموقع الإلكتروني www.alanya.bel.tr
www.alanya.gov.tr

Alanya ( /əˈlɑːnjə/; نطق التركية: [aˈɫanja]), formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, 138 kilometres (86 mi) east of the city of Antalya. As of Turkey's 2010 Census, the city had a population of 98,627, while the district that includes the city and its built-up region had an area of 1,598.51 km2 and 248,286 inhabitants.[3]

Because of its natural strategic position on a small peninsula into the Mediterranean Sea below the Taurus Mountains, Alanya has been a local stronghold for many Mediterranean-based empires, including the Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires. Alanya's greatest political importance came in the Middle Ages, with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm under the rule of Alaeddin Kayqubad I, from whom the city derives its name. His building campaign resulted in many of the city's landmarks, such as the Kızıl Kule (Red Tower), Tersane (Shipyard), and Alanya Castle.

The Mediterranean climate, natural attractions, and historic heritage make Alanya a popular destination for tourism, and responsible for nine percent of Turkey's tourism sector and thirty percent of foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey. Tourism has risen since 1958 to become the dominant industry in the city, resulting in a corresponding increase in city population. Warm-weather sporting events and cultural festivals take place annually in Alanya. In 2014 Mayor Adem Murat Yücel, of the Nationalist Movement Party unseated Hasan Sipahioğlu, of the Justice and Development Party, who had previously led the city since 1999.

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Names

The city has changed hands many times over the centuries, and its name has reflected this. Alanya was known in Latin as Coracesium or in Greek as Korakesion from the Luwian Korakassa meaning "point/protruding city".[4] The Roman Catholic Church still recognizes the Latin name as a titular see in its hierarchy.[5] Under the Byzantine Empire it became known as Kalonoros or Kalon Oros, meaning "beautiful/fine mountain" in Greek.[6] The Seljuks renamed the city Alaiye (علائیه), a derivative of the Sultan Alaeddin Kayqubad I's name. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Italian traders called the city Candelore or Cardelloro.[7] In his 1935 visit, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk finalized the name in the new alphabet as Alanya, changing the 'i' and 'e' in Alaiye, reportedly because of a misspelled telegram in 1933.[8][9]


History

A detailed drawing of a map of a distinct peninsula with a walled city, and a curved bay below it. Mountains are included on the right, as is a compass rose on the left.
Piri Reis map of Alanya from 1525 showing the extent of the medieval city and the location on the Pamphylia plain.

Finds in the nearby Karain Cave indicate occupation during the Paleolithic era as far back as 20,000 BC,[10] and archeological evidence shows a port existed at Syedra, south of the modern city, during the Bronze Age around 3,000 BC.[11] A Phoenician language tablet found in the district dates to 625 BC, and the city is specifically mentioned in the 4th-century BC Greek geography manuscript, the periplus of Pseudo-Scylax.[10] The castle rock was likely inhabited under the Hittites and the Achaemenid Empire, and was first fortified in the Hellenistic period following the area's conquest by Alexander the Great.[12] Alexander's successors left the area to one of the competing Macedonian generals, Ptolemy I Soter, after Alexander's death in 323 BC. His dynasty maintained loose control over the mainly Isaurian population, and the port became a popular refuge for Mediterranean pirates.[4] The city resisted Antiochus III the Great of the neighboring Seleucid kingdom in 199 BC, but was loyal to the pirate Diodotus Tryphon when he seized the Seleucid crown from 142 to 138 BC. His rival Antiochus VII Sidetes completed work in 137 BC on a new castle and port, begun under Diodotus.[13]


At the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongol hordes broke the Seljuk hegemony in Anatolia. Alanya was then subject to a series of invasions from Anatolian beyliks. Lusignans from Cyprus briefly overturned the then ruling Hamidid dynasty in 1371.[14] The Karamanids sold the city in 1427 for 5,000 gold coins to the Mamluks of Egypt for a period before General Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1471 incorporated it into the growing Ottoman Empire. The city was made a capital of a local sanjak in the eyalet of Içel.[6] The Ottomans extended their rule in 1477 when they brought the main shipping trade, lumber, then mostly done by Venetians, under the government monopoly.[15] On September 6, 1608, the city rebuffed a naval attack by the Order of Saint Stephen from the Republic of Venice.[7]

A hill populated with houses slants down into a blue-green sea below a stone dock with five arches. A stone wall extends along the sea from the dock to the lower right.
The Seljuk era Tersane was a drydock for ships.

Geography

Map of the Alanya Peninsula

Located on the Gulf of Antalya on the Anatolian coastal plain of Pamphylia, the town is situated between the Taurus Mountains to the north and the Mediterranean Sea, and is part of the Turkish riviera, occupying roughly 70 kilometres (43 mi) of coastline.[16] From west to east, the Alanya district is bordered by the Manavgat district along the coast, the mountainous Gündoğmuş inland, Hadim and Taşkent in the Province of Konya, Sarıveliler in the Province of Karaman, and the coastal Gazipaşa district.[17] Manavgat is home to the ancient cities of Side and Selge. East of the city, the Dim River flows from the mountains in Konya on a south-west route into the Mediterranean.

Blue-green sea surrounds a rocky peninsula covered by green trees and a stone castle wall with crenelations.
Tip of the Alanya Peninsula


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Climate

Alanya has a typical hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). Located at the Mediterranean Basin, the subtropical high pressure zone ensures that most rain comes during the winter, leaving the summers long, hot, and dry, prompting the Alanya board of Tourism to use the slogan "where the sun smiles".[18] Storm cells sometimes bring with them fair weather waterspouts when close to the shore.[19] The presence of the Taurus Mountain in close proximity to the sea causes fog, in turn creating visible rainbows many mornings. The height of the mountains creates an interesting effect as snow can often be seen on them even on hot days in the city below. The sea at Alanya has an average temperature of 21.4 °C (71 °F) annually, with an average August temperature of 28 °C (82 °F).[20]

بيانات مناخ Alanya (1970–2011)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 23.2
(73.8)
25.0
(77)
28.1
(82.6)
30.7
(87.3)
35.4
(95.7)
37.8
(100)
40.8
(105.4)
39.6
(103.3)
37.2
(99)
34.9
(94.8)
30.0
(86)
24.7
(76.5)
40٫8
(105٫4)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 16.2
(61.2)
16.3
(61.3)
18.3
(64.9)
21.1
(70)
24.7
(76.5)
28.7
(83.7)
31.5
(88.7)
32.1
(89.8)
30.2
(86.4)
26.5
(79.7)
21.5
(70.7)
17.8
(64)
23٫74
(74٫74)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 11.8
(53.2)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
16.9
(62.4)
20.9
(69.6)
25.1
(77.2)
27.8
(82)
28.0
(82.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
16.4
(61.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19٫37
(66٫86)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 8.6
(47.5)
8.5
(47.3)
10.1
(50.2)
13.0
(55.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.7
(74.7)
21.2
(70.2)
17.4
(63.3)
13.0
(55.4)
10.0
(50)
15٫5
(59٫9)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -1.9
(28.6)
-2.2
(28)
0.9
(33.6)
4.0
(39.2)
9.8
(49.6)
13.3
(55.9)
16.9
(62.4)
14.1
(57.4)
13.2
(55.8)
9.5
(49.1)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
-2٫2
(28)
هطول mm (inches) 199.0
(7.835)
149.4
(5.882)
97.8
(3.85)
70.7
(2.783)
32.4
(1.276)
8.5
(0.335)
4.5
(0.177)
2.7
(0.106)
17.5
(0.689)
98.5
(3.878)
182.9
(7.201)
231.2
(9.102)
1٬095٫1
(43٫114)
Humidity 57 57 61 63 66 66 64 65 58 55 59 60 60٫9
Avg. rainy days 13.8 11.6 9.5 8.5 4.4 1.5 0.4 0.5 2.1 6.6 9.9 13.0 81٫8
Sunshine hours 127.1 127.1 192.2 219.0 288.3 348.0 325.5 316.2 273.0 220.1 159.0 133.3 2٬728٫8
Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service[21]
Source #2: Weather2 [22]
Alanya mean sea temperature[23]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
17.8 °C (64.0 °F) 16.9 °C (62.4 °F) 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) 17.9 °C (64.2 °F) 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) 25.3 °C (77.5 °F) 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) 24.9 °C (76.8 °F) 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) 19.0 °C (66.2 °F)


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Main sights

Ruins of a small stone domed structure built in a Byzantine style with tall windows. Grasses grow on the second level, as do trees behind it.
The Byzantine era Church of Saint George inside Alanya Castle was also used as a mosque.
A panoramic view of a city beneath a mountain range with blue sea on both sides of a peninsula. On the peninsula is a castle wall and red roofed buildings. A young girl peers into the scene over the wall on the far left.
Panorama from west side of peninsula.

Demographics

Historic Populations
Year District City
1893[24] 37914
1965[25] 43459 12436
1970[26] 53552 15011
1975[27] 63235 18520
1980[28] 74148 22190
1985[29] 87080 28733
1990[30] 129106 52460
2000[31] 257671 88346
2007[32] 226236 91713
2008[33] 233919 92223
2009[34] 241451 94316
2010[35] 248286 98627
2011[36] 259787 103673

Culture

A eight-sided medieval tower built of red and yellow brick rises above a green sea in which swimmers play.  Stone walls run along the shore and further up from the tower.
The Kızıl Kule, or Red Tower, is also home to the city ethnographic museum.


Government

A tall sweeping stone triangle projects skyward behind the statues of a man and two children in bronze on a smaller podium. Around the base are placed several wreaths with logos. Palm trees surround the scene.
Many national celebrations are centered at the downtown Mustafa Kemal Atatürk monument.

الاقتصاد

Dozens of baskets of brightly colored fruits and vegetables stacked around intersecting aisles at a market.
Locally grown fruits for sale in a market in the farming district of Obaköy, outside Alanya

The tourist industry in Alanya is worth just under 1.1 billion euros per year, and is therefore the principal industry.[16] The area is further known for its many fruit farms, particularly lemons and oranges, and large harvests of tomatoes, bananas and cucumbers.[16][37] About 80,000 tonnes of citrus fruits were produced in 2006 across 16,840 hectares (41,600 acres). The greengage plum and the avocado are increasingly popular early season fruits where citrus fruits are becoming unprofitable.[38]

Despite the seaside location, few residents make their living on the sea, and fishing is not a major industry. In the early 1970s, when fish stocks ran low, a system of rotating access was developed to preserve this sector.[39] This innovative system was part of Elinor Ostrom's research on economic governance which led to her 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics.[40] In 2007, locals protested the establishment of some larger chain supermarkets and clothing stores, which have opened branches in Alanya.[41]

Beginning in 2003, with the provisional elimination of restrictions on land purchases by non-nationals, the housing industry in the city has become highly profitable with many new private homes and condominiums being built for European and Asian part-time residents.[42] Sixty-nine percent of homes purchased by foreign nationals in the Antalya Province and 29.9% in all of Turkey are in Alanya.[43][44] Buyers are primarily individuals, rather than investors.[45] This housing boom put pressure on the city's many gecekondu houses and establishments as property values rise and property sales to locals fall.[46] A height restriction in the city limits most buildings to 21 feet (6.5 m).[47] This keeps high rise hotels to the east and west of the city, preserving the central skyline at the expense of greater tourist potential. The fringes of the city however have seen uncontrolled expansion.[48]

السياحة

Numerous white, blue, and orange boats float tied to a dock in a greenish sea. Mountains rise on the other side of a bay.
Tourism began following the opening of Damlataş Cave in the 1950s.

Since the first modern motel was built in 1958, considered the first year of the tourist industry in Alanya, hotels have raced to accommodate the influx of tourists, and the city اعتبارا من 2007 claims 157,000 hotel beds.[49][50] Damlataş Cave, which originally sparked the arrival of outsiders because of the cave's microclimate, with an average temperature of 72 °F (22 °C) and 95% humidity, is accessible on the west side of the peninsula with trails from Damlataş Beach.[51] Many tourists, especially Scandinavians, Germans, Russians, and Dutch, regularly vacation in Alanya during the warmer months.[52] They are drawn to the area because of property prices, warm weather, sandy beaches, access to Antalya's historic sites, and fine cuisine.[53]

Other outdoor tourist activities include wind surfing, parasailing, and banana boating. Attractions include Europe's largest waterpark, Sealanya, and Turkey's largest go-kart track.[54] Hunting season also attracts some tourist for wild goat, pig and partridge hunting in area nature reserves.[55]

For various reasons, tourist seasons after 2005 have been disappointing for Alanya's tourism industry. Among the reasons blamed were increased PKK violence, the H5N1 bird flu found in Van, and the Mohammad cartoon controversy.[56] Alanya officials have responded with a variety of publicity initiatives, including baking the world's longest cake on April 26, 2006, a Guinness World Record.[57] The economy has also suffered due to investment in more than 20,000 surplus properties.[41] Israeli tourists, commonly arriving via cruise ship, have also declined sharply by about 85% from 2009 to 2011 due in part to strained relations between Turkey and Israel.[58]

Sister cities

Since making agreements with Talsi, Trakai, and Keszthely in 2006, Borås in 2007, and Rovaniemi, Špindlerův Mlýn, and Moscow in 2009, Alanya increased its number of sister cities to twelve, ten of which are located within the European Union.[59][60][61] In 2005 Alanya applied with Sister Cities International for an additional sister city from the United States.[62] The most significant tie is with the city of Nea Ionia, where many of Alanya's Christians were resettled in 1923 after the Treaty of Lausanne. Soccer teams from sister cities Wodzisław Śląski and Schwechat have also come to train and scrimmage in Alanya.[63][64] Wodzisław, Schwechat, Gladbeck, Fushun, and Alanya form a "family" in that most are partnered with the others. During the annual Tourism and Culture Festival, Alanya dedicates the year to focus on one country, and has involved sister cities, such as Trakai when 2009 was declared the "Year of Lithuania,"[65] and Talsi, which was the focus of the 12th annual Tourism Parade in 2012.[66]

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Lloyd, Seton; Rice, D.S. (1958). Alanya ('Alā'iyya). London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. OCLC 7230223.
  • Redford, Scott. Landscape and the state in medieval Anatolia: Seljuk gardens and pavilions of Alanya, Turkey. Oxford: Archaeopress; 2000. ISBN 1-84171-095-4

External links

  • No URL found. Please specify a URL here or add one to Wikidata.
  • Alanya Map

الإحداثيات: 36°33′0″N 32°0′0″E / 36.55000°N 32.00000°E / 36.55000; 32.00000

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