البحر الأيرلندي

Irish Sea
Irish Sea satellite image.jpg
Satellite image
Uk-map-ar.png
Limits and ports: ferry port / freight only
الموقعBritish Isles
الاحداثيات53°N 5°W / 53°N 5°W / 53; -5Coordinates: 53°N 5°W / 53°N 5°W / 53; -5
النوعSea
بلدان الحوضUnited Kingdom; Republic of Ireland; Isle of Man
مساحة السطح46,007 kم2 (4.9522×1011 قدم2)
حجم المياه2,800 kم3 (2.3×109 acre·ft)
الجزرAnglesey and Holy Island, Isle of Man and Calf of Man, Bardsey Island, Walney, Lambay, Ireland's Eye
المدن(see below)

البحر الأيرلندي (بالإنگليزية: Irish Sea؛ بالأيرلندية: Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann,[1] مانكس: Y Keayn Yernagh,[2] بالاسكتلندية: Erse Sie, بالغالية الاسكتلندية: Muir Èireann,[3] سكوت ألستر: Airish Sea؛ ويلزية: Môr Iwerddon, الكورنية: Mor Iwerdhon) يفصل جزيرتي أيرلندا و بريطانيا العظمى؛ ويتصل بالبحر الكلتي في الجنوب عبر قنال سانت جورج، و بالبحار الداخلية المقابلة لساحل اسكتلندا[4] في الشمال عبر القنال الشمالي، والذي يُعرف أيضاً بإسم مضائق مويل.

جزيرة مان تقع في وسط البحر الايرلندي.البحر ذو أهمية من الناحية الاقتصادية للتجارة الاقليمية والشحن والنقل و صيد الأسماك و توليد الطاقة في شكل طاقة الرياح و المحطات النووية.

Anglesey, Wales, is the largest island in the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The term Manx Sea may occasionally be used.(بالأيرلندية: Muir Meann,[5] مانكس: Mooir Vannin, بالغالية الاسكتلندية: Muir Mhanainn).[6][7][8]

موقع البحر الأيرلندي

The countries that are on its shoreline are Scotland on the north, إنگلترة on the east, ويلز on the southeast, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on the west. The Irish Sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade, shipping and transport, as well as fishing and power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to over 12 million passengers and 17 million طن متري (17,000,000 طن كبيرs; 19,000,000 طن صغيرs) of traded goods.

هناك نقاش طويل لبناء نفق للسكك الحديديه بطول 50 ميلا (80 كلم) لربط بريطانيا وأيرلندا حيث يبلغ حجم التبادل بين الجزيرتين أكثر من 17 مـِگاطن من التجارة و 12 مليون من الركاب. السيادة على البحر منقسمه بين بريطانيا وايرلند ولا يوجد اعتراض على التعبير البحر الأيرلندي في المملكة المتحدة.

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الجغرافيا

من الرصيف في Dún Laoghaire
البلدة الضاحية المطلة على البحر في مقاطعة دبلن، أيرلندا


المدن والبلدات

Below is a list of cities and towns around the Irish Sea coasts in order of size:

الترتيب المدينة/البلدة المقاطعة Region/province التعداد البلد
1 دبلن County Dublin Leinster 1,173,179 جمهورية أيرلندا
2 ليڤرپول Merseyside North West 864,122 England
3 Belfast County Antrim Ulster 847,153 Northern Ireland
4 Blackpool Lancashire North West 82,964 England
5 Morecambe Lancashire North West 50,525 England
6 Birkenhead Merseyside North West 49,242 England
7 Bangor County Down Ulster 41,011 Northern Ireland
8 Wallasey Merseyside North West 43,656 England
9 Barrow-in-Furness Cumbria North West 42,643 England
10 Crosby Merseyside North West 41,789 England
11 Lytham St Annes Lancashire North West 42,954 England
12 Drogheda County Louth Leinster 40,956 Republic of Ireland
13 Dundalk County Louth Leinster 39,004 Republic of Ireland
14 Morecambe Lancashire North West 55,589 England
15 Bray County Wicklow Leinster 32,600 Republic of Ireland
16 Colwyn Bay Conwy Clwyd 31,353 Wales
17 Thornton-Cleveleys Lancashire North West 31,157 England
18 Douglas Isle of Man 27,938 Isle of Man
19 Carrickfergus County Antrim Ulster 27,903 Northern Ireland
20 Dún Laoghaire Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown Leinster 26,525 Republic of Ireland
21 Fleetwood Lancashire North West 25,939 England
22 Workington Cumbria North West 25,207 England
23 Rhyl Denbighshire Clwyd 25,149 Wales
24 Whitehaven Cumbria North West 23,986 England
25 Llandudno Conwy Clwyd 20,701 Wales
26 Wexford County Wexford Leinster 20,188 Republic of Ireland
27 Larne County Antrim Ulster 18,775 Northern Ireland
28 Arklow County Wicklow Leinster 14,353 Republic of Ireland
29 Aberystwyth Ceredigion Dyfed 13,040 Wales
30 Holyhead Isle of Anglesey Gwynedd 11,431 Wales

الجزر

  • Listed are the islands in the Irish Sea which are either at least one square kilometer in area, or which have a permanent population.
  • Anglesey and Holy Island are included separately.
Name Area (km²) Rank (area) Permanent Population[9] Rank (pop.) Country
Anglesey 675 01 56,092 02 ويلز
Isle of Man[10] 572 02 84,497 01 Isle of Man
Holy Island 39 03 13,579 03 ويلز
جزيرة والني[11] 13 04 11,388 04 إنگلترة
Lambay Island 5.54 05 <10 08 Republic of Ireland
Bull Island 3 06 <20 07 Republic of Ireland
Ramsey Island 2.58 07 0 - ويلز
Bardsey Island 1.79 09 <5 10 ويلز
Calf of Man 2.50 08 0 - Isle of Man
Barrow Island 1.50 - 2,616 05 إنگلترة
Roa Island 0.03 - 100 06 إنگلترة
Ynys Gaint 0.04 - <10 08 ويلز
Piel Island 0.20 - <5 10 إنگلترة
Ynys Castell 0.006 - <5 10 ويلز
Ynys Gored Goch 0.004 - <5 10 ويلز


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النشاط الإشعاعي

The Irish Sea has been described by Greenpeace as the most radioactively contaminated sea in the world with some "eight million litres of nuclear waste" discharged into it each day from Sellafield reprocessing plants, contaminating seawater, sediments and marine life.[12]

Low-level radioactive waste has been discharged into the Irish Sea as part of operations at Sellafield since 1952. The rate of discharge began to accelerate in the mid- to late 1960s, reaching a peak in the 1970s and generally declining significantly since then. As an example of this profile, discharges of plutonium (specifically 241Pu) peaked in 1973 at 2,755 teraبيكريلs (7.45×1016 pكور)[13] falling to 8.1 Tبيك (2.2×1014 pكور) by 2004.[14] Improvements in the treatment of waste in 1985 and 1994 resulted in further reductions in radioactive waste discharge although the subsequent processing of a backlog resulted in increased discharges of certain types of radioactive waste. Discharges of technetium in particular rose from 6.1 Tبيك (1.6×1014 pكور) in 1993 to a peak of 192 Tبيك (5.2×1015 pكور) in 1995 before dropping back to 14 Tبيك (3.8×1014 pكور) in 2004.[13][14] In total 22 petaبيكريلs (5.9×1017 pكور) of 241Pu was discharged over the period 1952 to 1998.[15] Current rates of discharge for many radionuclides are at least 100 times lower than they were in the 1970s.[16]

Analysis[17][18] of the distribution of radioactive contamination after discharge reveals that mean sea currents result in much of the more soluble elements such as caesium being flushed out of the Irish Sea through the North Channel about a year after discharge. Measurements of technetium concentrations post-1994 has produced estimated transit times to the North Channel of around six months with peak concentrations off the northeast Irish coast occurring 18–24 months after peak discharge. Less soluble elements such as plutonium are subject to much slower redistribution. Whilst concentrations have declined in line with the reduction in discharges they are markedly higher in the eastern Irish Sea compared to the western areas. The dispersal of these elements is closely associated with sediment activity, with muddy deposits on the seabed acting as sinks, soaking up an estimated 200 kغ (7,100 أونصة) of plutonium.[19] The highest concentration is found in the eastern Irish Sea in sediment banks lying parallel to the Cumbrian coast. This area acts as a significant source of wider contamination as radionuclides are dissolved once again. Studies have revealed that 80% of current sea water contamination by caesium is sourced from sediment banks, whilst plutonium levels in the western sediment banks between the Isle of Man and the Irish coast are being maintained by contamination redistributed from the eastern sediment banks.

The consumption of seafood harvested from the Irish Sea is the main pathway for exposure of humans to radioactivity.[20] The environmental monitoring report for the period 2003 to 2005 published by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) reported that in 2005 average quantities of radioactive contamination found in seafood ranged from less than 1 بيك/kغ (0.77 pكور/أونصة) for fish to under 44 بيك/kغ (34 pكور/أونصة) for mussels.[21] Doses of man-made radioactivity received by the heaviest consumers of seafood in Ireland in 2005 was 1.10 μزف (0.000110 rem).[22] This compares with a corresponding dosage of radioactivity naturally occurring in the seafood consumed by this group of 148 μزف (0.0148 rem) and a total average dosage in Ireland from all sources of 3,620 μزف (0.362 rem).[23] In terms of risk to this group, heavy consumption of seafood generates a 1 in 18 million chance of causing cancer. The general risk of contracting cancer in Ireland is 1 in 522. In the UK, the heaviest seafood consumers in Cumbria received a radioactive dosage attributable to Sellafield discharges of 220 μزف (0.022 rem) in 2005.[24] This compares to average annual dose of naturally sourced radiation received in the UK of 2,230 μزف (0.223 rem).[25]

الروابط الثابتة المقترحة عبر البحر

Discussions of linking Britain to Ireland began in 1895,[26] with an application for £15,000 towards the cost of carrying out borings and soundings in the North Channel to see if a tunnel between Ireland and Scotland was viable. Sixty years later, Harford Montgomery Hyde, Unionist MP for North Belfast, called for the building of such a tunnel.[27] A tunnel project has been discussed several times in the Irish parliament.[28][29][30][31] The idea for a 21-ميل (34 kم) long rail bridge or tunnel continues to be mooted. Several potential projects have been proposed, including one between Dublin and Holyhead put forward in 1997 by the British engineering firm Symonds. At 50 ميلs (80 kم), it would have been by far the longest rail tunnel on earth with an estimated cost approaching £20 billion.[32]

طاقة الرياح

Barrow Offshore windfarm, off Walney Island

An offshore wind farm was developed on the Arklow Bank,[33] Arklow Bank Wind Park, about 10 kم (33,000 قدم) off the coast of County Wicklow in the south Irish Sea. The site currently has seven GE 3.6 MW turbines, each with 104-متر (341 قدم) diameter rotors, the world's first commercial application of offshore wind turbines over three megawatts in size. The operating company, Airtricity, has indefinite plans for nearly 100 further turbines on the site.

Further wind turbine sites include:


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في الثقافة الشعبية

  • During World War I the Irish Sea became known as "U-boat Alley", because the U-boats moved their emphasis from the Atlantic to the Irish Sea after the United States entered the war in 1917.[38][39]
  • The Irish Sea figures prominently in the Mabinogion. In the second branch of the Mabinogion the Irish Sea is crossed from the south to Harlech by Matholwch, the Irish King, who has come to seek the hand of Branwen ferch Llŷr, sister of Bendigeidfran, King of the Island of the Mighty. Branwen and Matholwch marry, but when she becomes abused by Matholwch, her brother crosses the sea from Wales to Ireland to rescue her. Within the story the Irish Sea is said to be shallow; in addition it contains two rivers, the Lli and the Archan.[40]

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

الهامش

  1. ^ "Muir Éireann". téarma.ie – Dictionary of Irish Terms. Foras na Gaeilge و Dublin City University. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 18 Nov 2016.
  2. ^ "Ellan Vannin" (in Manx). Centre for Manx Studies ("Laare-Studeyrys Manninagh"). Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  3. ^ Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies, Issues 33–35 University of Cambridge (Gran Bretaña). Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic 1997
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة IHO
  5. ^ Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language[dead link]
  6. ^ Bannerman, David Armitage (1963). The Birds of the British Isles: Volume 12. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. p. 84.
  7. ^ "The Caledonian". The Caledonian. New York: Caledonian Publishing Co. 4: 25. 1903.
  8. ^ "Irish Sea Facts". Irish Sea Conservation. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  9. ^ Population figures are from 2001 Census, except: Isle of Man, from 2006.
    Populations of smaller islands are estimated at 5 per known inhabited house
  10. ^ Isle of Man Census 2006 Archived 17 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (excluding the population of 2 living on the Calf of Man)
  11. ^ National Statistics – Walney North (Ward) Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. and Walney South (Ward) Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Sellafield nuclear reprocessing facility, (Link) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Greenpeace
  13. ^ أ ب The Past, Current and Future Radiological Impact of the Sellafield Marine Discharges on the People Living in the Coastal Communities Surrounding the Irish Sea, (Link) Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Environment Agency – Table 3
  14. ^ أ ب Monitoring our Environment – Discharges and Monitoring in the UK – Annual Report 2004, (Link) Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., British Nuclear Group – Table 2
  15. ^ León Vintró et al. (2000), p. 2.
  16. ^ Quality Status Report – Regional QSR III, (Link) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., OSPAR – Chapter 4 Chemistry, p64
  17. ^ León Vintró et al. (2000), sections 3–4.
  18. ^ McMahon et al., 2005, (Link) Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland
  19. ^ Quality Status Report – Regional QSR III, (Link) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., OSPAR – Chapter 4 Chemistry, p66
  20. ^ Ryan et al. (2005), p. 7.
  21. ^ Ryan et al. (2005), Table 45.
  22. ^ Ryan et al. (2005), p. 26.
  23. ^ Ryan et al. (2005), p. 27.
  24. ^ Radioactivity in Food and the Environment 2005, (Link) Archived 7 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Cefas – p11
  25. ^ Watson et al., 2005 (Link) Archived 7 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Health Protection Agency – Ionising Radiation Exposure of the UK Population: 2005 Review
  26. ^ "TUNNEL UNDER THE SEA", The Washington Post, 2 May 1897 (Archive link) Archived 3 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ "An Irishman's Diary" by Wesley Boyd, (Link), The Irish Times, Feb 2004 (subscription required)
  28. ^ Written Answers. – Sea Transport, (Link) Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Dáil Éireann – Volume 384 – 16 November 1988
  29. ^ Written Answers. – Irish Sea Railway Ferry, (Link) Archived 29 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Dáil Éireann – Volume 434 – 19 October 1993
  30. ^ Written Answers. – Ireland-UK Tunnel, (Link), Dáil Éireann – Volume 517 – 29 March 2000
  31. ^ Written Answers – Transport Projects, (Link), Dáil Éireann – Volume 597 – 15 February 2005
  32. ^ Bridge to Northern Ireland mooted Archived 1 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine., BBC News Scotland, 22 August 2007
  33. ^ "Arklow Bank Wind Park". Airtricity. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
  34. ^ "Northhoyle". Archived from the original on 22 July 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2005.
  35. ^ "Barrow Offshore windfarm". Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  36. ^ "Oriel Wind project status". Archived from the original on 7 July 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
  37. ^ World's largest offshore windfarm opens off Cumbrian coast Archived 6 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian
  38. ^ U-Boat Alley by Roy Stokes, published by Compuwreck, ISBN 0-9549186-0-6
  39. ^ The War in Maps: The Irish Sea, (Link) Archived 19 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine., UBoat.net
  40. ^ Williams, Ifor. Pedeir Keinc y Mabinogi. University of Wales Press.
  41. ^ "Where is Sodor, home of Thomas the Tank Engine?". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2016.

المصادر

Further reading

وصلات خارجية