تاريخ اليهود في أرض إسرائيل

جزء من سلسلة عن
تاريخ إسرائيل
حائط المبكى
إسرائيل القديمة ويهودا
روما وبيزنطة
الخلافة والحملات الصليبية
الصهيونية ودولة إسرائيل
موضوعات
متعلقة
Nuvola Israeli flag.svg بوابة إسرائيل
جزء من سلسلة عن
تاريخ فلسطين
قبل التاريخ
العصر الحديدي
الامبراطورية الفارسية
الحكم الهليني
الحكم الروماني
الحكم الإسلامي
التاريخ المعاصر
Nuvola Palestinian flag.svg بوابة فلسطين

تاريخ اليهود في أرض إسرائيل يشير إلى تاريخ الشعب اليهودي في أرض إسرائيل Eretz Yisrael. أول ظهور محتمل لإسم "إسرائيل" في السجلات التاريخية هو النقش المصري من 1200 ق.م. الذي يذكر جماعة عرقية تتواجد في الجزء الشمالي من المرتفعات الوسطى بين البحر المتوسط ووادي الأردن وجنوب جبل الكرمل. The term "Land of Israel" is found in the التوراة. وأثناء العهد التوراتي، قامن مملكتان في منطقة المرتفعات، مملكة إسرائيل في الشمال وظهرت بعدها بوقت مملكة يهودا في الجنوب: إسرائيل قـُضي عليها حوالي 722 ق.م.، ويهودا، حوالي 586 ق.م.. لاحقاً في 165 ق.م.، تأسست المملكة الهشمونية اليهودية. وقد استمرت 99 عاماً وقد دُمـِّرت بعد أن استولى الرومان على القدس في عام 66 ق.م.[1][2]

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أصل الكلمة

إسرائيل ويهودا القديمتان (1200–586 ق.م.)

نصب مرنپتاح (JE 31408), bearing the first record of the name "Israel", (Cairo Museum)
The Iron Age kingdom of Israel (blue) and kingdom of Judah (tan), with their neighbours (8th century BCE), based on Biblical accounts

The name Israel first appears in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BC, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not."[3] This "Israel" was a cultural and probably political entity of the central highlands, well enough established to be perceived by the Egyptians as a possible challenge to their hegemony, but an ethnic group rather than an organized state.[4] Ancestors of the Israelites may have included Semites who occupied Canaan and the Sea Peoples.[5] According to modern archaeologists, sometime during Iron Age I a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite', differentiating itself from the Canaanites through such markers as the prohibition of intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and religion.[6]



السبي البابلي، الحكم الفارسي والعودة إلى صهيون (538–332 ق.م.)

An artist's depiction of the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's temple

The Assyrian Empire was overthrown in 612 BCE by the Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 586 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.

One of the 21 LMLK seals found near the ancient city of Lachish, which has an inscription written in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet and is dated from the reign of Hezekiah


الفترة الهشمونية (332–64 ق.م.)

The extent of the Hasmonean kingdom

In 332 BCE the Persians were defeated by Alexander the Great. After his death in 322 BCE, his generals divided the empire between them and Judea became the frontier between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt, but in 198 Judea was incorporated into the Seleucid Kingdom.


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العصر الروماني (64 ق.م. – 324 م)

1st-century BCE - 2nd-century CE

64 BCE
Rome conquers Judea and
Jerusalem
40–37
Antigonus the Hasmonean
rules as King of Judea
37
Herod the Great made ruler
of Judea
19
Herod's Temple completed
4 BCE
Tetrarchy of Judea formed
6 CE
Iudaea province formed
20
Tiberias founded
66–73
First Jewish–Roman War

67
Gamla and Jotapata fall
70
Second Temple destroyed,
Council of Jamnia founded
73
Massada falls

115–117
Kitos War
130
Temple of Jupiter built upon
Temple Mount
132
Judea merged into Syria Palaestina
132–136
Bar-Kochba revolt, Ten Martyrs
executed
c. 200
Mishnah completed

In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey sacked Jerusalem and made the Jewish kingdom a client of Rome. The situation was not to last, as the deaths of Pompey in 48 BCE and Caesar in 44 BCE, together with the related Roman civil wars, relaxed Rome's grip on Judea. This resulted in the Parthian Empire and their Jewish ally Antigonus the Hasmonean defeating the pro-Roman Jewish forces (high priest Hyrcanus II, Phasael and Herod the Great) in 40 BCE. They invaded the Roman eastern provinces and managed to expel the Romans. Antigonus was made King of Judea. Herod fled to Rome where he was elected "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate and was given the task of retaking Judea. In 37 BCE, with Roman support, Herod reclaimed Judea and the short lived reemergence of the Hasmonean dynasty came to an end. From 37 BCE to 6 CE, the Herodian dynasty, Jewish-Roman client kings, ruled Judea. In 20 BCE, Herod began a refurbishment and expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. His son, Herod Antipas, founded the Jewish city of Tiberias in the Galilee.

Judea under Roman rule was at first a client kingdom, but gradually the rule over Judea became less and less Jewish, until it became under the direct rule of Roman administration from Caesarea Maritima, which was often callous and brutal in its treatment of its Judean, Galilean, and Samaritan subjects. It was in this period that Rabbinical Judaism, led by Hillel the Elder, began to assume popular prominence over the Temple priesthood.

The sack of Jerusalem depicted on the Arch of Titus, Rome



الفترة البيزنطية (324–638)

Byzantine period

351–352
Jewish revolt against Gallus,
Jewish communities and academies
in disarray
358
Hillel II institutes Hebrew calendar
361–363
Rebuilding of Temple attempted
under Julian
425
Gamliel VI, last Prince of the
Sanhedrin, dies
429
Jewish Patriarchate abolished by
Theodosius II
438
Eudocia allows Jewish prayer
on Temple Mount
450
Redaction of Palestinian Talmud
614–617
Jews gain autonomy in Jerusalem
under Persian rule
625
Liturgical poet Yanai flourishes

Eshtemoa synagogue menorah, carved during the 3rd or 4th century.
The ancient synagogue at Nabratein was destroyed in the Galilee earthquake of 363
"Mother of the Arches" synagogue, Golan Heights, dated to the 6th-8th century

Early in the 4th century, Roman Empire split and Constantinople became the capital of the East Roman Empire known as the Byzantine Empire. Under the Byzantines, Christianity, dominated by the (Greek) Orthodox Church, was adopted as the official religion. Jerusalem became a Christian city and Jews were still banned from living there.



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التسامح في ظل الإسلام (638–1099)

العصر الإسلامي

638
Umar allows Jews back
into Jerusalem
691-705
Islamization of the Temple Mount
720
Jews permanently excluded
from ascending Temple Mount
c. 750
Palestinian Gaonate based in
Tiberias
c. 850
Seat of the Gaonate
transferred to Jerusalem
875
Mourners of Zion reside in
Jerusalem
921
Controversy erupts regarding
calandarical calculations of
Aaron ben Meïr
960
Masorete Aaron ben Asher
dies in Tiberias
1071
Gaonate exiled to Tyre

In 638 CE, the Byzantine Empire lost the Levant to the Arab Islamic Empire. According to Moshe Gil, at the time of the Arab conquest in 7th century, the majority of the population was Jewish or Samaritan.[7] According to one estimate, the Jews of Palestine numbered between 300,000 and 400,000 at the time.[8] After the conquest, the majority of the population became Arabized in culture and language, many also adopting the new faith of Islam.[9] Until the Crusades took Palestine in 1099, various Muslim dynasties controlled Palestine. It was first ruled by the Medinah-based Rashidun Caliphs, then by the Damascus-based Umayyad Caliphate and after by the Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphs.

After the conquest, Jewish communities began to grow and flourish. Umar allowed and encouraged Jews to settle in Jerusalem. It was first time, after almost 500 years of oppressive Christian rule, that Jews were allowed to enter and worship freely in their holy city.[10] Seventy Jewish families from Tiberias moved to Jerusalem in order to help strengthen the Jewish community there.[11] But with the construction of the Dome of the Rock in 691 and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 705, the Muslims established the Temple Mount as an Islamic holy site. The dome enshrined the Foundation Stone, the holiest site for Jews. Before Omar Abd al-Aziz died in 720, he banned the Jews from worshipping on the Temple Mount,[12] a policy which remained in place for over the next 1,000 years of Islamic rule.[13] In around 875, Karaite leader Daniel al-Kumisi arrived in Jerusalem and established an ascetic community of Mourners of Zion.[14] Michael the Syrian notes thirty synagogues which were destroyed in Tiberias by the earthquake of 749.[15]

In the mid-8th-century, taking advantage of the warring Islamic factions in Palestine, a false messiah named Abu Isa Obadiah of Isfahan inspired and organised a group of 10,000 armed Jews who hoped to restore the Holy Land to the Jewish nation. Soon after, when Al-Mansur came to power, Abu Isa joined forces with a Persain chieftain who was also conducting a rebellion against the caliph. The rebellion was subdued by the caliph and Abu Isa fell in battle in 755.[16]

In 1039, part of the synagogue in Ramla was still in ruins, probably resulting from the earthquake of 1033.[17] Jews also returned to Rafah and documents from 1015 and 1080 attest to a significant community there.[18]

A large Jewish community existed in Ramle and smaller communities inhabited Hebron and the coastal cities of Acre, Caesarea, Jaffa, Ashkelon and Gaza.[بحاجة لمصدر] Al-Muqaddasi (985) wrote that "for the most part the assayers of corn, dyers, bankers, and tanners are Jews."[19] Under the Islamic rule, the rights of Jews and Christians were curtailed and residence was permitted upon payment of the special tax.

Between the 7th and 11th centuries, Masoretes (Jewish scribes) in the Galilee and Jerusalem were active in compiling a system of pronunciation and grammatical guides of the Hebrew language. They authorised the division of the Jewish Tanakh, known as the Masoretic Text, which is regarded as authoritative till today.[20]

الاضطهاد والانحدار في عهد الصليبيين (1099–1291)

According to Gilbert, from 1099 to 1291 the Christian Crusaders "mercilessly persecuted and slaughtered the Jews of Palestine."[21]


الإحياء التدريجي مع زيادة الهجرة (1211–1517)

القرون 12 إلى 14

1191
Jews of Ascalon arrive in Jerusalem
1198
Maghreb Jews arrive in Jerusalem
1204
Maimonides buried in Tiberias
1209-1211
Immigration of 300 French and
English rabbis
1217
Judah al-Harizi bemoans state
of the Temple Mount
1260
Yechiel of Paris establishes
talmudical academy in Acre
1266
Jews banned from entering the
Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron
1267
Nachmanides arrives in Jerusalem,
Ramban synagogue established
1286
Meir of Rothenburg incarcerated
after attempting to emigrate
to Palestine
1355
Physician and geographer
Ishtori Haparchi dies in Bet She'an

15th-century

1428
Jews attempt to purchase Tomb
of David, Pope prevents ships
carrying Jews to Palestine
1434
Elijah of Ferrara settles in Jerusalem
1441
Famine forces Jerusalem Jews to
send emissary to Europe
1455
Failed large scale immigration
attempt from Sicily
1474
Great Synagogue of Jerusalem
demolished by Arab mob
1488
Obadiah ben Abraham begins
revival of Jerusalem
1507
Joseph Saragossi dies in
Safed


النمو والاستقرار تحت الحكم العثماني (1517–1917)

The كنيس آري في صفد. Founded in the 1570s, it was rebuilt in 1857 following an earthquake.
One of the earliest photographs of Jews praying at the Western Wall of Herod's Temple, 1870s. The Scroll of Ahimaaz (1050 CE) mentions the location as a Jewish prayer site.[22] In around 1560, Suleiman the Magnificent gave official recognition of the right of Jews to pray there.

Palestine was conquered by Turkish Sultan سليم الأول in 1516–17, and became part of the province of Syria for the next four centuries.



Installation of the Chacham Bashi at the Ben Zakai Synagogue, 1893. According to legend, the synagogue stands on the site of the study hall of 1st-century sage, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai. The current building was constructed in 1610.

In the 1648–1654 Khmelnytsky Uprising in the Ukraine over 100,000 Jews were massacred, leading to some migration to Israel. In 1660 (or 1662), the majorly Jewish towns of Safed and Tiberias are destroyed by the Druze, following a power struggle in Galilee. In 1665, the events surrounding the arrival of the self-proclaimed Messiah Sabbatai Zevi to Jerusalem, causes a massacre of the Jews in Jerusalem.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The Near East earthquake of 1759 destroys much of Safed killing 2000 people with 190 Jews among the dead, and also destroys طبرية.

The disciples of the Vilna Gaon settled in the land of Israel almost a decade after the arrival of two of his pupils, R. Hayim of Vilna and R. Israel ben Samuel of Shklov. In all there were three groups of the Gaon's students which emigrated to the land of Israel. They formed the basis of the Ashkenazi communities of Jerusalem and Safed, setting up what was known as the Kollel Perushim. Their arrival encouraged an Ashkenazi revival in Jerusalem, whose Jewish community until this time was mostly Sephardi. Many of the descendents of the disciples became leading figures in modern Israeli society. The Gaon himself also set forth with his pupils to the Land, but for an unknown reason he turned back and returned to Vilna where he died soon after.

During the siege of Acre in 1799, Napoleon issued a proclamation to the Jews of Asia and Africa to help him conquer Jerusalem. The siege was lost to the British, however, and the plan was never carried out. In 1821 the brothers of murdered Jewish adviser and finance minister to the rulers of the Galilee, Haim Farkhi formed an army with Ottoman permission, marched south and conquered the Galilee. They were held up at Akko which they besieged for 14 months after which they gave up and retreated to Damascus.

During Muhammad Ali of Egypt's occupation in 1834, Jews were targeted in pogroms in Hebron, Safed and Jerusalem. In 1844, Jews constituted the largest population group in Jerusalem and by 1890 an absolute majority in the city, but as a whole the Jewish population made up far less than 10% of the region.[23][24]

In 1888, Professor Sir John William Dawson wrote: Immigration took place from Europe, from North Africa (mainly to Jaffa) and from the Yemen.[25]

"Until today (1888), no people has succeeded in establishing national dominion in the Land of Israel. No national unity, in the spirit of nationalism, has acquired any hold there. The mixed multitude of itinerant tribes that managed to settle there did so on lease, as temporary residents. It seems that they await the return of the permanent residents of the land."[26]



في العصر الحديث

الانتداب البريطاني (1917–1948)

The borders of the British Mandate

Between 1882 and 1948, a series of Jewish migrations to what is the modern nation of Israel, known as Aliyahs commenced. These migrations preceded the Zionist period.


David Ben-Gurion proclaiming independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism

On 14 May 1948, one day before the end of the British Mandate, the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by the future prime minister David Ben-Gurion, declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.[27][28]

دولة إسرائيل (1948–الآن)

حائط المبكى في القدس


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ http://www.science.co.il/israel-history.php
  2. ^ http://faculty.ucc.edu/egh-damerow/hasmoneans.htm
  3. ^ Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91.
  4. ^ Dever 2003, p. 206.
  5. ^ Miller 1986, pp. 78–9.
  6. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 35.
  7. ^ Moshe Gil, "A History of Palestine: 634-1099", p. 3.
  8. ^ Israel Cohen (1950). Contemporary Jewry: a survey of social, cultural, economic, and political conditions. Methuen. p. 310. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  9. ^ Lauren S. Bahr; Bernard Johnston (M.A.); Louise A. Bloomfield (1996). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index. Collier's. p. 328. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  10. ^ Gil p.70-71.
  11. ^ Moshe Dothan; Ḥevrah la-ḥaḳirat Erets-Yiśraʼel ṿe-ʻatiḳoteha; Israel. Agaf ha-ʻatiḳot ṿeha-muzeʼonim (2000). Hammath Tiberias: Late synagogues. Israel Exploration Society. p. 5. ISBN 978-965-221-043-2. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  12. ^ Élie Barnavi; Miriam Eliav-Feldon; Denis Charbit (2002). A historical atlas of the Jewish people: from the time of the patriarchs to the present. Schocken Books. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8052-4226-3. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  13. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore (27 January 2011). Jerusalem: The Biography. Orion. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-297-85864-5. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  14. ^ Marina Rustow (2008). Heresy and the politics of community: the Jews of the Fatimid caliphate. Cornell University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8014-4582-8. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  15. ^ Moshe Gil (1997). A history of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  16. ^ A History of the Jewish People, A. Marx. pg. 259.
  17. ^ Stefan C. Reif; Shulamit Reif (2002). The Cambridge Genizah collections: their contents and significance. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-81361-7. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  18. ^ Raphael Patai (15 November 1999). The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-691-00968-1. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  19. ^ Salo Wittmayer Baron (1952). A Social and Religious History of the Jews: High Middle Ages, 500-1200. Columbia University Press. p. 168. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  20. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. Americana Corp. 1977. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-7172-0108-2. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  21. ^ Martín Gilbert (2005). "The Jews of Palestine 636 AD to 1880". The Routledge atlas of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Psychology Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-35901-6. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  22. ^ Koren, Zalman. "The Temple and the Western Wall". Western Wall Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 16 December 2007.
  23. ^ "How to Respond to Common Misstatements About Israel". Anti-Defamation League. 2006. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  24. ^ "The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948". MidEastWeb.org. 2005. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  25. ^ Parfitt, Tudor (1987) The Jews in Palestine, 1800-1882. Royal Historical Society studies in history (52). Woodbridge: Published for the Royal Historical Society by Boydell.
  26. ^ Modern Science in Bible Lands, page 450
  27. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel: 14 May 1948
  28. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Shelley Kleiman: The State of Israel Declares Independence: 27 Apr 1999

ببليوگرافيا

Parfitt, Tudor (1987) The Jews in Palestine, 1800-1882. Royal Historical Society studies in history (52). Woodbridge: Published for the Royal Historical Society by Boydell.

وصلات خارجية