التقويم الجمهوري الفرنسي

التقويم الجمهوري الفرنسي في 1794، بريشة Philibert-Louis Debucourt.

التقويم الجمهوري الفرنسي (بالفرنسية: calendrier républicain français) or French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français) was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The new system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France.

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نظرة عامة وتأصيل

التاريخ

نسخة من التقويم الجمهوري الفرنسي في متحف لوزان التاريخي.

في 21 سبتمبر 1792، أصدر المؤتمر الوطني مرسوما، بعد عام من الدراسة والضبط والتعديل بإبطال التقويم المسيحي (الميلادي) في فرنسا وممتلكاتها ليحل محله تقويم ثوري تبدأ فيه السنة الأولى (من 22 سبتمبر 1792 إلى 21 سبتمبر 1973) ثم السنة الثانية فالثالثة وهكذا وأن تسمى الشهور على وفق الحالة المناخية المعتادة (النمطية):

  • شهر قطف العنب (فينرمينير (Vendémiaire
  • شهر الضباب (برومير Brumaire )
  • شهر الصقيع (فريمير (Rrimaire بالنسبة للخريف،
  • شهر تساقط الثلج (نيفوز (Nivose،
  • شهر المطر (بلوفيوز (Pluviose،
  • شهر الرياح (فينتوز (Ventose بالنسبة للشتاء،
  • شهر التبرعم (جيرمينال (Germinal
  • شهر الإزهار (فلوريال (Floréal
  • شهر المروج الخضر (بريريال (Prairial بالنسبة للربيع،
  • شهر الحصاد (مسيدور (Massidor
  • شهر الدفء (ثيرميدور(Thermidor
  • شهر الفواكه (فركيتدور (Fructidor بالنسبة للصيف.

وقد تم تقسيم الشهر إلى ثلاثة أقسام Décades كل قسم عشرة أيام وينتهي كل قسم بيوم يقال له ديكادي décadi هو يوم الراحة بدلا من يوم الأحد الذي كان يوم راحة في التقويم الميلادي، وخمسة الأيام الباقيات في السنة تسمى (السانس كولوتيد (Sans - Culottides يكــون فيها مهرجـان وطني، وكان المؤتمر الوطني يأمل أن يذكر هذا التقويم الفرنسيين بالأرض والعمل الذي يجعلها مثمرة لا بالقديسين religious saints والمواسم. فستحل الطبيعة محل الرّب God وتم استخدام هذا التقويم الجديد في 24 نوفمبر سنة 1793 وانتهى استخدامه في نهاية سنة 1805 للميلاد.


تصميم التقويم

L AN 2 DE LA REPUBLIQUE FR. (السنة 2 من الجمهورية الفرنسية) على جرن بالقرب من جنيڤ

الأيام العشرة للأسبوع

ساعة جيب with dodecacimal-based hours, and days of the month and of the week in French Republican Calendar. On display at Neuchâtel Beaux-Arts museum.

The month is divided into three décades or 'weeks' of ten days each, named simply:

  • primidi (first day)
  • duodi (second day)
  • tridi (third day)
  • quartidi (fourth day)
  • quintidi (fifth day)
  • sextidi (sixth day)
  • septidi (seventh day)
  • octidi (eighth day)
  • nonidi (ninth day)
  • décadi (tenth day)

Décades were abandoned in Floréal an X (April 1802).[1]

أيام السنة

Instead of most days having an associated saint as in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, each day has an animal (days ending in 5), a tool (days ending in 0) or else a plant or mineral (all other days).[2]


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الخريف

Vendémiaire (22 September ~ 21 October) Brumaire (22 October ~ 20 November) Frimaire (21 November ~ 20 December)
  1. Raisin (Grape)
  2. Safran (Saffron)
  3. Châtaigne (Chestnut)
  4. Colchique (Crocus)
  5. Cheval (Horse)
  6. Balsamine (Impatiens)
  7. Carotte (Carrot)
  8. Amaranthe (Amaranth)
  9. Panais (Parsnip)
  10. Cuve (Vat)
  11. Pomme de terre (Potato)
  12. Immortelle (Strawflower)
  13. Potiron (Butter Squash)
  14. Réséda (Mignonette)
  15. Âne (Donkey)
  16. Belle de nuit (The four o'clock flower)
  17. Citrouille (Pumpkin)
  18. Sarrasin (Buckwheat)
  19. Tournesol (Sunflower)
  20. Pressoir (Wine-Press)
  21. Chanvre (Hemp)
  22. Pêche (Peach)
  23. Navet (Turnip)
  24. Amaryllis (Amaryllis)
  25. Bœuf (Ox)
  26. Aubergine (Eggplant)
  27. Piment (Chili Pepper)
  28. Tomate (Tomato)
  29. Orge (Barley)
  30. Tonneau (Barrel)
  1. Pomme (Apple)
  2. Céleri (Celery)
  3. Poire (Pear)
  4. Betterave (Beet root)
  5. Oie (Goose)
  6. Héliotrope (Heliotrope)
  7. Figue (Common Fig)
  8. Scorsonère (Black Salsify)
  9. Alisier (Chequer Tree)
  10. Charrue (Plough)
  11. Salsifis (Salsify)
  12. Mâcre (Water chestnut)
  13. Topinambour (Jerusalem Artichoke)
  14. Endive (Endive)
  15. Dindon (Turkey)
  16. Chervis (Skirret)
  17. Cresson (Watercress)
  18. Dentelaire (Leadworts)
  19. Grenade (Pomegranate)
  20. Herse (Harrow)
  21. Bacchante (Asarum baccharis)
  22. Azerole (Azarole)
  23. Garance (Madder)
  24. Orange (Orange)
  25. Faisan (Pheasant)
  26. Pistache (Pistachio)
  27. Macjonc (Tuberous pea)
  28. Coing (Quince)
  29. Cormier (Service tree)
  30. Rouleau (Roller)
  1. Raiponce (Rampion)
  2. Turneps (Turnip)
  3. Chicorée (Chicory)
  4. Nèfle (Medlar)
  5. Cochon (Pig)
  6. Mâche (Corn Salad)
  7. Chou-fleur (Cauliflower)
  8. Miel (Honey)
  9. Genièvre (Juniper)
  10. Pioche (Pickaxe)
  11. Cire (Wax)
  12. Raifort (Horseradish)
  13. Cèdre (Cedar tree)
  14. Sapin (Fir tree)
  15. Chevreuil (Roe Deer)
  16. Ajonc (Gorse)
  17. Cyprès (Cypress Tree)
  18. Lierre (Ivy)
  19. Sabine (Savin Juniper)
  20. Hoyau (Grub-hoe)
  21. Érable à sucre (Sugar Maple)
  22. Bruyère (Heather)
  23. Roseau (Reed plant)
  24. Oseille (Sorrel)
  25. Grillon (Cricket)
  26. Pignon (Pinenut)
  27. Liège (Cork)
  28. Truffe (Truffle)
  29. Olive (Olive)
  30. Pelle (Shovel)

الشتاء

Nivôse (21 December ~ 19 January) Pluviôse (20 January ~ 18 February) Ventôse (19 February ~ 20 March)
  1. Tourbe (Peat)
  2. Houille (Coal)
  3. Bitume (Bitumen)
  4. Soufre (Sulphur)
  5. Chien (Dog)
  6. Lave (Lava)
  7. Terre végétale (Topsoil)
  8. Fumier (Manure)
  9. Salpêtre (Saltpeter)
  10. Fléau (Flail)
  11. Granit (Granite stone)
  12. Argile (Clay)
  13. Ardoise (Slate)
  14. Grès (Sandstone)
  15. Lapin (Rabbit)
  16. Silex (Flint)
  17. Marne (Marl)
  18. Pierre à chaux (Limestone)
  19. Marbre (Marble)
  20. Van (Winnowing basket)
  21. Pierre à plâtre (Gypsum)
  22. Sel (Salt)
  23. Fer (Iron)
  24. Cuivre (Copper)
  25. Chat (Cat)
  26. Étain (Tin)
  27. Plomb (Lead)
  28. Zinc (Zinc)
  29. Mercure (Mercury (metal))
  30. Crible (Sieve)
  1. Lauréole (Spurge-laurel)
  2. Mousse (Moss)
  3. Fragon (Butcher's Broom)
  4. Perce-neige (Snowdrop)
  5. Taureau (Bull)
  6. Laurier-thym (Laurustinus)
  7. Amadouvier (Tinder polypore)
  8. Mézéréon (Daphne mezereum)
  9. Peuplier (Poplar Tree)
  10. Coignée (Axe)
  11. Ellébore (Hellebore)
  12. Brocoli (Broccoli)
  13. Laurier (Laurel)
  14. Avelinier (Filbert)
  15. Vache (Cow)
  16. Buis (Box Tree)
  17. Lichen (Lichen)
  18. If (Yew tree)
  19. Pulmonaire (Lungwort)
  20. Serpette (Billhook)
  21. Thlaspi (Pennycress)
  22. Thimelé (Rose Daphne)
  23. Chiendent (Couch Grass)
  24. Trainasse (Common Knotgrass)
  25. Lièvre (Hare)
  26. Guède (Woad)
  27. Noisetier (Hazel)
  28. Cyclamen (Cyclamen)
  29. Chélidoine (Celandine)
  30. Traîneau (Sleigh)
  1. Tussilage (Coltsfoot)
  2. Cornouiller (Dogwood)
  3. Violier (Matthiola)
  4. Troène (Privet)
  5. Bouc (Billygoat)
  6. Asaret (Wild Ginger)
  7. Alaterne (Buckthorn)
  8. Violette (Violet (plant))
  9. Marceau (Goat Willow)
  10. Bêche (Spade)
  11. Narcisse (Narcissus)
  12. Orme (Elm Tree)
  13. Fumeterre (Common fumitory)
  14. Vélar (Hedge Mustard)
  15. Chèvre (Goat)
  16. Épinard (Spinach)
  17. Doronic (Large-flowered Leopard's Bane)
  18. Mouron (Pimpernel)
  19. Cerfeuil (Chervil)
  20. Cordeau (Twine)
  21. Mandragore (Mandrake)
  22. Persil (Parsley)
  23. Cochléaria (Scurvy-grass)
  24. Pâquerette (Daisy)
  25. Thon (Tuna)
  26. Pissenlit (Dandelion)
  27. Sylvie (Wood Anemone)
  28. Capillaire (Maidenhair fern)
  29. Frêne (Ash Tree)
  30. Plantoir (Dibber)

الربيع

Germinal (21 March ~ 19 April) Floréal (20 April ~ 19 May) Prairial (20 May ~ 18 June)
  1. Primevère (Primrose)
  2. Platane (Plane Tree)
  3. Asperge (Asparagus)
  4. Tulipe (Tulip)
  5. Poule (Hen)
  6. Bette (Chard Plant)
  7. Bouleau (Birch Tree)
  8. Jonquille (Daffodil)
  9. Aulne (Alder)
  10. Couvoir (Hatchery)
  11. Pervenche (Periwinkle)
  12. Charme (Hornbeam)
  13. Morille (Morel)
  14. Hêtre (European Beech Tree)
  15. Abeille (Bee)
  16. Laitue (Lettuce)
  17. Mélèze (Larch)
  18. Ciguë (Hemlock)
  19. Radis (Radish)
  20. Ruche (Hive)
  21. Gainier (Judas tree)
  22. Romaine (Lettuce)
  23. Marronnier (Horse chestnut)
  24. Roquette (Arugula or Rocket)
  25. Pigeon (Pigeon)
  26. Lilas (Lilac)
  27. Anémone (Anemone)
  28. Pensée (Pansy)
  29. Myrtille (Blueberry)
  30. Greffoir (Knife)
  1. Rose (Rose)
  2. Chêne (Oak Tree)
  3. Fougère (Fern)
  4. Aubépine (Hawthorn)
  5. Rossignol (Nightingale)
  6. Ancolie (Common Columbine)
  7. Muguet (Lily of the Valley)
  8. Champignon (Button mushroom)
  9. Hyacinthe (Hyacinth)
  10. Râteau (Rake)
  11. Rhubarbe (Rhubarb)
  12. Sainfoin (Sainfoin)
  13. Bâton-d'or (Wallflower)
  14. Chamerisier (Fan Palm tree)
  15. Ver à soie (Silkworm)
  16. Consoude (Comfrey)
  17. Pimprenelle (Salad Burnet)
  18. Corbeille d'or (Basket of Gold)
  19. Arroche (Orache)
  20. Sarcloir (Garden hoe)
  21. Statice (Thrift)
  22. Fritillaire (Fritillary)
  23. Bourrache (Borage)
  24. Valériane (Valerian)
  25. Carpe (Carp)
  26. Fusain (Spindle (shrub))
  27. Civette (Chive)
  28. Buglosse (Bugloss)
  29. Sénevé (Wild mustard)
  30. Houlette (Shepherd's crook)
  1. Luzerne (Alfalfa)
  2. Hémérocalle (Daylily)
  3. Trèfle (Clover)
  4. Angélique (Angelica)
  5. Canard (Duck)
  6. Mélisse (Lemon Balm)
  7. Fromental (Oat grass)
  8. Martagon (Martagon lily)
  9. Serpolet (Wild Thyme )
  10. Faux (Scythe)
  11. Fraise (Strawberry)
  12. Bétoine (Woundwort)
  13. Pois (Pea)
  14. Acacia (Acacia)
  15. Caille (Quail)
  16. Œillet (Carnation)
  17. Sureau (Elderberry)
  18. Pavot (Poppy plant)
  19. Tilleul (Linden or Lime tree)
  20. Fourche (Pitchfork)
  21. Barbeau (Cornflower)
  22. Camomille (Camomile)
  23. Chèvrefeuille (Honeysuckle)
  24. Caille-lait (Bedstraw)
  25. Tanche (Tench)
  26. Jasmin (Jasmine Plant)
  27. Verveine (Verbena)
  28. Thym (Thyme Plant)
  29. Pivoine (Peony Plant)
  30. Chariot (Hand Cart)


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الصيف

Messidor (19 June ~ 18 July) Thermidor (19 July ~ 17 August) Fructidor (18 August ~ 16 September)
  1. Seigle (Rye)
  2. Avoine (Oats)
  3. Oignon (Onion)
  4. Véronique (Speedwell)
  5. Mulet (Mule)
  6. Romarin (Rosemary)
  7. Concombre (Cucumber)
  8. Échalote (Shallot)
  9. Absinthe (Wormwood)
  10. Faucille (Sickle)
  11. Coriandre (Coriander)
  12. Artichaut (Artichoke)
  13. Girofle (Clove)
  14. Lavande (Lavender)
  15. Chamois (Chamois)
  16. Tabac (Tobacco)
  17. Groseille (Currant)
  18. Gesse (Hairy Vetchling)
  19. Cerise (Cherry)
  20. Parc (Park)
  21. Menthe (Mint)
  22. Cumin (Cumin)
  23. Haricot (Bean)
  24. Orcanète (Alkanet)
  25. Pintade (Guinea fowl)
  26. Sauge (Sage Plant)
  27. Ail (Garlic)
  28. Vesce (Tare)
  29. Blé (Wheat)
  30. Chalémie (Shawm)
  1. Épeautre (Spelt)
  2. Bouillon blanc (Common Mullein)
  3. Melon (Melon)
  4. Ivraie (Ryegrass)
  5. Bélier (Ram)
  6. Prêle (Horsetail)
  7. Armoise (Mugwort)
  8. Carthame (Safflower)
  9. Mûre (Blackberry)
  10. Arrosoir (Watering Can)
  11. Panic (Switchgrass)
  12. Salicorne (Common Glasswort)
  13. Abricot (Apricot)
  14. Basilic (Basil)
  15. Brebis (Ewe)
  16. Guimauve (Marshmallow)
  17. Lin (Flax)
  18. Amande (Almond)
  19. Gentiane (Gentian)
  20. Écluse (Lock)
  21. Carline (Carline thistle)
  22. Câprier (Caper)
  23. Lentille (Lentil)
  24. Aunée (Inula)
  25. Loutre (Otter)
  26. Myrte (Myrtle)
  27. Colza (Rapeseed)
  28. Lupin (Lupin)
  29. Coton (Cotton)
  30. Moulin (Mill)
  1. Prune (Plum)
  2. Millet (Millet)
  3. Lycoperdon (Puffball)
  4. Escourgeon (Six-row Barley)
  5. Saumon (Salmon)
  6. Tubéreuse (Tuberose)
  7. Sucrion (Winter Barley)
  8. Apocyn (Apocynum)
  9. Réglisse (Liquorice)
  10. Échelle (Ladder)
  11. Pastèque (Watermelon)
  12. Fenouil (Fennel)
  13. Épine vinette (Barberry)
  14. Noix (Walnut)
  15. Truite (Trout)
  16. Citron (Lemon)
  17. Cardère (Teasel)
  18. Nerprun (Buckthorn)
  19. Tagette (Mexican Marigold)
  20. Hotte (Harvesting basket)
  21. Églantier (Wild Rose)
  22. Noisette (Hazelnut)
  23. Houblon (Hops)
  24. Sorgho (Sorghum)
  25. Écrevisse (Crayfish)
  26. Bigarade (Bitter Orange)
  27. Verge d'or (Goldenrod)
  28. Maïs (Maize or Corn)
  29. Marron (Sweet Chestnut)
  30. Panier (Pack Basket)

الأيام الاضافية

Five extra days – six in leap years – were national holidays at the end of every year. These were originally known as les sans-culottides (after sans-culottes), but after year III (1795) as les jours complémentaires:

التحويل من التقويم الگريگوري

نافورة في Octon, Hérault وعليها تاريخ 5 Ventôse an 109 (24 فبراير 1901)

The calendar was abolished in the year XIV (1805). After this date, opinions seem to differ on the method by which the leap years would have been determined if the calendar were still in force. There are at least four hypotheses used to convert dates from the Gregorian calendar:

  • The leap years would continue to vary in order to ensure that each year the Southward equinox falls on 1 Vendémiaire, as was the case from year I to year XIV. This is the only method that was ever in legal effect, although it means that sometimes five years pass between leap years.[3]


An AD Southward equinox Romme Continuous 128-Year

CCXX (220)

2011

23 September

22 September*

23 September

23 September*

CCXXI (221)

2012

22 September

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXII (222)

2013

22 September*

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXIII (223)

2014

23 September

22 September

22 September*

23 September

CCXXIV (224)

2015

23 September

22 September*

23 September

23 September*

CCXXV (225)

2016

22 September

22 September

22 September

23 September

* Leap year, extra day added at end of year

التاريخ والوقت الحاليان

قالب:التقويم الجمهوري/4

انتقادات ومثالب

مينا الساعة.

Leap years in the calendar are a point of great dispute, due to the contradicting statements in the establishing decree[4] stating:

Each year starts at midnight, with the day when the true autumnal equinox falls for the observatory of Paris.

و:

The period of four years, at the end of which this addition of one day is usually necessary, is called the Franciade...The fourth year of the Franciade is called Sextile.

Clock dial.

...reason demands that we follow nature rather than servilely continuing upon the erroneous path of our predecessors...

This nomenclature is clearly a monument to servitude and ignorance, in which each successive civilization has left an imprint of its impoverishment. The astrological names of the days of the week and their cabalistic order which has been preserved since the first Egyptians and by the impostors which profited thereby and the blindness of men who continually preferred to suffer rather than change any of the idiotic habits of their fathers would dishonor our Revolution if we did not maintain the vigilance which has so successfully attacked all preconceptions.

This tone sets a high standard by which the Republican calendar might itself be judged.

طالع أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Antoine Augustin Renouard (1822). Manuel pour la concordance des calendriers républicain et grégorien (2 ed.). Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  2. ^ Bouillet, Marie-Nicolas (1865). Atlas universel d'histoire et de géographie. 1. Paris: Hachette. pp. 68–69. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://books.google.fr/books?id=fOgOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA68#v=onepage&q&f=false 
  3. ^ Sébastien Louis Rosaz (1810). Concordance de l'Annuaire de la République française avec le calendrier grégorien.
  4. ^ "Le Calendrier Republicain". Gefrance.com. Retrieved 30 January 2009.

للاستزادة

  • Ozouf, Mona, 'Revolutionary Calendar' in Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds., Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989)
  • Shaw, Matthew, Time and the French Revolution: a history of the French Republican Calendar, 1789-Year XIV (2011)

وصلات خارجية