لوي أنطوان دى سان-جوست

لوي أنطوان دى سان-جوست
Louis Antoine de Saint-Just
A portrait painting of Saint-Just
Saint-Just by Prud'hon, 1793 (متحف الفنون الجميلة (ليون))
Member of the National Convention
في المنصب
20 September 1792 – 27 July 1794
38th President of the National Convention
في المنصب
19 February 1794 – 6 March 1794
Member of the Committee of Public Safety
في المنصب
30 May 1793 – 27 July 1794
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد (1767-08-25)25 أغسطس 1767
Decize, فرنسا
توفي 28 يوليو 1794(1794-07-28) (عن عمر 26 عاماً)
Paris, France
الحزب The Mountain
الدين Deism
(Cult of the Supreme Being)

لوي أنطوان دى سان-جوست Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just[أ] (النطق الفرنسي: [sɛ̃ʒyst]; 25 أغسطس 1767 – 28 يوليو 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution. The youngest of the deputies elected to the National Convention in 1792, Saint-Just rose quickly in their ranks and became a major leader of the government of the French First Republic. He spearheaded the movement to execute King Louis XVI and later drafted the radical French Constitution of 1793.

He became a close friend of Maximilien Robespierre, and served with him as one of the commissioners of the Committee of Public Safety. Dispatched as a commissar to the army during its rocky start in the French Revolutionary Wars, Saint-Just imposed severe discipline, and he was credited by many for the army's subsequent revival at the front. Back in Paris, he supervised the consolidation of Robespierre's power through a ruthless and bloody program of intimidation. In his relatively brief time on the historical stage, he became the enduring public face of the Reign of Terror and was dubbed the "Angel of Death" by later writers. Saint-Just organized the arrests and prosecutions of many of the most famous figures of the Revolution.

Saint-Just was arrested in the violent episode of 9 Thermidor and executed the next day with Robespierre and their allies. In many histories of the Revolution, their deaths at the guillotine mark the end of the Reign of Terror.

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سيرته الثورية المبكرة

A rustic country house
Saint-Just's home in Blérancourt is now a museum and tourist center.


روح الثورة

While Saint-Just waited for the next election, he composed an extensive work, L'Esprit de la Revolution et de la constitution de France, published in the spring of 1791.[1] His writing style had shed all satire and now adopted the stern and moralizing tone of classical Romans so adored by French revolutionaries.[2] It revealed an unexpectedly moderate set of principles deeply influenced by Montesquieu, and remained fully confined to a paradigm of constitutional monarchy.[1]

نائب في المجلس

Among the deputies, Saint-Just was watchful but interacted little at first. He joined the Parisian Jacobin Club but he remained aloof from Girondins and Montagnards alike.[3]

دستور 1793

Because the first French Constitution had included a role for the king, it was long since invalid and needed to be updated for the Republic. A large number of drafts had been circulating within the Convention since the king's execution, and Saint-Just submitted his own lengthy proposal on 24 April 1793.[4]

لجنة السلامة العامة

Proscription of the Girondins

During the time that Saint-Just was working on the constitution, dramatic political warfare was taking place. The sans-culottes – deemed "the people" by many radicals, and represented by the Paris Commune – had grown antipathetic to the moderate Girondins and on 2 June 1793, in a mass action supported by National Guardsmen, they surrounded the Convention and exacted the arrest of the Girondin deputies.

المفوض العسكري

Saint-Just made the proposal that deputies from the Convention should directly oversee all military efforts, which was approved on 10 October 1793.[5]

" Soldiers, we have come to avenge you, and to give you leaders who will marshal you to victory. We have resolved to seek out, to reward, and to promote the deserving; and to track down all the guilty, whoever they may be... All commanders, officers, and agents of the government are hereby ordered to satisfy within three days the just grievances of the soldiers. After that interval we will ourselves hear any complaints, and we will offer such examples of justice and severity as the Army has not yet witnessed."[6]
– Saint-Just's first proclamation to the Army of the Rhine, 1793
A vintage printed document
Order of the Revolutionary Tribunal condemning the Hébertists


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جرمينال

As the spring of 1794 approached, the Committee of Public Safety, led by Robespierre, Couthon, Lebas and Saint-Just, exercised near complete control over the government.[7]

Danton’s criticism of the Terror won him some support,[8] but a financial scandal involving the French East India Company provided a "convenient pretext" for his downfall.[9] Robespierre again sent Saint-Just to the Convention to deliver a Committee "report" (31 March 1794) in which he announced the arrest of Danton and "the last partisans of royalism".[9]


أيامه الأخيرة

معركة فليروس


Thermidor

On the dais, Saint-Just declared the absolute necessity of current law, and conspiring deputies buzzed angrily as he spoke. Finally several of them physically shoved him away from the lectern, and each started his own address in which they called for the removal of Robespierre and all his supporters. Amid the uproar, recalled Barras, Saint-Just "did not leave the platform, in spite of the interruptions which would have driven any one else away. He only came down a few steps, then mounted again, to continue his discourse proudly... Motionless, unmoved, he seemed to defy everyone with his calm."[10]

ذكراه

The cover page of a vintage book
Œuvres complètes, edited by Charles Vellay. First edition, Paris, 1908


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منشورات بعد وفاته

  • Saint-Just, Fragments sur les institutions républicaines (بالفرنسية)
  • Saint-Just, Théorie politique, edited by Alain Liénard, Seuil, Paris, 1976. (بالفرنسية)

المجموعات الكاملة

شخصيته

refer to caption
تمثال نصفي جصي لسان-جوست في متحف لامبينيه

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Traditional usage is by the nom de terre ("name of land") without using the nobiliary particle.

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Hampson, pp. 30–31.
  2. ^ Hampson, p. 37.
  3. ^ Hampson, pp. 78–79.
  4. ^ Hampson, pp. 100–101.
  5. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Saint-Just, Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de" . دائرة المعارف البريطانية. 24 (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–21.
  6. ^ Bruun, p. 75.
  7. ^ Bax, p. 84.
  8. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Hazani113
  9. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Doyle272ff
  10. ^ Béraud, pp. 111–112.

ببليوگرافيا

للاستزادة

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