الانتخابات الرئاسية الإيرانية 2009

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الانتخابات الرئاسية الإيرانية، 2009

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  Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.jpg Mir Hossein Mousavi in Zanjan by Mardetanha.jpg
الحزب Abadgaran إصلاحي مستقل.

  Mohsen Rezaee.jpg Karubi in zanjan.jpg
الحزب محافظ مستقل Etemad-e-Melli

Incumbent رئيس

محمود أحمدي نجاد
Abadgaran



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سياسة
الجمهورية الإسلامية الإيرانية
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الانتخابات الرئاسية الإيرانية، 2009 ، هي انتخابات رئاسية عقدت في إيران في 12 يونيو، 2009.[1] وهي الانتخابات الرئاسية العاشرة في البلاد. ويشغل محمود أحمدي نجاد، الذي يعاد ترشيحه مرة أخرى لمنصب الرئاسة. وحاولت حركة الإصلاح الإيرانية توحيد صفوفها خلف مرشح واحد. الرئيس السابق محمد خاتمي كان من أبرز المرشحين للمنافسة لحين خروجه وتأييد رئيس الوزراء مير حسين موسوي.[2] المتحدث السابق باسم المجلس مهدي كروبي، وهو من الإصلاحيين، أيضا يخوض الإنتخابات الرئاسية.

وقد سجلت رأفت بيات ، العضو السابق في مجلس إيران، نفسها كمرشحة لمنصب الرئاسة، في مقر وزارة الداخلية الإيرانية، لكن لم تتمكن من الحصول على موافقة مجلس الوصاية للتمكن من خوض سباق الرئاسة. [3]


أعلنت وكالة أنباء الجمهورية الإسلامية، وكالة الأنباء الرسمية في إيران، عن فوز محمود أحمدي نجاد بفترة رئاسة ثانية بثلثي الأصوات ونسبة 66% من إجمالي أصوات الناخبين، [4] وأن مير حسين موسوي حصل على 33% فقط من الأصوات.[5][6] وأعرب الاتحاد الاوروبي والعديد من الدول الغربية عن قلقها بشأن حدوث تجاوزات خلال عملية التصويت،[7] كذلك وأعرب بعض المحللون والصحافيون من الولايات المتحدة واوروبا عن شكوكهم في صحة النتائج.[8][9][10][11]

وأصدر موسوي بيانا قال فيه، "أحذر أنني لن أستسلم لهذه المهزلة"، وحث مؤيدييه على مكافحة هذا القرار ، وكذلك على تجنب العنف.[9] واندلعت الاحتجاجات المؤيدة لموسوي في أنحاء طهران. وحث القائد الأعلى لإيران|القائد الأعلى الأمة على الاتحاد إلى جانب أحمدي نجاد، ووصف فوزه في الانتخابات بأنه "تقييم إلهي".[12] وقدم موسوي دعوى احتجاجا رسميا على النتائج لمجلس صيانة الدستور في 14 يونيو.[13] في 15 يونيو، أعلن خامنئي أن هناك تحقيق عن دعوة التزوير سوف يعقد لمدة سبعة أيام.[14] في 16 يونيو، أعلن مجلس صيانة الدستور أنه سوف يتم إعادة فرز الأصوات. بالرغم من ذلك، فقد ذكر موسوي أن فقدان 14 مليون بطاقة اقتراع غير مستخدمة ، يعطي الفرصة للتلاعب في النتائج.[15]

مقدمة

تقف إيران على أعتاب انتخابات الرئاسية العاشرة منذ انتصار ثورتها عام 1979، والمزمع أن تجري في الثاني عشر من الشهر القادم، وهي استحقاق مفصلي وحاسم في تاريخ جمهورية إيران الإسلامية بسبب السياقات الثلاث التي تتحكم بمسارها: السياق المحلي الإيراني وتأثير هذه الانتخابات على التوازنات بين أجنحة السياسة الإيرانية، والسياق الإقليمي المتولد عن التأثير الجيوبوليتيكي العميق لإيران في جوارها الجغرافي، وأخيراً السياق الدولي باعتبار هذه الانتخابات محطة مفصلية قبل التعامل مع مبادرات الانفتاح التي ينتهجها الرئيس الأميركي باراك أوباما حيال إيران.

ولأن أي تقدم ملموس في العلاقات الأمريكية الإيرانية سيأتي بعد انتخابات الرئاسة الإيرانية، سيتوجب على طهران أن ترتب بيتها الداخلي أولاً قبل أن تشرع في المفاوضات مع واشنطن. ولذلك يهتم المقال بالسياق المحلي الإيراني باعتباره الأرضية الانطلاقية للسياستين الإقليمية والدولية، عبر إلقاء الضوء على خريطة التيارات السياسية وصولاً إلى تعيين نقاط التوازن بين الأجنحة السياسية في إيران ورسم مساحات الالتقاء وهوامش الاختلاف فيما بينها.

سياسة إيران

مير موسوي يتعهد بإلغاء التمييز ضد المرأة الإيرانية.

عرف النظام السياسي الإيراني تاريخياً مزية التنوع في أجنحته السياسية، إذ تموج تيارات سياسية متباينة منضوية تحت النظام تتفق وتختلف فيما بينها ولكن دون أن يستطيع تيار واحد الهيمنة على مقدرات الدولة بحيث يمسك وحده بتلابيب السياسة كما في الكثير من الدول العربية. وعلى العكس مما يبدو على السطح فإن إيران لا تحكم من قبل شريحة واحدة هي طبقة رجال الدين، بل من تحالف واسع بين تيارات سياسية مختلفة بمرجعيات اجتماعية-اقتصادية متباينة. ويقود هذا التباين والاختلاف في الأساسين الاقتصادي والاجتماعي إلى تنافس على خلفية أيديولوجية بين التيارات السياسية المختلفة في إيران. وتالياً تؤدي هذه الحقيقة إلى التأسيس لعامل هام مفاده أن عملية صنع القرار لا تجري داخل نخبة ضيقة بارتباطات اجتماعية واحدة، بل تعتبر عملية صنع القرار في إيران عملية طويلة ومعقدة لأنها تتطلب أجراء "توافق" بين أجنحة النظام السياسي المختلفة. وبالرغم من الانقسام الأيديولوجي بين الأجنحة، فقد أثبت النظام السياسي الإيراني قدرته على التكيف مع هذا الواقع وبحيث باتت قراراته الكبرى مجسدة على الدوام لنقطة التوازن بين هذه الأجنحة. وبمرور الوقت وبالتجويد الإيراني الشهير للمعطيات السياسية، فقد أصبحت عملية صنع القرار السياسي التي يترأسها مرشد الجمهورية السيد علي خامنئي عبارة عن عملية لصنع التوافق بين الأجنحة المختلفة.

وقد تميزت المؤسسة الحاكمة في إيران بتعدد مستويات السلطة فيها وبطبيعتها المتبدلة والزمنية، وبسبب تلك الحقيقة لا يصمد تحليل الواقع السياسي في إيران لفترات طويلة، إذ تشهد خرائط السياسة هناك تنوعات وتعرجات متتالية ومتتابعة، قلما تعرفها توازنات السلطة في دول الشرق الأوسط. تصعد الرموز السياسية الإيرانية في فترات لتعود هابطة في فترات أخرى حسب مقتضيات التوازنات والتناغم بين الأجنحة، تلك التي جعلت من إيران الثورية طائراً خرافياً يحلق فوق الخواء الإقليمي بسلاسة؛ مبدلاً شكل أجنحته وعددها، مثنى وثلاث. هكذا تبدلت خرائط السياسة وتغيرت التوازنات بين أجنحة السلطة الإيرانية منذ أن قفز محمود أحمدي نجاد إلى واجهة المشهد بعد فوزه في انتخابات رئاسة الجمهورية السابقة عام 2005. من وقتها لم يعد للفرز الرائج والسهل بين ما هو "إصلاحي" و"محافظ" مكان على أرض الواقع ولا معنى في خرائط السياسة، بحيث أصبح هذا التصنيف بالفعل جزءاً لا يتجزأ من ماضي إيران السياسي.

المرشحون المسجلون

تنقسم خرائط السياسة الإيرانية الآن موزعة على ثلاث قوى رئيسة هي:

  • المحافظون المعتدلون ويمثلهم في انتخابات الرئاسة المرشح مير حسين موسوي (يجري التعامل معه مجازاً باعتباره مرشح "الإصلاحيين").
  • المحافظون التقليديون بقيادة رموز النظام الدينية من آيات الله ومعهم رموز البازار ولم يعلن أسماء مرشحيهم حتى الآن.
  • المجموعة المدنية الراديكالية الآتية من عمق مؤسسة الحرس الثوري الإيراني والتي ينتمي إليها نجاد ومنافسه الحالي محسن رضائي القائد السابق للحرس الثوري.

وبالإضافة إلى الأجنحة الثلاث يبدو أن هناك جناحاً افتراضياً يمثله الشيخ مهدي كروبي المحسوب تاريخياً على الرئيس خاتمي وعلى التيار الإصلاحي السابق، ولكن دون أن يمثل كروبي جناحاً سياسياً بخلفيات اقتصادية-اجتماعية وهو ما يخرجه بالنهاية من قائمة المرشحين الجديين للرئاسة. وفوق الأجنحة- التيارات الثلاث يوجد مقام مرشد الثورة، ممسكاً بالخيوط ومتحكماً بالتوازنات بين القوى السياسية، التي ربما يبدو تصنيفها بين اليسار واليمين أقرب إلى الوصف الجغرافي منه إلى الفرز السياسي.

الحملة

خلفية

Mir-Hossein Mousavi rally in Tehran on 9 June 2009.

المرشحون

مرشحون مقبولون

في 20 مايو أعلن رسميا مجلس صيانة الدستور قائمة المرشحين المقبولين:[16]

محافظون

إصلاحيون

مستقلون

مرشحون منسحبون

مرشحون محتملون

هؤلاء المرشحون كان يحتمل أن يتقدموا لخوض الانتخابات, ولكنهم لم يسجلوا في فترة الخمس أيام الخاصة بالتسجيل.[21] أكبر هاشمي رفسنجاني, الرئيس السابق ورئيس مجلس الخبراء، وسيتم 75 عاما بحلول الانتخابات وبالتالي يصبح غير مؤهل للمنصب.

إصلاحيون تم رفضهم

محافظون تم رفضهم

مناقشات

مناظرات تلفزيونية

الاستفتاءات

طبقا للاستفتاء الأخير في مارس 2009، حصل مير حسين موسي على 52% من أصوات العمال الإيرانيين في الانتخابات، مقابل محمود أحمد نجادي 36% و مهدي كروبي بنسبة 8%.[27]


استطلاع الرأي

Polling Organisation التاريخ تفاضيل الاقتراع المرشح
محمود أحمدي نجاد مهدي كروبي مير حسين موسوي محسن رضائي
reported by Rooz Online[28] before 9 June 2009 Nationwide; 7900 people 23% Unknown 54%-57% Unknown
Rahbord e Danesh, reported by Tabnak[29] before 9 June 2009 1743 people 25.5% 6.1% 37.6% 30.8%
reported by Alef [30] before 8 June 2009 Major Cities 61.7 Unknown 28 Unknown
reported by Alef [30] before 8 June 2009 Tehran 42 Unknown 46 Unknown
IRIB, reported by Alef [31] before 7 June 2009 Tehran 47.5 Unknown 39.9 Unknown
IRIB, reported by Alef [31] before 7 June 2009 more than 16,000 people, 30 major cities in each Province 62.7 Unknown 25.7 Unknown
reported by Baznevis[32] before 6 June 2009 16,945 people 22.5% 7.5% 64% 4%
reported by ILNA[33] before 5 June 2009 Nationwide 300,000 people 24.61% 10.72% 54.53% 10.14%
Rahbord e Danesh, reported by Tabnak[34] before 3 June 2009 1743 people 29.5% 7.5% 37.5% 25.2%
Rayemelat[35] before 3 June 2009 طهران 33% 10% 50% 6%
reported by Rajanews/Press TV[36] قبل 1 يونيو 2009 مدن رئيسية 53% غير معروف 36% غير معروف
Baznevis, reported by Tabnak[37] before 31 May 2009 Nationwide; 77,058 people 33% 3% 36% 27%
Aftab News, reported by Tabnak[37] before 31 May 2009 Nationwide; 18,391 people; (Who will you not vote for?) (62%) (7%) (28%) (4%)
Rahbord Danesh, reported by Tabnak[37] 31 May 2009 Nationwide 32% 6% 36% 27%
reported by Ghalamnews[38] before 27 May 2009 1650 people 35% Unknown 54% Unknown
reported by Rayemelat[39] before 27 May 2009 Tehran only 36% 9% 48% 5%
Young Journalists Club (IRIB affiliated)[40] before 30 May 2009 Nationwide; 30,000 people 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
reported by Ayandeh News[41] before 26 May 2009 10 major cities 34% Unknown 38% Unknown
Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting[41] قبل 26 مايو 2009 طهران فقط 43% غير معروف 47% Unknown
reported by Rayemelat[42] 14 مايو 2009 Tehran only 42% 6% 44% 4%
Etemad-e-Melli[43] before 13 May 2009 Nationwide 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Rahbord Danesh, reported by Tabnak[37] 5 May 2009 Nationwide 38% 12% 32% 15%
reported by Rajanews/Press TV[44][45] 3 May 2009–4 May 2009 62 cities 59% Unknown 22% Unknown
Government[44] before 3 May 2009 Unknown 54% (45% في طهران) Unknown 22% (29% في طهران) Unknown
Rahbord Danesh, reported by Tabnak[37] 4 April 2009 Nationwide 40% 8% 24% 1%
Worker's Statistical Institute[46] late March 2009 Nationwide survey of workers 36% 8% 52% Unknown
Rahbord Danesh, reported by Tabnak[37] 5 March 2009 Nationwide 44% 7% 13% 0%

Irregularities

Two screenshots from IRINN, Iranian state-run television illustrating the apparent decrease in votes for candidate Mohsen Rezaee over a four hour period. The upper picture shows Rezaee with 633,048 votes at 09:47; the lower shows the same candidate with 587,913 votes at 13:53 later that day.

Pre-election violence

On 1 June, a campaign office of Ahmadinejad's primary opponent, Mir Hossein Moussavi, was torched. The office was located in the city of Qum, in northwest Iran. No group claimed responsibility for the attack. At the same time, it was reported that an assassination had been attempted against former president Mohammad Khatami by means of a bomb placed on an aircraft he was to board.[47]

تجميد الاتصالات

Mobile phone communications were interrupted in Tehran on election day and the BBC has stated that “heavy electronic jamming" was being used to halt their broadcasts.[48] On 23 May 2009, the Iranian government temporarily blocked access to Facebook across the country. Gulfnews.com reported that this move was a response to the use of Facebook by candidates running against the incumbent Ahmadinejad.[49] PC World reported that Mousavi's Facebook page had more than 6,600 supporters.[50] Access was restored by 26 May 2009.[51]

تزوير في عمليات التصويت أو محاولة انقلاب

In an interview taken when only the votes from the villages and small cities of the country had been announced, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, official speaker for the Mir-Hossein Mousavi campaign, said he was told that there was to be a coup on Saturday.[52] The New York Times quoted an employee of the Interior Ministry saying that "the government had been preparing its fraud for weeks, purging anyone of doubtful loyalty and importing pliable staff members from around the country."[53] The New Yorker stated that "dissident employees of the Interior Ministry... have reportedly issued an open letter" saying that the election was stolen.[54]

The Guardian has also mentioned "reports of a leaked interior ministry figures allegedly suggesting Mousavi had won".[14]

النتائج

The election had seen huge candidate rallies in Iranian cities,[55] and turnout was very high with over 80 percent of the electorate reportedly voting.[56] If no candidate had received a majority of support, a run-off election would have been held on 19 June 2009.[55] At the closing of election polls, both leading candidates, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Mir-Hossein Mousavi, claimed victory, with both candidates telling the press that their sources have them at 58–60% of the total vote.[57] Early reports had claimed a turnout of 32 million votes cast.[58][59] Mousavi warned the Iranian people of possible vote fraud.[60]

According to Reuters, several noted political analysts contested the results immediately.[11] Mousavi announced on his website that he in fact was the person that received the majority of the voting and that his name was replaced by Ahmadinejad's.[61] He urged his supporters to reject what he saw as "blatant violations" of democracy and its replacement by "the rule of authoritarianism and tyranny." He declared on Friday:

"The results announced for the 10th presidential elections are astonishing. People who stood in long lines and knew well who they voted for were utterly surprised by the magicians working at the television and radio broadcasting". [56]

الحزب المرشح الأصوات النسبة
آبادگران محمود أحمدي‌نژاد 24,527,516 62.63%
إصلاحي مستقل مير حسين موسوي 13,216,411 33.75%
محافظ مستقل محسن رضائي 678,240 1.73%
اعتماد ملي مهدي كروبي 333,635 0.85%
أصوات صحيحة 38,755,802 98.95%
أصوات فارغة أو باطلة 409,389 1.05%
الإجمالي 39,165,191 100.00%
نسبة المشاركة 85%
المصدر: بي بي سي الفارسية[62]
آخر تحديث: أغسطس 13, 2015 at 6:0 (UTC)

تحليل

Farideh Farhi, professor at University of Hawaii, says the result was "pulled out of a hat." Among several anomalies that she addresses, she points at the Secret Iranian government polls reported by Newsweek on June 5 estimated that Mousavi would win 16 to 18 million votes, and Ahmadinejad just 6 to 8 million and the final "official" figures, that gave Ahmadinejad 24.5 million votes, and Mousavi 13.2 million. [63]

Mohtashami, former interior minister of Iran, who was in the election monitoring committee of Musavis campaign claimed that according to official censuses, the number of counted votes in 70 municipalities are more than total population of people who could vote in those regions. In all those cities Ahmadinejad won by 80% to 90%[64] On June 17, Tabnak, the news agency close to defeated candidate Mohsen Rezaei who got only 678,240 votes in the election stated that "Mohsen Rezaei, until yesterday afternoon, found evidence that proves at least 900,000 Iranians , based on their national ID cards, voted for [him]." [65]

According to modern Middle Eastern and South Asian historian Juan Cole, there were several anomalies in the election results. Official reports gave Ahmadinejad 57% of the vote in the city of Tabriz despite the fact that this was the capital of Moussavi's home province, Azerbaijan, where Moussavi's rallies were well attended and which has traditionally given good turnouts for even "minor presidential candidates" who came from the province. Ahmadinejad also won Tehran by over 50%, even though his popularity in larger cities is considered to be low. Meanwhile Karroubi, who received 17 percent in the first round of the 2005 presidential elections, got less than one percent of the vote this time,[66] and lost even his own province of birth, despite the tendency for Iranian voting to follow ethnic lines.[67]

Blogger and statistician Nate Silver on June 13 wrote that a statistical analysis of the official results was ultimately inconclusive as far as determining that there was election fraud.[68][69] On June 15, Silver posted regional results that he had received from a student of Iranian Studies at the University of St Andrews, who had translated them from the original Farsi. He compared Ahmadinejad's 2009 results with the conservative candidates' results in the first round of the 2005 election (Ahmadinejad, Larijani and Ghalibaf), and found the results from certain provinces to be suspicious. While conservative candidates in Lorestān received only 20% in 2005, Ahmadinejad reportedly got 71% in 2009. In Tehran, on the other hand, the conservative vote was relatively speaking lower than in the previous election. Silver further compared the votes for Ahmadinejad only, and found the correlation between 2005 and 2009 to be "fairly weak". He did, however, warn against differences between the two elections and changes over time, and declined to make a judgement on the validity of the official result.[70]

Abbas Barzegar, reporting for The Guardian, has described the Western reaction to the election results as evidence of wishful thinking. Western journalists, Barzegar argues, have been reporting primarily from the wealthier areas of the greater cities, ignoring the wide support Ahmadinejad enjoys in poor and rural communities.[71] Juan Cole, on the other hand, rejects this interpretation. According to Cole, this analysis ignored the social development that has taken place in Iran over the last decade, the large pro-reform election victories in 1997 and 2001 (prior to the reformist voter boycott of 2005), and the fact that the concern of the electorate today is "about culture wars, not class."[72]

BBC Iranian affairs analyst Sadeq Saba found abnormalities in the way results were announced. Instead of results by province, the "results came in blocks of millions of votes," with very little difference between the blocks in the percentages going to each candidate. This suggested that Mahmoud Ahmadinejad did equally well in rural and urban areas, while his three opponents did equally badly in their home regions and provinces as in the rest of the country. This contradicted "all precedent in Iranian politics", where Ahmadinejad had been very popular in rural areas and unpopular in the big cities, where regional and national minorities had favored anti-establishment candidates, and where candidates had tended to carry their home provinces.[73]

Flynt Leverett and Hillary Mann Leverett, CEO of STRATEGA, argue that Ahmadinejad got almost the same percentage of votes in this election as in the 2005 election where he received 61.69% and no claims of fraud were put foreward. They further suggest that the shock over the result is "self-generated" and due to "wishful thinking". They also point out that Ahmadinejad was seen by most Iranians as having won the nationally televised debates, especially the one with Mousavi. The Leveretts state that the notion that a high turnout would favour Mousavi is based on nothing more than assumptions. In response to the claim by some experts that Mousavi was more likely to have won in the Azeri majority provinces because of his Azeri background, they point out that Ahmadinejad speaks fluent Azeri as a result of his eight years of service as an official in two Azeri-majority provinces and that he during his campaigning quoted Azeri and Turkish poetry. The criticism made by Mousavi that some precincts had run out of ballot paper and some polls were not open long enough, could not in themselves have tipped the outcome so clearly in Ahmadinejad's favour, according to the Leveretts. Furthermore they state that the flaws in the electoral process seem less significant than the U.S. presidential election in Florida in 2000.[74] Walter R. Mebane Jr., a University of Michigan professor of political science and statistics and an expert on detecting electoral fraud has said: "There are suspicious elements here, but there's no solid evidence of fraud".[75] United States Intelligence estimates indicate that Ahmadinejad has a stronger public support than the news coming out of Tehran suggest and a U.S. official commenting on the matter said:“Tehran is Tehran, but it’s not Iran, and it is not outside the realm of possibility that Ahmadinejad won this election.”[76]

Analysts also point to the fact that Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani an influential and wealthy business tycoon despises Ahmadinejad who happens to have become immensely popular to point that the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei seems to be taking order from him [77] and this added to their older rivalries stretching back to previous election and even before that essentially means the current election seems to being fought between Rafsanjani and Ahmadinejad.[78] Furthering this and taking into account the frictions between Rafsanjani and Khamenei, it is said that the demonstrations of wealthy and young "Gucci crowds" mobilized by the huge pockets of influence put in place by Rafsanjani are inconsequential as the majority of the country who are poor support Ahmadinejad.[79]

نتائج المقاطعات

المقاطعة محمود أحمدي نجاد مهدي كروبي مير حسين موسوي محسن رضائي Spoiled ballots إجمالي الأصوات
Ardabil 325,911 2,319 302,825 6,578 4,372 642,005
Azarbaijan, East 1,131,111 7,246 837,858 16,920 17,205 2,010,340
Azarbaijan, West 623,946 21,609 656,508 12,199 20,094 1,334,356
Bushehr 299,357 3,563 177,268 7,607 6,193 493,989
Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari 359,578 4,127 106,099 22,689 2,953 495,446
Fars 1,758,026 16,277 706,764 23,871 18,359 2,523,300
Gilan 998,573 7,183 453,806 12,022 11,674 1,483,258
Golestan 515,211 10,097 325,806 5,987 14,266 869,453
Hamadan 765,723 12,032 218,481 13,117 9,816 1,019,169
Hormozgan 482,990 5,126 241,988 7,237 5,683 843,024
Ilam 199,654 7,471 96,826 5,221 3,495 312,667
Isfahan 1,799,255 14,579 746,697 51,788 25,162 2,637,482
Kerman 1,160,446 4,977 318,250 12,016 10,125 1,505,814
Kermanshah 573,568 10,798 374,188 11,258 13,610 983,422
Khorasan, North 341,104 2,478 113,218 4,129 3,072 464,001
Khorasan, Razavi 2,214,801 13,561 884,570 44,809 24,240 3,181,990
Khorasan, South 285,983 928 90,363 3,962 1,920 383,157
Khuzestan 1,303,129 15,934 552,636 139,124 28,022 2,038,845
Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad 253,962 4,274 98,937 8,542 2,311 368,707
Kurdistan 315,689 13,862 261,772 7,140 12,293 610,757
Lorestan No Results Reported
Markazi 572,988 4,675 190,349 10,057 7,889 785,961
Mazandaran 1,289,257 10,050 585,373 19,587 15,571 1,919,838
Qazvin 498,061 2,690 177,542 7,978 6,084 692,355
Qom 422,457 2,314 148,467 16,297 9,505 599,040
Semnan 295,177 2,147 77,754 4,440 3,790 383,308
Sistan and Baluchistan 450,269 12,504 507,946 6,616 5,585 982,920
Tehran 3,819,945 67,334 3,371,523 147,487 115,701 7,521,540
Yazd 337,178 2,565 255,799 8,406 5,908 609,856
Zanjan 444,480 2,223 126,561 7,276 5,181 585,721
Source: Interior Ministry reported by PressTV[80]

النتائج في الخارج

A total of 234,812 votes were cast outside Iran, out of which Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won 78,300; Mehdi Karroubi won 4,647; Mohsen Rezaei won 3,635 and Mir-Hossein Moussavi won 111,792 votes (Press TV).

أصداء الانتخابات

احتجاجات

Protests against the election results on the streets of Tehran, June 13
Protesters in Tehran, June 16

الاجراءات الحكومية

الاعتقالات

الرقابة

ردود فعل السياسيين الإيرانيين

ردود الفعل الدولية

تعبيرات عن القلق

  • الأمم المتحدة United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated on 15 June that "the genuine will of Iranian people should be fully respected. I'm closely following how this investigation into this election result will come out". He neither endorsed nor criticized the proposed investigation.[14]
  • الاتحاد الأوروپي A statement by the administration of the European Union stated that the body is "concerned about alleged irregularities".[7] On 15 June, EU foreign ministers meeting in Luxembourg issued a joint statement expressing concern about the use of violence against peaceful demonstrators in Tehran. "This is a situation that the Iranian authorities must investigate," their statement said.[81]
    • التشيك The charge d'affaires for the Czech Republic has called for an inquiry on the election results.[15]
    • فرنسا French foreign minister Bernard Kouchner expressed worries with the election results. He also told that it "was the opportunity for Ahmadinejad to open discussions" but, instead, they used brutality.[82] On 15 April, his office summoned the Iranian Ambassador to France to talk about the vote-tampering allegations.[83] On 16 June, President Nicolas Sarkozy branded Iran's election result a "fraud," saying the subsequent unrest was a direct result of Ahmadinejad's failings in his first term.[84]
    • ألمانيا German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced that "the German government is very concerned about the current situation." The chancellor demanded more information from Iranian authorities on the elections and the following unrest, saying the allegations of election fraud called for a "transparent investigation." She also criticised the use of "completely unacceptable force against protesters," the "wave of arrests" during the demonstrations and the fact that foreign media were being hampered from reporting on the developments.[81][85] Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier summoned the Iranian ambassador Monday to explain the disputed presidential election. "I have already prompted Iran, together with European colleagues today, to quickly shed light on what has happened there—if one can take the announced election results there seriously or not," he told German public television station ARD.[86]
    • هولندا On 16 June, Dutch Foreign Minister Maxime Verhagen summoned an Iranian diplomat to protest Tehran's crackdown on protesters and to call for the immediate release of detainees. According to a statement issued by Verhagen's office after the meeting, the minister asked Iran to probe complaints of election fraud as the Netherlands had "serious question marks" over the reliability of the results. He also protested against interference with foreign journalists and the arrest of a Dutch television crew, and demanded an explanation from the Iranian authorities for the intimidation and seizure of footage of Dutch journalists.[87]
    • پولندا Polish Foreign Ministry announced that "[The ministry] calls government in Tehran to avoid actions which could result in bloodspill, and also expects the government to take responsibility of finding peaceful solution of the crisis, according to it's obligations within international community."[88]
    • المملكة المتحدة British Foreign Secretary David Miliband said that they viewed "the implications of recent events in Iran with serious concern."[89] Prime Minister Gordon Brown said on 16 June: "The elections are a matter for the Iranian people, but if there are serious questions that are now being asked about the conduct of the elections, they have got to be answered... There must be no violence in response to peaceful protests... the relationship they will have and the respect they will have from the rest of the world will depend on how they respond to what are legitimate grievances that are being expressed and have to be answered."[90]
  • أستراليا On 16 June, Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith called for a fast, thorough and transparent investigation of the vote-rigging allegations. "It is now crystal clear that there are very grave doubts about the result so far as the Iranian election is concerned," Mr Smith told Parliament. "We are very gravely concerned about the very serious breaches of human rights we have seen."[91]
  • كندا Canadian Foreign Minister Lawrence Cannon said that his country was "deeply concerned" by reports of election irregularities.[12] On 15 June, Cannon told Parliament: "We have called for a full and transparent investigation into electoral fraud and discrepancies. The security force's brutal treatment of peaceful demonstrators is unacceptable." Canada also summoned Iran's top diplomat to explain the reported beating and detention of a freelance Canadian journalist in Tehran.[92]
  • الولايات المتحدة White House press secretary Robert Gibbs stated, "[l]ike the rest of the world, we were impressed by the vigorous debate and enthusiasm that this election generated, particularly among young Iranians. We continue to monitor the entire situation closely, including reports of irregularities".[93] On 12 June—prior to the declaration of the winner—President Obama reacting to a question on the elections stated "We are excited to see what appears to be a robust debate taking place in Iran".[94] Later, Vice President Biden has said, "[i]t sure looks like the way they're suppressing speech, the way they're suppressing crowds, the way in which people are being treated, that there's some real doubt".[95] On 15 June, State Department spokesman Ian Kelly declared that the US was "deeply troubled by the reports of violent arrests and possible voting irregularities."[96] The President echoed the statement later that day.[97]
  • اليابان Japanese Foreign Minister Hirofumi Nakasone said on 16 June: "We are extremely concerned about the confusion in Iran. We are carefully monitoring the situation... We hear about shootings. We hope that the situation will come to an end as soon as possible."[90]
  • نيوزيلندا On 16 June, Foreign Minister of New Zealand Murray McCully said: "The New Zealand government is concerned at the reports coming out of Iran of mounting violence, and calls on all involved to help restore calm... New Zealand shares the view of United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, and several European Union leaders, that the election process needs to be carefully explained."[98]
  • النرويج Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre said: "There is much unrest in Iran around the results, and there are allegations of electoral fraud. This is alarming". He also said that they would have to take the results that has been released under advisement, and stressed that there had not been fully democratic election in Iran, saying that: "This is about candidates that have had to go through a pre-approval to be allowed to be candidates, and this can not be said to be acceptable from normal democratic standards".[99] Mazyar Keshvari, an Iranian-Norwegian politician for the Progress Party, called the election "a huge farce from start to finish" and a "show-off", and said that "Ahmadinejad exceeds Comical Ali with his statements about the election in Iran was entirely free."[100]
  • إسرائيل Israel's deputy foreign ministry spokesman, Danny Ayalon, said: "With the results of the election in Iran, the international community must stop a nuclear Iran and Iranian terror immediately. If there was a shadow of a hope for change in Iran, the renewed choice of Ahmadinejad expresses more than anything the growing Iranian threat."[10] Defense Minister Ehud Barak has said, "I'm not sure if the results reflect the real will of the Iranian people". He also has labeled Ahmadinejad's re-election "bad news".[101]

تهنئة

  • جامعة الدول العربية Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa congratulated Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on his election victory. "We hope that the next term would witness progress on the relations between Iran and the Arab world and cooperation in establishing peace in the Middle East," he said.[102]
  • أفغانستان Hamid Karzai, President of Afghanistan, congratulated Ahmadinejad with his election victory.[111]
  • أرمنيا Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan sent a congratulatory message to Ahmadinejad stating in part, "On behalf of the people of the Republic of Armenia and myself I warmly congratulate you on the occasion of your re-election as President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and wish you new successes and achievements."[112]
  • أذربيجان Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliev congratulated Ahmadinejad with his victory on Monday, he said: "We place a particular emphasis on development of overall relations between our countries. We are pleased with close cooperation and constantly developing business relations that exist between our countries..."[113]
  • البرازيل البرازيلian President Luis Inácio Lula da Silva dismissed the fraud possibility, congratulated Ahmadinejad for the victory and scheduled a visit to Iran soon. [114]
  • بلاروس Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko congratulated Ahmadinejad on his re-election as president of Iran on Saturday. He said: "I'm convinced that Belarusian-Iranian constructive relations will develop dynamically and that mutually advantageous strategic projects will be realised for the sake of the peoples of our countries."[115]
  • الصين Reuters[116] and Times Online reported that China endorsed Ahmadinejad's re-election.[117] Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson voiced respect for, what he called, "the choice of the Iranian people" and hoped Iran could maintain stability.[118]
  • الهند Times Online reported that الهند endorsed Ahmadinejad's re-election.[119]
  • سري لانكا Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa, congratulated Ahmadinejad with his re-election, saying: "The Government and the people of Sri Lanka join me in congratulating you on Your Excellency’s re-election as the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. For all of us in Sri Lanka, this is joyous news because we consider Your Excellency to be a close of friend of our country. It is my firm conviction therefore that during your new tenure of office, the close ties of friendship and cooperation between our two countries will be further strengthened to great heights for the mutual benefit of our peoples. I look forward eagerly to working closely with Your Excellency as we have done before, to further consolidate our bilateral relations into a lasting multi-sectoral engagement. Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest consideration."[120]
  • كوريا الشمالية Kim Yong-Nam, Supreme People's Assembly of North Korea, sent a message to Ahmadinejad on Sunday. Kim "sincerely wished him success in his responsible work to frustrate pressure and interference of outsiders and build independent and prosperous Iran".[101]
  • پاكستان Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari and Pakistani Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani both sent separate messages congratulating Ahmadinejad with his victory. Zardari said: "This is indeed testimony of the confidence of the people of Iran in your leadership qualities and an acknowledgement of your outstanding services."[121]
  • روسيا Russian President Dmitry Medvedev congratulated Ahmadinejad on his re-election. He expressed hope Tehran-Moscow friendly relations would be expanded in line of the two nations' interests and peace and stability of the region.[122]
  • تركيا Turkish President Abdullah Gül and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan both congratulated Ahmadinejad on his reelection.[123]
  • ڤنزويلا Venezuelan President, Hugo Chávez, phoned Ahmadinejad to congratulate his "great and important victory for people fighting for a better world".[7]


مرئيات

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مناظرة بين أحمدي نجاد ومهدي كروبي.

معرض الصور


المصادر

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  112. ^ Turkish Daily President Of Armenia Congratulates Ahmadinejad On Reelection, 15 June, 2009
  113. ^ "Azerbaijan President Congratulates Mahmoud Ahmadinejad On Re-election As President Of Iran". Turkish Weekly. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 
  114. ^ "Lula diz que não há prova de fraude no Irã e pretende visitar o país". BBC Brasil. June 15, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009. 
  115. ^ Lukashenko congratulates Ahmadinejad on re-election Iran's president, 13 June, 2009
  116. ^ "Russia, China congratulate Ahmadinejad on vote win". 2009-06-16. 
  117. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  118. ^ "China calls for "stability, solidarity" in post-election Iran". Xinhua News Agency. 
  119. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  120. ^ "President congratulates Ahmadinejad". AussieIndoLanka. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  121. ^ "Pakistani Leaders Felicitate Ahmadinejad's Victory". Fars News Agency. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 
  122. ^ "Medvedev felicitates Ahmadinejad's reelection". Irib News. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  123. ^ "Gul, Erdogan congratulate Ahmadinejad for vote victory". World Bulletin. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  • الانتخابات وأجنحة السياسة في إيران، د.مصطفى اللباد، جريدة النهار اللبنانية، 16 مايو 2009.