الكتابة الخطية أ

(تم التحويل من Linear A)
الكتابة الخطية أ
Linear A
Linear A cup.png
النوع
لم تـُفـَك شفرتها (مُفترَض أنها مقطعية و رسم فكري)
اللغات 'المينوية' (غير معروفة)
الفترة الزمنية

MM IB حتى LM IIIA

2500–1450 ق.م.[1]
الحالة منقرضة
النظم الابنة
الكتابة الخطية ب، الكتابة المقطعية القبرصية-المينوية[2]
النظم الشقيقة
الهيروغليفية الكريتية
ISO 15924 Lina, 400

U+10600–U+1077F

آخر مقترح مقبول لنظام الكتابة
هذه المقالة تحتوي على حروف اليونيكود للكتابة الخطية أ. بدون دعم العرض المناصب، فقد ترى علامات استفهام، مربعات، أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من Linear A.

الكتابة الخطية أ Linear A هي نظام كتابة استخدمه المينويون (الكريتيون) منذ 2500 إلى 1450 ق.م. ومع الهيروغليفية الكريتية، تشكـِّل واحدة من نظامي كتابة غير مُفسـَّرين استخدمهما المنويون القدماء والشعوب المحيطة. وقد كانت الكتابة الخطية أ الكتابة الرئيسية المستخدمة في القصر وفي الكتابات الدينية في الحضارة المينوية. وقد اكتشفها عالم الآثار السير آرثر إڤانز. وترتبط بالكتابة الخطية ب Linear B، التي تلت الكتابة الخطية أ وكانت مستخدمة في الحضارة الموكنية Mycenaean civilization.

في ع1950، تم فك شفرة الكتابة الخطية ب إلى حدِ كبير، ووُجـِد أنها ترمـِّز صيفة مبكرة من اللغة اليونانية. وبالرغم من أن نظامي الكتابة يتشاطران العديد من الرموز، إلا أن ذلك لم يؤدي إلى فك لاحق لشفرة الكتابة الخطية-أ. استخدام القيم المقترنة بالكتابة الخطية-ب في الكتابة الخطية-أ ينتج، عموماً، كلمات لا يمكن فهمها. فلو كانت الكتابة الخطية-أ تستخدم نفس، أو شبه، القيم اللفظية للكتابة الخطية-ب، فإن لغتها المرافقة، المسماة "المينوية"، تبدو غير مرتبطة بأي لغة معروفة.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الكتابة

الكتابة الخطية-أ تضم مئات الأشكال، التي يُعتقـَد أنها تمثل قيماً لفظية ومفهومية ودلالية بشكل مماثل للكتابة الخطية ب. بينما العديد من أولئك المفترض أن يكونوا أشكال لفظية هم مشابهون لأشكال في الكتابة الخطية-ب، فنحو 80% من الرسوم المعنوية Logograms للكتابة الخطية-أ هي فريدة؛[3][4] والفرق في القيم الصوتية بين أشكال الخطية-أ والخطية-ب يتراوح بين 9% و 13%.[5] وتبدو أساساً في الاتجاه من اليسار إلى اليمين، ولكنها تظهر أحياناً ككتابة من اليمين إلى اليسار أو بطرفة boustrophedon.

وثمة سمة مثيرة للإهتمام هي كيفية تسجيل الأرقام في الكتابة. فأعلى رقم مسجل هو 3000، ولكن هناك رموز خاصة تبين كسور وأوزان.


الأشكال

الكتابة الخطية أ: الأشكال والترقيم حسب إ. بـِنـِت. قراءة الأشكال مبني على نظائرهم في الكتابة الخطية ب.
*01-*20 *21-*30 *31-*53 *54-*74 *76-*122 *123-*306
Linear A Sign A001.svg DA

*01

Linear A Sign A021.svg QI

*21

Linear A Sign A031.svg SA

*31

Linear A Sign A054.svg WA

*54

Linear A Sign A076.svg

*76

Linear A Sign A123.svg

*123

Linear A Sign A002.svg RO

*02

Linear A Sign A021f.svg

*21f

Linear A Sign A034.svg

*34

Linear A Sign A055.svg

*55

Linear A Sign A077.svg KA

*77

Linear A Sign A131a.svg

*131a

Linear A Sign A003.svg PA

*03

Linear A Sign A021m.svg

*21m

Linear A Sign A037.svg TI

*37

Linear A Sign A056.svg PA3

*56

Linear A Sign A078.svg QE

*78

Linear A Sign A131b.svg

*131b

Linear A Sign A004.svg TE

*04

Linear A Sign A022.svg MI?

*22

Linear A Sign A038.svg E

*38

Linear A Sign A057.svg JA

*57

Linear A Sign A079.svg WO2?

*79

Linear A Sign A131c.svg

*131c

Linear A Sign A005.svg

*05

Linear A Sign A022f.svg

*22f

Linear A Sign A039.svg PI

*39

Linear A Sign A058.svg SU

*58

Linear A Sign A080.svg MA

*80

Linear A Sign A164.svg

*164

Linear A Sign A006.svg NA

*06

Linear A Sign A022m.svg

*22m

Linear A Sign A040.svg WI

*40

Linear A Sign A059.svg TA

*59

Linear A Sign A081.svg KU

*81

Linear A Sign A171.svg

*171

Linear A Sign A007.svg DI

*07

Linear A Sign A023.svg MU

*23

Linear A Sign A041.svg SI

*41

Linear A Sign A060.svg RA

*60

Linear A Sign A082.svg

*82

Linear A Sign A180.svg

*180

Linear A Sign A008.svg A

*08

Linear A Sign A023m.svg

*23m

Linear A Sign A044.svg KE

*44

Linear A Sign A061.svg O

*61

Linear A Sign A085.svg

*85

Linear A Sign A188.svg

*188

Linear A Sign A009.svg S

*09

Linear A Sign A024.svg NE

*24

Linear A Sign A045.svg

*45

Linear A Sign A065.svg JU

*65

Linear A Sign A086.svg

*86

Linear A Sign A191.svg

*191

Linear A Sign A010.svg

*10

Linear A Sign A026.svg RU

*26

Linear A Sign A046.svg

*46

Linear A Sign A066.svg TA2

*66

Linear A Sign A087.svg TWE

*87

Linear A Sign A301.svg

*301

Linear A Sign A011.svg

*11

Linear A Sign A027.svg RE

*27

Linear A Sign A047.svg

*47

Linear A Sign A067.svg KI

*67

Linear A Sign A100.svg

*100/
*102

Linear A Sign A302.svg

*302

Linear A Sign A013.svg ME

*13

Linear A Sign A028.svg I

*28

Linear A Sign A049.svg

*49

Linear A Sign A069.svg TU

*69

Linear A Sign A118.svg

*118

Linear A Sign A303.svg

*303

Linear A Sign A016.svg QA2

*16

Linear A Sign A028b.svg

*28b

Linear A Sign A050.svg PU

*50

Linear A Sign A070.svg

*70

Linear A Sign A120.svg

*120

Linear A Sign A304.svg

*304

Linear A Sign A017.svg ZA

*17

Linear A Sign A029.svg

*29

Linear A Sign A051.svg DU

*51

Linear A Sign A073.svg MI

*73

Linear A Sign A120b.svg

*120b

Linear A Sign A305.svg

*305

Linear A Sign A020.svg ZO

*20

Linear A Sign A030.svg NI

*30

Linear A Sign A053.svg

*53

Linear A Sign A074.svg ZE

*74

Linear A Sign A122.svg

*122

Linear A Sign A306.svg

*306


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جسد الكتابة

كتابة خطية-أ منقوشة على ألواح، عـُثـِر عليها في أكروتيري، سانتوريني.
لوح للكتابة الخطية-أ، متحف خانيا الأثري.
لوح للكتابة الخطية-أ من قصر زاكروس، متحف الأثري في سيتيا.

Linear A has been unearthed chiefly on Crete, but also at other sites in Greece, as well as Turkey and Israel. The extant corpus, comprising some 1,427 specimens totalling 7,362 to 7,396 signs, if scaled to standard type, would fit easily on two sheets of paper.[6]

كريت

According to Ilse Schoep, the main discoveries of Linear A tablets have been at three sites on Crete:[7]

Haghia Triadha in the Mesara with 147 tablets; Zakro/Zakros, a port town in the far east of the island with 31 tablets; and Khania/Chania, a port town in the northwest of the island with 94 tablets.

Discoveries have been made at the following locations on Crete:[8]

خارج كريت

حتى 1973، لوح واحد فقط من الكتابة الخطية-أ كان معروف العثور عليه خارج كريت (في كيا).[9] منذ ذلك الحين، عـُثـِر على نماذج لتلك الكتابة في مواقع أخرى.

According to Margalit Finkelberg, most—if not all—inscriptions found outside Crete were made locally. This is indicated by such factors as the composition of the material on which the inscriptions were made.[9] Also, close analysis of the inscriptions found outside Crete indicates the use of a script that is somewhere in between Linear A and Linear B, combining elements from both.

الجزر اليونانية الأخرى


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Mainland Greece

تزمين

Linear A became eminent during the Middle Minoan Period, specifically from 1625–1450 BC. It was a contemporary and possible child of Cretan hieroglyphs and the ancestor of Linear B. The sequence and the geographical spread of Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A and Linear B, the three overlapping, but distinct writing systems on Bronze Age Crete and the Greek mainland can be summarized as follows:[11]

نظام الكتابة المنطقة الجغرافية الفترة الزمنية[أ]
Cretan Hieroglyphic كريت c. 2100 – 1700 BC
Linear A Aegean islands (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera), and Greek mainland (Laconia) c. 2500 – 1450 BC
Linear B Crete (Knossos), and mainland (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns) c. 1450 – 1200 BC

الاكتشاف

Archaeologist Arthur Evans named the script "Linear" because its characters consisted simply of lines inscribed in clay, in contrast to the more pictographic characters in Cretan hieroglyphs that were used during the same period.[12]

Several tablets inscribed in signs similar to Linear A were found in the Troad in northwestern Anatolia. While their status is disputed, they may be imports, as there is no evidence of Minoan presence in the Troad. Classification of these signs as a unique Trojan script (proposed by contemporary Russian linguist Nikolai Kazansky) is not accepted by other linguists.

نظريات حول اللغة

كتابة خطية أ منقوشة على جرة، عـُثـِر عليها في أكروتيري.

It is difficult to evaluate a given analysis of Linear A as there is little point of reference for reading its inscriptions. The simplest approach to decipherment may be to presume that the values of Linear A match more or less the values given to the deciphered Linear B script, used for Mycenaean Greek.[13]

اليونانية

في 1957، نشر الدارس البلغاري Vladimir I. Georgiev published his Le déchiffrement des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The decipherment of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A") stating that Linear A contains Greek linguistic elements.[14] Georgiev then published another work in 1963, titled Les deux langues des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The two languages of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A"), suggesting that the language of the Hagia Triada tablets was Greek but that the rest of the Linear A corpus was in Hittite-Luwian.[14][15] In December 1963, Gregory Nagy of Harvard University developed a list of Linear A and Linear B terms based on the assumption "that signs of identical or similar shape in the two scripts will represent similar or identical phonetic values"; Nagy concluded that the language of Linear A bears "Greek-like" and Indo-European elements.[16]

اللغات الأناضولية

Since the late 1950s, some scholars have suggested that the Linear A language could be an Anatolian language.[17]

Luwian

Palmer (1958) put forward a theory, based on Linear B phonetic values, suggesting that Linear A language could be related closely to Luwian.[17] The theory, however, failed to gain universal support for the following reasons:

  • There is no remarkable resemblance between Minoan and Hitto-Luwian morphology.
  • None of the existing theories of the origin of Hitto-Luwian peoples and their migration to Anatolia (either from the Balkans or from the Caucasus) are related to Crete.
  • There was a lack of direct contact between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete; the latter was never mentioned in Hitto-Luwian inscriptions. Small states located along the western coast of ancient Asia Minor were natural barriers between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete.
  • Obvious anthropological differences between Hitto-Luwians and the Minoans may be considered as another indirect testimony against this hypothesis.

There are recent works focused on the Luwian connection, not in terms of the Minoan language being Anatolian, but rather in terms of possible borrowings from Luwian, including the origin of the writing system itself.[18]

اللوقية

In an article from 2001, Professor of Classics (Emerita) at Tel Aviv University, Margalit Finkelberg, demonstrated a "high degree of correspondence between the phonological and morphological system of Minoan and that of Lycian" and proposed that "the language of Linear A is either the direct ancestor of Lycian or a closely related idiom."[19]

الفينيقية

In 2001, the journal Ugarit-Forschungen published the article "The First Inscription in Punic — Vowel Differences in Linear A and B" by Jan Best, claiming to demonstrate how and why Linear A notates an archaic form of Phoenician.[20] This was a continuation of attempts by Cyrus Gordon in finding connections between Minoan and West Semitic languages.

الهندو-إيرانية

Another recent interpretation, based on the frequencies of the syllabic signs and on complete palaeographic comparative studies, suggests that the Minoan Linear A language belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages. Studies by Hubert La Marle include a presentation of the morphology of the language, avoid the complete identification of phonetic values between Linear A and B, and also avoid comparing Linear A with Cretan Hieroglyphs.[21] La Marle uses the frequency counts to identify the type of syllables written in Linear A, and takes into account the problem of loanwords in the vocabulary.[21] However, the La Marle interpretation of Linear A has been rejected by John Younger of Kansas University showing that La Marle has invented erroneous and arbitrary new transcriptions based on resemblances with many different script systems at will (as Phoenician, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Hieroglyphic Hittite, Ethiopian, Cypro-Minoan, etc.), ignoring established evidence and internal analysis, while for some words he proposes religious meanings inventing names of gods and rites.[22] La Marle rebutted in "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A" in 2010.[23]

الترهينية

Italian scholar Giulio M. Facchetti attempted to link Linear A to the Tyrrhenian language family comprising Etruscan, Rhaetic, and Lemnian. This family is reasoned to be a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substratum of the 2nd millennium BC, sometimes referred to as Pre-Greek. Facchetti proposed some possible similarities between the Etruscan language and ancient Lemnian, and other Aegean languages like Minoan.[24] Michael Ventris who, along with John Chadwick, successfully deciphered Linear B, also believed in a link between Minoan and Etruscan.[25] The same perspective is supported by S. Yatsemirsky in Russia.[26]

فرع متميز، إلا أنه غير معروف، من اللغات الهندو-أوروپية

According to Gareth Alun Owens, Linear A represents the Minoan language, which Owens classifies as a distinct branch of Indo-European potentially related to Greek, Sanskrit, Hittite, Latin, etc.[27][28] At "The Cretan Literature Centre", Owens stated:

Beginning our research with inscriptions in Linear A carved on offering tables found in the many peak sanctuaries on the mountains of Crete, we recognise a clear relationship between Linear A and Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. There is also a connection to Hittite and Armenian. This relationship allows us to place the Minoan language among the so-called Indo-European languages, a vast family that includes modern Greek and the Latin of Ancient Rome. The Minoan and Greek languages are considered to be different branches of Indo-European. The Minoans probably moved from Anatolia to the island of Crete about 10,000 years ago. There were similar population movements to Greece. The relative isolation of the population which settled in Crete resulted in the development of its own language, Minoan, which is considered different to Mycenaean. In the Minoan language (Linear A), there are no purely Greek words, as is the case in Mycenaean Linear B; it contains only words also found in Greek, Sanskrit and Latin, i.e. sharing the same Indo-European origin.[29]

Hurrian

In 2016, Peter van Soesbergen published a two-part series Hurrians and Hurrian in Minoan Crete alleging that most of the Linear A inscriptions could be understood as a dialect of Hurrian.[30] Among the equations he makes are Linear A uminasi enasi with Hurrian umminnaši ennaši "of the lands of the gods"; Linear A ataijowaja with the absolutive of Hurrian attaiwwašuuš "our father"; Linear A potokuro, seeming to mean "total," with Hurrian puttukuru, "value again"; Linear A sukiriteia with a nickname for Hurrian Šukri-tešup "blessed Teshub"; api on an entrance to a tomb with Hurrian abi "pit (especially for communicating with the netherworld)"; turusa with Hurrian turu "man"; and dupure with tuppuleš "may (he) be strong."

محاولات لفك شفرة كلمات مفردة

Some researchers suggest that a few words or word elements may be recognized, without (yet) enabling any conclusion about relationship with other languages. In general, they use analogy with Linear B in order to propose phonetic values of the syllabic sounds. John Younger, in particular, thinks that place names usually appear in certain positions in the texts, and notes that the proposed phonetic values often correspond to known place names as given in Linear B texts (and sometimes to modern Greek names). For example, he proposes that three syllables, read as KE-NI-SO, might be the indigenous form of Knossos.[31] Likewise, in Linear A, MA+RU is suggested to mean wool, and to correspond both to a Linear B pictogram with this meaning, and to the classical Greek word μαλλός with the same meaning (in that case a loan word from Minoan).[3]

يونيكود

مقال رئيسي: Linear A (Unicode block)

The Linear A alphabet (U+10600–U+1077F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

قالب:Unicode chart Linear A

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.

الهامش

  1. ^ Haarmann 2008, pp. 12–46.
  2. ^ Palaima 1997, pp. 121–188.
  3. ^ أ ب Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 7b. The Script". University of Kansas.
  4. ^ Packard 1974, Chapter 1: Introduction.
  5. ^ Owens 1999, pp. 23–24 (David Packard، في 1974، حسب الفرق في القيم الصوتية فوجده 10.80% ± 1.80%؛ Yves Duhoux، في 1989، حسب فرقاً في اليم الصوتية قدره 14.34% ± 1.80% و Gareth Owens، في 1996، حسب فرق القيم الصوتية بقيمة 9–13%).
  6. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 5. Basic Statistics". University of Kansas. Younger: "if there are 4002 characters (font Times, pitch 12, no spaces) on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper with 1 inch margins, all extant Linear A would take up 1.84 pages." (14.34 pages for Linear B).
  7. ^ Schoep 1999, pp. 201–221.
  8. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono (January 2014). "Linear A and Minoan. The Riddle of Unknown Origins": 3–4. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  9. ^ أ ب Finkelberg 1998, pp. 265–272.
  10. ^ Book review by Daniel J. Pullen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009) of W. D. Taylour, R. Janko, Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia. British School at Athens, 2008. "Its location on the Laconian coast, easily accessible from Kythera, undoubtedly encouraged early contacts with Crete whether directly or indirectly (see the Linear A sign catalogued in chapter 11)."
  11. ^ Olivier 1986, pp. 377f.
  12. ^ Robinson 2009, p. 54.
  13. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription". University of Kansas. See "1. List of Linked Files" for a comprehensive list of known texts written in Linear A.
  14. ^ أ ب Nagy 1963, p. 210 (Footnote #24).
  15. ^ Georgiev 1963, pp. 1–104.
  16. ^ Nagy 1963, pp. 181–211.
  17. ^ أ ب Palmer 1958, pp. 75–100.
  18. ^ Marangozis, John (2006). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa.
  19. ^ Finkelberg, Margalit, "The Language of Linear A: Greek, Semitic, or Anatolian?", in: Drews, Robert (ed.), Greater Anatolia dnt eh Ind-Hittite Language Family, Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph 38, Washington, DC, 2001.
  20. ^ Dietrich & Loretz 2001.
  21. ^ أ ب La Marle, Hubert. Linéaire A, la première écriture syllabique de Crète. Paris: Geuthner, 4 Volumes, 1997–1999, 2006; Introduction au linéaire A. Geuthner, Paris, 2002; L'aventure de l'alphabet: les écritures cursives et linéaires du Proche-Orient et de l'Europe du sud-est à l'Âge du Bronze. Paris: Geuthner, 2002; Les racines du crétois ancien et leur morphologie: communication à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 2007.
  22. ^ Younger, John (2009). "Linear A: Critique of Decipherments by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun". University of Kansas. According to Younger, La Marle "assigns phonetic values to Linear signs based on superficial resemblances to signs in other scripts (the choice of scripts being already prejudiced to include only those from the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa), as if 'C looks like O so it must be O.'"
  23. ^ La Marle, Hubert (September 2010). "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A". Academia.edu.
  24. ^ Facchetti & Negri 2003.
  25. ^ Yatsemirsky 2011.
  26. ^ Owens 2007, pp. 3–4: "Η έρευνα απέδειξε ότι η μινωική γλώσσα σχετίζεται με την ελληνική περισσότερο από κάθε άλλη ινδοευρωπαϊκή γλώσσα, χωρίς να αποτελεί μια άλλη ελληνική διάλεκτο αλλά ένα χωριστό παρακλάδι της ινδοευρωπαϊκής οικογένειας...υπάρχουν λέξεις που εντοπίζονται και στην ελληνική γλώσσα αλλά και σε άλλες, όπως τη σανσκριτική και τη χεττιτική, τη λατινική, της ίδιας οικογένειας.".
  27. ^ Owens 1999, pp. 15–56.
  28. ^ "The Language of the Minoans". Crete Gazette. 2006.
  29. ^ van Soesbergen 2016
  30. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 10c. Place Names". University of Kansas.

المصادر

للاستزادة

  • Best, Jan G. P. (1972). Some Preliminary Remarks on the Decipherment of Linear A. Amsterdam: Hakkert.
  • Marangozis, John (2007). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa, ISBN 3-89586-386-6
  • Montecchi, Barbara (January 2010). "A Classification Proposal of Linear A Tablets from Haghia Triada in Classes and Series". Kadmos. 49 (1): 11–38. doi:10.1515/KADMOS.2010.002.
  • Nagy, Gregory (October 1965). "Observations on the Sign-Grouping and Vocabulary of Linear A". American Journal of Archaeology. 69 (4): 295–330. doi:10.2307/502181.
  • Palmer, Ruth (1995). "Linear A Commodities: A Comparison of Resources" (PDF). Aegeum. 12.
  • Thomas, Helena. Understanding the transition from Linear A to Linear B script. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Supervisor: Professor John Bennet. Thesis (D. Phil.). University of Oxford, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 311–338).
  • Woodard, Roger D. (1997). Greek Writing from Knossos to Homer. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510520-6. (Review)

وصلات خارجية

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).