كومكاست

مؤسسة كومكاست
Comcast Corporation
النوعPublic
رمز التداول
الصناعة
المؤسسRalph J. Roberts
نطاق الخدمةWorldwide
أشخاص رئيسيون
المنتجات
الدخل دولار94٫507 billion
ربح العمليات US$19٫009 billion
الدخل الصافي US$11٫731 billion
إجمالي الأصول US$251٫68 billion
إجمالي الأنصبة US$71٫613 billion (2018)
المالكRoberts family (1% equity interest, 33% voting power)
الموظفون184,000 (December 2019)
الأقسام
Footnotes / references
[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

مؤسسة كومكاست (formerly registered as Comcast Holdings)[note 1] is an American telecommunications conglomerate headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[9] It is the second-largest broadcasting and cable television company in the world by revenue and the largest pay-TV company, the largest cable TV company and largest home Internet service provider in the United States, and the nation's third-largest home telephone service provider. Comcast services U.S. residential and commercial customers in 40 states and in the District of Columbia.[10] As the parent company of the international media company NBCUniversal since 2011,[11][12][13][14] Comcast is a producer of feature films and television programs intended for theatrical exhibition and over-the-air and cable television broadcast, respectively.

Comcast owns and operates the Xfinity residential cable communications subsidiary, Comcast Business, a commercial services provider, Xfinity Mobile, an MVNO of Verizon, animation studios (DreamWorks Animation and Illumination Entertainment)over-the-air national broadcast network channels (NBC, Telemundo, TeleXitos and Cozi TV), multiple cable-only channels (including MSNBC, CNBC, USA Network, Syfy, NBCSN, and E!, among others), the film studio Universal Pictures, and Universal Parks & Resorts. It also has significant holdings in digital distribution, such as thePlatform, which it acquired in 2006. Since October 2018, it is also the parent company of mass media pan-European company Sky, making it the biggest and leading media company with more than 53 million subscribers over five countries across Europe.[15]

Comcast has been criticized for multiple reasons; its customer satisfaction often ranks among the lowest in the cable industry.[16][17] In addition, Comcast has violated net neutrality practices in the past, and, despite Comcast's commitment to a narrow definition of net neutrality,[18] critics advocate a definition which precludes any distinction between Comcast's private network services and the rest of the Internet.[19] Critics also point out a lack of competition in the vast majority of Comcast's service area; there is limited competition among cable providers.[20] Furthermore, given Comcast's negotiating power as a large ISP, some suspect that Comcast could leverage paid peering agreements to unfairly influence end-user connection speeds. Its ownership of both content production (in NBCUniversal) and content distribution (as an ISP) has raised antitrust concerns. These issues, in addition to others, led to Comcast being dubbed "The Worst Company in America" by The Consumerist in 2010 and 2014.[21][22]

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استعراض عام

القيادة

Comcast is sometimes described as a family business.[23] Brian L. Roberts, chairman, president, and CEO of Comcast, is the son of founder Ralph J. Roberts. Roberts owns or controls about 1% of all Comcast shares but all of the Class B supervoting shares, which gives him an "undilutable 33% voting power over the company".[24] Legal expert Susan P. Crawford has said this gives him "effective control over [Comcast's] every step".[25] In 2010, he was one of the highest paid executives in the United States, with total compensation of about $31 million.[25]


مقر الشركة

يقع المقر الرئيسي لكومكاست في ون كومكاست سنتر في سنتر سيتي، فلادلفيا، پنسلڤانيا.[26]

التاريخ

أمريكان كيبل سستمز

In 1963, Ralph J. Roberts in conjunction with his two business partners, Daniel Aaron[27] and Julian A. Brodsky, purchased American Cable Systems[28] as a corporate spin-off from its parent, Jerrold Electronics, for U.S. $500,000. At the time, American Cable was a small cable operator in Tupelo, Mississippi, with five channels and 12,000 customers.[29] In 1965, American Cable Systems purchased Storecast Corporation of America, a product placement supermarket specialist marketing firm.[30] In 1968, American Cable Systems purchased its first franchise of Muzak, a brand of background music played in retail stores. Storecast was a client of Muzak.[31]

كومكاست

Comcast logo from 1969 to 1999 before it was replaced with the crescent logo

Largest U.S. cable provider (2001–present)

Proposed merger name logo, 2001
Comcast logo introduced on December 12, 1999; used from 2000 to 2012 with minor updates in 2007

In 2001, Comcast announced it would acquire the assets of the largest cable television operator at the time, AT&T Broadband, for U.S.$44.5 billion.[32] The proposed name for the merged company was "AT&T Comcast", but the companies ultimately decided to keep only the Comcast name. In 2002, Comcast acquired all assets of AT&T Broadband, thus making Comcast the largest cable television company in the United States with over 22 million subscribers.[32][33] This spurred the start of Comcast Advertising Sales (using AT&T's groundwork) which would later be renamed Comcast Spotlight and now effectv, A Comcast Company. As part of this acquisition, Comcast also acquired the National Digital Television Center in Centennial, Colorado as a wholly owned subsidiary, now known as the Comcast Media Center. In 2003, Comcast became one of the original investors in The Golf Channel.[34] After Excite@Home went bankrupt in October 2001, Comcast took over providing internet directly to consumers in January 2002.[35]

On February 11, 2004, Comcast announced a $54 billion bid for The Walt Disney Company, including taking on $12 billion of Disney's debt.[36] The deal would have made Comcast the largest media conglomerate in the world.[37][38] However, after rejection by Disney and uncertain response from investors, the bid was abandoned in April.[39] In 2004, Comcast sold its QVC shares to Liberty Media for $7.9 billion.[40]

On April 8, 2005, a partnership led by Comcast and Sony Pictures Entertainment finalized a deal to acquire MGM and its affiliate studio, United Artists, and created an additional outlet to carry MGM/UA's material for cable and Internet distribution.[41][42] On October 31, 2005, Comcast officially announced that it had acquired Susquehanna Communications, a South Central Pennsylvania-based cable television and broadband services provider and unit of the former Susquehanna Pfaltzgraff company, for $775 million cash.[43][44] Comcast previously owned approximately 30% of Susquehanna Communications through its affiliate company, Lenfest.[43] In December 2005, Comcast announced the creation of Comcast Interactive Media, a new division focused on online media.

In July 2006, Comcast purchased the Seattle-based software company thePlatform.[45] This represented an entry into a new line of business – selling software to allow companies to manage their Internet (and IP-based) media publishing efforts.

On April 3, 2007, Comcast announced it would acquire the cable systems owned and operated by Patriot Media, a privately held company owned by cable veteran Steven J. Simmons, Spectrum Equity Investors and Spire Capital, that served approximately 81,000 video subscribers for $483 million.[46]

Comcast announced in May 2007[47] and launched in September 2008 a dashboard called SmartZone that allowed users to perform mobile functions online.[48] There was also Cloudmark spam and phishing protection and Trend Micro antivirus.[47] The address book is Comcast Plaxo software.[47]

In May 2008 Comcast purchased Plaxo for a reported $150 million to $170 million.[49]

Comcast won the Consumerist Worst Company In America ("Golden Poo") award in 2010.[50] A gold trophy in the shape of a pile of human feces was delivered to Comcast Corporate Headquarters to commemorate the unmatched level of enmity flowing from their customer base to their business. Comcast responded immediately by publicly acknowledging the dubious award and citing ongoing efforts to improve its customer service.[51] One effort to change this is a new app called Tech ETA that allows customers to see exactly when a technician is coming.[52]


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Adelphia purchase

In April 2005, Comcast and Time Warner Cable announced plans to buy the assets of bankrupted Adelphia Cable.[53] The two companies paid a total of $17.6 billion in the deal that was finalized in the second quarter of 2006—after the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) completed a seven-month investigation without raising an objection.[54] Time Warner Cable became the second-largest cable provider in the U.S., ranking behind Comcast. As part of the deal, Time Warner and Comcast traded existing subscribers in order to consolidate them into larger geographic clusters.[55][56]

In August 2006, Comcast and Time Warner dissolved a 50/50 partnership that controlled the systems in the Houston, Southwest Texas, San Antonio, and Kansas City markets under the Time Warner brand. After the dissolution, Comcast obtained the Houston system, and Time Warner retained the others.[57] On January 1, 2007, Comcast officially took control of the Houston system but continued to operate under the Time Warner Cable brand until June 19, 2007.

NBCUniversal

NBCUniversal logo from 2004 to 2011
NBCUniversal logo from 2011 to present

Media outlets began reporting in late September 2009 that Comcast was in talks to buy NBC Universal. Comcast denied the rumors at first, while NBC would not comment on them.[58] However, CNBC itself reported on October 1 that General Electric was considering spinning NBC Universal off into a separate company that would merge the NBC television network and its cable properties such as USA Network, Syfy and MSNBC, as well as Universal Studios, with Comcast's content assets. GE would maintain 49% control of the new company, while Comcast owned 51%.[59][60] Vivendi, which owns 20%, would have to sell its stake to GE. It was reported that under the current deal with GE that it would happen in November or December.[61][62] It was also reported that Time Warner would be interested in placing a bid, until CEO Jeffrey L. Bewkes directly denied interest,[63] leaving Comcast the sole bidder. On November 1, 2009, The New York Times reported Comcast had moved closer to a deal to purchase NBC Universal and that a formal announcement could be made sometime the following week.[64]

Following a tentative agreement on December 1,[65] the parties announced that Comcast would buy a controlling 51% stake in NBCUniversal for $6.5 billion in cash and $7.3 billion in programming on December 3.[66][67][68] GE would take over the remaining 49% stake in NBC Universal, using $5.8 billion to buy out Vivendi's 20% minority stake in NBC Universal.[67] On January 18, 2011, the FCC approved the deal by a vote of 4 to 1.[69][70] The sale was completed on January 28, 2011.[71][72] In late December 2012, Comcast decided to shed the crescent logo and added the NBC peacock symbol to their new logo.[73] On February 12, 2013, Comcast announced an intention to acquire the remaining 49% of General Electric's interest in NBCUniversal,[74][75] which Comcast completed on March 19, 2013.[13][14][76]

Failed purchase of Time Warner Cable

On February 12, 2014, the Los Angeles Times reported that Comcast sought to acquire Time Warner Cable in a deal valued at $45.2 billion.[77] On February 13, it was reported that Time Warner Cable agreed to the acquisition.[78] This was to add several metropolitan areas to the Comcast portfolio, such as New York City, Los Angeles, Dallas-Fort Worth, Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Charlotte, San Diego, and San Antonio.[79] Time Warner Cable and Comcast aimed to merge into one company by the end of 2014 and both have praised the deal, emphasizing the increased capabilities of a combined telecommunications network, and to "create operating efficiencies and economies of scale".[80]

Comcast Service Vehicle


Proposed merger name logo, 2001


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Divisions and subsidiaries

Comcast Cable (Xfinity)

Comcast Cable is the cable television division of Comcast Corporation, providing cable television, broadband internet, and landline telephone under the Xfinity brand. Comcast Cable also provides connections to small to medium-sized business through its Comcast Business brand, and Fortune 1000 companies through its Comcast Enterprise brand.[81]

NBCUniversal

Comcast delivers third-party television programming content to its own customers, and also produces its own first-party content both for subscribers and customers of other competing television services. Fully or partially owned Comcast programming includes Comcast Newsmakers, Comcast Network, Comcast SportsNet, SportsNet New York, MLB Network, Comcast Sports Southeast/Charter Sports Southeast, NBC Sports Network, The Golf Channel, Syfy, and USA Network. On May 19, 2009, Disney and ESPN announced an agreement to allow Comcast Corporation to carry the channels ESPNU and ESPN3.[82]

Comcast's content networks and assets also include E!, Oxygen, Golf Channel, NBCSN, Universal Kids, Bravo, and the regional NBC Sports Networks. When Comcast took majority ownership in NBCUniversal, a significant number of cable networks were added to this list. Comcast's NHL deal obligated them to create a U.S. version of NHL Network, launched in October 2007.

Comcast has also operated local channels in some markets, such as Comcast Television in the Detroit region, Comcast Network in the Philadelphia and Mid-Atlantic regions (formerly CN8), and Comcast Entertainment Television in Denver and parts of Utah. They primarily carried local programs and sports (including, in some cases, serving as the designated overflow channel for local regional sports networks).

DreamWorks Animation

On August 22, 2016, NBCUniversal bought DreamWorks Animation, along with its major IPs including Shrek, How to Train Your Dragon, Kung Fu Panda, and Madagascar.[83][84][85][86]

Sky


انتقادات

Divisions and subsidiaries

Comcast Cable (Xfinity)

Comcast Cable is the cable television division of Comcast Corporation, providing cable television, broadband internet, and landline telephone under the Xfinity brand. Comcast Cable also provides connections to small to medium-sized business through its Comcast Business brand, and Fortune 1000 companies through its Comcast Enterprise brand.[87]

NBCUniversal

Comcast delivers third-party television programming content to its own customers, and also produces its own first-party content both for subscribers and customers of other competing television services. Fully or partially owned Comcast programming includes Comcast Newsmakers, Comcast Network, Comcast SportsNet, SportsNet New York, MLB Network, Comcast Sports Southeast/Charter Sports Southeast, NBC Sports Network, The Golf Channel, Syfy, and USA Network. On May 19, 2009, Disney and ESPN announced an agreement to allow Comcast Corporation to carry the channels ESPNU and ESPN3.[82]

Comcast's content networks and assets also include E!, Oxygen, Golf Channel, NBCSN, Universal Kids, Bravo, and the regional NBC Sports Networks. When Comcast took majority ownership in NBCUniversal, a significant number of cable networks were added to this list. Comcast's NHL deal obligated them to create a U.S. version of NHL Network, launched in October 2007.

Comcast has also operated local channels in some markets, such as Comcast Television in the Detroit region, Comcast Network in the Philadelphia and Mid-Atlantic regions (formerly CN8), and Comcast Entertainment Television in Denver and parts of Utah. They primarily carried local programs and sports (including, in some cases, serving as the designated overflow channel for local regional sports networks).

DreamWorks Animation

On August 22, 2016, NBCUniversal bought DreamWorks Animation, along with its major IPs including Shrek, How to Train Your Dragon, Kung Fu Panda, and Madagascar.[83][84][85][86]

Sky


ملاحظات

  1. ^ Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was Comcast Holdings Corporation. Comcast Holdings Corporation now refers to a subsidiary of Comcast Corporation, not the parent company (see: Bloomberg profile on Comcast Holdings Corporation). Technically, the current parent company was founded December 7, 2001 as CAB Holdings Corporation, which changed its name to AT&T Comcast Corporation before finally taking on the Comcast Corporation name (see: Nov 2002 8K/A Form Archived March 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. and Nov 2002 S-4 Archived March 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.).

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وصلات خارجية

Business data

قالب:Comcast

Coordinates: 39°57′16″N 75°10′07″W / 39.9545°N 75.1685°W / 39.9545; -75.1685