العلاقات التركية الصينية

التركية-الصينية
Map indicating locations of People's Republic of China and Turkey

الصين

تركيا

العلاقات التركية الصينية هي العلاقات الخارجية بين الصين وتركيا. تأسست العلاقات الدبلوماسية بين البلدين عام 1934 واعترفت تركيا بجمهورية الصين الشعبية في 5 أغسطس 1971. تتوافق الصين مع سياسة صين واحدة وتعترف بأن جمهورية الصين الشعبية الممثل الشرعي الوحيد للصين. للصين سفارة في أنقرة، وقنصلية عامة في إسطنبول بينما لتركيا سفارة في بكين وقنصليتين عامتين في هونگ كونگ وشنغهاي. تحافظ تركيا والصين على العلاقات الجيدة، على الرغم من النزاع مع الأويغور المسلمين التورك. مؤخراً، شهد التعاون الاقليمي والعالمي بين البلدين نمواً على الجانبين سعياً لتعزيز العلاقات المتبادلة.[1][2]

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التاريخ

في القرن 16، كانت قام الرحالة العثمانيين برحلات إلى الصين وكما سافر الرحالة الصينيين إلى العالم العثماني.[3]

وفقاً للتاريخ الرسمي لأسرة مينگ، زار بعض المبعوثين العثمانيين بكين لتقديم التحية لإمبراطور مينگ في عام 1524.[4] ومع ذلك، لا توجد مصادر عثمانية تدعم زيارة أي بعثة دبلوماسية رسمية للصين في ذلك الوقت.

كان القيصر ڤيلهلم الثاني منزعج للغية من القوات المسلمة الصينية في ثورة الملاكمين الذي طلب من الخليفة العثماني عبد الحميد الثاني إيجاد طريقة لإيقاف القوات المسلمة عن القتال. وافق الخليفة على طلب القيصر وأرسل أنور پاشا (ليس القائد التركي الشاب المستقبلي) للصين عام 1901، لكن التمرد كان قد انتهى في ذلك الوقت.[5][6][7]

استقبل المسئولين الحكوميين الأتراك الوفد المسلم الصيني تحت رئاسة وانگ زنگ‌شان الذين استنكروا الغزو الياباني للصين.[8]


الحرب الكورية

عام 1950، طالب قرار الأمم المتحدة رقم 83 المساعدة العسكرية لكوريا الجنوبية في أعقاب اجتياحها من قبل القوات الكورية الشمالية، التي كانت مدعومة من الصين والاتحاد السوڤيتي. أُلحق لواء تركي قوامها 5.000 فرد بفرقة المشاة الأمريكية رقم 25، ضمن قيادة الأمم المتحدة.

قاتل اللواء التركي في عدة مواجهات الكبرى، منها معركة واوون (27-29 نوفمبر 1950)، ضم عناصر من جيش المفرزة رقم 38 التابع لجيش التحرير الشعبي الصيني ومعركة كوميانگ‌جانگ-ني (25-26 يناير 1951)، ضد عناصر من الجيش رقم 50. مُنح الواء Unit Citations من كوريا الجنوبية والولايات المتحدة.


الزيارات

On 28 November 2008, Jia Qinglin, China’s top political advisor and the chairman of the People's Political Consultative Conference, gave an official goodwill visit to Turkey as guest of Turkish Parliament Speaker Köksal Toptan. In Ankara, Jia met Turkish President Abdullah Gül and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan. After visiting Ankara, Jia attended a business forum entitled "Turkish-Chinese Economic and Commercial Opportunities Forum" in İstanbul.[9]

Turkish President Abdullah Gül has become the first Turkish president to visit China in 14 years with his official visit between on 24–29 June 2009.[10][11] Gül said one of the major goals of his visit was to boost economic relations.[12] In Beijing, Gül hold talks with his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao and attended a Turkey-China business forum.[13] Following the meetings, seven cooperation agreements were signed between the two countries in the fields of energy, banking, finance and culture.[14] After Beijing, Gül visited Xian, and he was awarded with an honorary doctorate by the Xian Northwest University.[15] In the third leg of his China trip, Gül visited Shenzhen.[16] Upon an invitation of the Beijing administration, Gül also visited Ürümqi, and has become the first Turkish president visiting Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.[17]

شغب 2009

Initially in response to the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, the Foreign Ministry of Turkey urged the Chinese authorities to find the perpetrators and bring them to justice.[18] But some officials disagreed: a deputy from ruling Justice & Development (AK) Party resigned from the Turkey-China Interparliamentary Friendship Group,[19] and in his personal capacity, Turkey's industry and trade minister called on Turks to boycott Chinese goods to protest the continuing ethnic violence,[20][21] to which the Chinese chargé d'affaires in Ankara expressed "surprise".[22] After daily demonstrations in Ankara and Istanbul, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan strengthened his rhetoric and said "These incidents in China are as if they are genocide. We ask the Chinese government not to remain a spectator to these incidents."[23] China demanded that Recep Tayyip Erdogan retract his accusation; editorials in the state-run China Daily pointed out that 137 of the 184 victims of the unrest were Han Chinese.[24] A phone conversation between China and Turkey's respective foreign ministers reaffirmed the importance of Turkish-Chinese relations, and Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said that Turkey did not intend "to interfere with the domestic affairs of China".[25]

التسوية

On 7 October 2010, China and Turkey signed eight cooperation agreements relating to trade, cultural and technical exchange, marine cooperation, and other things. At the signing ceremony attended by both of the countries' prime ministers, both pledged to increase bilateral trade to $50 billion by 2015, and to cooperate in building high-speed rail to link Ankara to Istanbul.[26] Later in November, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu toured China for six days and met with his counterpart Yang Jiechi, after Chinese premier Wen Jiabao visited Turkey and upgraded the China–Turkey relationship to a "strategic partnership". Among the joint pledges the foreign ministers made in China were to start a Turkish industrial zone in Xinjiang[27] and to jointly crack down on separatism and terrorism, including on anti-China separatist activities in Turkey.[28] Commentators have cited these stronger ties as further proof of a realignment of Turkish foreign policy to the "East".[27]

Rebiya Kadeer claimed that Turkey is hampered from interfering with Uyghurs because Turkey recognizes its own Kurdish issue problems, which China may interfere with in retaliation.[29]


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الاحتجاجات المناهضة للصين في تركيا 2015

On 4 July 2015, 2,000 Turkish nationalists protesting against China fasting ban mistakenly attack Korean tourists in Istanbul which led to China issuing travel warning to its citizens traveling to Turkey.[30][31] The ruling AKP party in power in Turkey has different factions; some of which are nationalists who want to inflame tensions with China over Uyghurs, and other pragmatic members who want to maintain good relations with China and believe the Uyghur issue is being abused to spoil relations between China and Turkey by the United States. Some Islamist AKP members have accused Rebiya Kadeer of being an "American agent" and "infidel".[32] Turkey has had to follow its own country's interests first with a pragmatic approach to the situation of Turkic peoples in other countries like Uyghurs, Gagauz, and Crimean Tatars.[33]

Devlet Bahçeli, a leader from Turkey's MHP (Nationalist Movement Party), said that the attacks by MHP affiliated Turkish youth on South Korean tourists were "understandable", telling the Turkish news paper Hurriyet that: "What feature differentiates a Korean from a Chinese? They see that they both have slanted eyes. How can they tell the difference?".[34] Another translation of his remarks was : "What is the difference between a Korean and a Chinese anyway? They both have slitty eyes. Does it make any difference?"[35][36] A Uighur staffed, Turkish owned Chinese restaurant was assaulted by Turkish nationalists, who have also attacked the Dutch consulate which they thought was the Russian consulate.[37][38] Anti-Chinese violence in Turkey motivated by Chinese treatment of Uyghurs targets believed Chinese nationals, but often these nationals are Uyghurs holding Chinese citizenship.

نزاع شين‌جيانگ

Turkish connections were used by Uyghur fighters to go into Syria and the humanitarian Uyghur East Turkistan Education and Solidarity Association (ETESA) which is located in Turkey sent Uyghurs into Syria, endorsed the killing of the pro-China Imam Juma Tayir, applauded attacks in China, and posted on its website content from the TIP.[39]

اتهم عماد مصطفى، السفير السوري لدى الصين، تركيا بتسهيل دخول الجهاديين الأويغور إلى سوريا.[40]

تركيا تنتقد رسمياً معسكرات الاعتقال الصينية للأويغور، وإجبارهم على مخالفة الشريعة الإسلامية بأكل الخنزير وشرب الخمر. الانتقاد التركي يأتي بعد أيام من إصدار الصين منع سياحها من زيارة تركيا.[41]


انظر أيضاً


المصادر

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  2. ^ "Xi congratulates Erdogan on re-election as Turkish president". 
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وصلات خارجية