الحروب الجرمانية

الحروب الجرمانية Germanic Wars هي الاسم المطلق على سلسلة من الحروب بين الرومان وقبائل جرمانية متعددة بين 113 ق.م. و 596 م. تنوعت طبيعة تلك الحروب عبر الزمان بين الفتح الروماني والانتفاضات الجرمانية ولاحقاً غزوات جرمانية لأراضي الامبراطورية الرومانية بدأت في أواخر القرن الثاني الميلادي. سلسلة النزاعات، التي بدأت في القرن الخامس في عهد الامبراطور الروماني الغربي هونوريوس، أدت (مع التناحر الداخلي) إلى سقوط الامبراطورية الرومانية الغربية.

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تأريخ

القرن الثالث ق.م.

القرن الثاني ق.م.

هزيمة الكيمبري بريشة ألكسندر گابرييل دكامپ


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القرن الأول ق.م.

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar by Lionel Noel Royer, 1899


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القرن الأول

The Varus battle by Otto Albert Koch, 1909

القرن الثاني

القرن الثالث

The area (Agri Decumates) between Main and Rhine was evacuated in 259 AD, dozens of Roman camps were abandoned.

القرن الرابع

قالب:Campaignbox Barbarian Invasions

Empire of the Huns, pushing the Germanic tribes over the Limes into the Roman Empire.

القرن الخامس

For the timeline of events in Britannia after its abandonment by Emperor Valentinian III, انظر Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain.

قالب:Campaignbox Rome against the Visigoths قالب:Campaignbox Rome against the Anglo-Saxons

Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow) and their allies the Sarmatian Alans before the Invasion of Roman Africa, c. 418
Kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, c. 429.
Europe in the late 5th century (476-486).

القرن السادس

قالب:Campaignbox Rome against the Vandals قالب:Campaignbox Rome against the Ostrogoths

Kingdom of the Visigoths (orange), Kingdom of the Suebi (green), Kingdom of the Burgundians, Kingdom of the Franks (purple), Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow), c. 490.
The Byzantine Empire at the End of the Antiquity in 565.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (بالألمانية) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث Mossman, Theodor (1908). History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  4. ^ Florus, Epitome 1.38.16-17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3 (in Latin)
  5. ^ Caesar. In: [[|]] ‏(en) (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. [[|]] ‏(en) 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" ("Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
  6. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
  7. ^ Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
  8. ^ Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139.
  9. ^ Florus, III. 10. § 8.
  10. ^ Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, Die Kelten, p. 238. (بالألمانية) (The Celts)
  11. ^ Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
  12. ^ Dio, Roman History, LIV.33.
  13. ^ Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. (بالألمانية))
  14. ^ "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010.
  15. ^ Velleius, Compendium of Roman History, book 2, 104,2.
  16. ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 ISBN 0-393-32643-8
  17. ^ "The Ambush That Changed History". Fergus M. Bordewich, Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  18. ^ "Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome". Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905.
  19. ^ Kevin Sweeney, Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory. www.nujournal.com 2010-10.
  20. ^ Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
  21. ^ Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
  22. ^ أ ب Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 18.
  23. ^ Jordanes, The Goths in the Third Century AD in THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow, www.earth-history.com
  24. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
  25. ^ Potter, David S., A Companion to the Roman Empire, p. 270
  26. ^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
  27. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 83-84.
  28. ^ Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
  29. ^ Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, IV.6
  30. ^ Odahl, Charles M., Constantine and the Christian Empire, chapter X.
  31. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 27, chapter 5.
  32. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 115-116.
  33. ^ أ ب ت Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  34. ^ أ ب Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapter 3.
  35. ^ أ ب ت Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical history, book 9, chapter 17.
  36. ^ أ ب ت Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 6, chapter 37.
  37. ^ أ ب Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
  38. ^ أ ب Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 124-128.
  39. ^ Heather, Peter, 2010, Empires and barbarians, p. 215.
  40. ^ Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
  41. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 5-16.
  42. ^ Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History, book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1.
  43. ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 130-138.
  44. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
  45. ^ Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com. Retrieved 2008-04-19. External link in |publisher= (help)
  46. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
  47. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  48. ^ Roman Empire – Adrianople roman-empire.net. Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  49. ^ أ ب Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
  50. ^ Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
  51. ^ أ ب Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
  52. ^ History of the Goths. University of California Press. 13 February 1990. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  53. ^ "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  54. ^ Haldon, John, 2008, The Byzantine Wars, p. 39.
  55. ^ Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.

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