يوحنا المعمدان

يوحنا المعمدان
Veneto 0036.jpg
يوحنا المعمدان، رسم Bartolomeo Veneto، القرن 17
نبي، شهيد، وقديس
وُلِدأواخر القرن الأول ق.م.
Herodian Judea
توفي31 – 36 م[1][2][3][4]
Machaerus, Perea
مكرّم في
المسيحية
الإسلام
البهائية
المندائية
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineChurch of St John the Baptist, Jerusalem Tomb of Prophet Yahya, Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
عيده24 يونيو (الميلاد
29 أغسطس (قطع رأسه)،
7 يناير(Synaxis،
الأرثوذكسية الشرقية)،
2 توت (الكنيسة القبطية الأرثوذكسية)
الصفاتCamel-skin robe, cross, lamb, scroll with words "Ecce Agnus Dei", platter with own head, pouring water from hands or scallop shell
يرعىPatron saint of Jordan, Puerto Rico, Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, French Canada, Newfoundland, Cesena, Florence, Genoa, Monza, Perth (Scotland), Porto, San Juan, Turin, Xewkija, and many other places.

في المسيحية يوحنا المعمدان هو من عمّد يسوع المسيح في نهر الأردن.

ولد القديس يوحنا المعمدان من والدين تقيين وهما زكريا الكاهن وإليصابات[5] ويذكر التقليد المسيحي عين كارم على أنها موطن زكريا وأليصابات أبوي يوحنا المعمدان سابق المسيح[6]. وهو النبي يحيى بن زكريا لدى الديانة الإسلامية ونبي الديانة الصابئية المندائية لدى الصابئة حيث ينسب له كتاب دراشة أد يهيا (تعاليم يحيى) وهو أحد الكتب المقدسة في الديانة المندائية، كما أن يحيى أو يوحنا المعمدان أو يحيى بن زكريا يعتبر نبياً حسب الديانة البهائية.

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المسيح يطلب من يوحنا أن يعمده

في المسيحية كان يوحنا المعمدان يعمّد الناس اي يغسلهم في نهر الأردن للتوبة من الخطايا.

لما بلغ السيد المسيح سن الثلاثين ذهب لنهر الأردن وإعتمد من يوحنا المعمدان »حِينَئِذٍ جَاءَ يَسُوعُ مِنَ الْجَلِيلِ إِلَى الْأُرْدُنِّ إِلَى يُوحَنَّا لِيَعْتَمِدَ مِنْهُ. وَلكِنْ يُوحَنَّا مَنَعَهُ قَائِلاً: »أَنَا مُحْتَاجٌ أَنْ أَعْتَمِدَ مِنْكَ، وَأَنْتَ تَأْتِي إِلَيَّ!« فَقَالَ يَسُوعُ لَهُ: » اسْمَحِ الْآنَ، لِأَنَّهُ هكَذَا يَلِيقُ بِنَا أَنْ نُكَمِّلَ كُلَّ بِرٍّ«. حِينَئِذٍ سَمَحَ لَهُ. فَلَمَّا اعْتَمَدَ يَسُوعُ صَعِدَ لِلْوَقْتِ مِنَ الْمَاءِ، وَإِذَا السَّمَاوَاتُ قَدِ انْفَتَحَتْ لَهُ، فَرَأَى رُوحَ اللّهِ نَازِلاً مِثْلَ حَمَامَةٍ وَآتِياً عَلَيْهِ، وَصَوْتٌ مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ قَائِلاً: » هذَا هُوَ ابْنِي الْحَبِيبُ الَّذِي بِهِ سُرِرْتُ« (متى 3:13-17)[7].

القديس يوحنا المعمدان، لوحة لتيتيان، 1542 م


قطع رأسه

تزوج الملك هيرودس من هيروديا زوجة أخيه. وكان هيرودس يخاف يوحنا إذ قال له بأنه لايجوز زواجه بزوجة أخيه فهذا لايحل له. لذلك، سجن هيرودس يوحنا وكانت هيروديا حاقدة على يوحنا من ذلك وفي عيد ميلاد المك هيرودس دعا العظماء والقواد لعشاء فاخر ودخلت ابنة هيروديا لترقص فسرّ هيرودس الملك والمتكئين معه وقال الملك لها أطلبي ما تشائين وسوف يتحقق حتى ولو نصف مملكتي وأقسم على هذا أمام الجمع فخرجت الصبية لعند أمها وتشاورت معها وطلبت رأس يوحنا المعمدان على طبق فحزن الملك جداً لأجل القسم. وأرسل الملك سيافاً وأمره أن يأتي برأس يوحنا. وأتي برأسه للصبية، والصبية بدورها أعطته لأمها [5].

رفاته

Nabi Yahya Mosque in Sebastia, near Nablus, West Bank, the traditional burial site

Religious views

Christianity

Old Testament as prophesying John

John the Baptist, by Andrea del Sarto, 1528
John the Baptist, by Juan de Juanes (es), c. 1560


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Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern Orthodox icon John the Baptist — the Angel of the Desert (Stroganov School, 1620s) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.


Catholic Church

A 'Head of St John', in Rome
Tomb of St. John the Baptist at a Coptic monastery in Lower Egypt. The bones of St. John the Baptist were said to have been found here.

The Roman Catholic Church commemorates St. John the Baptist on two feast days:


Islam

Prophet
Yahya
Prophet, Seer, Messenger, Forerunner of Jesus
StJohnInUmmayad.jpg
Prophet Yahya's Shrine inside the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
وُلـِد6 BCE
Jerusalem, Palestine
توفي28 CE
Machaerus, Jordan
المثوىUmayyad Mosque, Damascus
أسماء أخرىNew Testament: John the Baptist
مبعث الشهرةBeing a gift from God to his father Zachariah, Prophesying with the scripture, Attaining wisdom in youth
الوالدانZachariah and Elizabeth
الأقاربCousin of Jesus, Nephew of Mary

John is also honored as a prophet in Islam as Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā (العربية: يحيى بن زكريا‎), or "John, son of Zechariah". He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the word of God, and a prophet who would herald the coming of Jesus.[8] His father Zechariah was also an Islamic prophet. Islamic tradition maintains that John was one of the prophets whom Muhammad met on the night of the Mi'raj,[9] his ascension through the Seven Heavens. It is said that he met John and Jesus in the second heaven, where Muhammad greeted his two 'brothers' before ascending with archangel Gabriel to the third heaven. John's story was also told to the Abyssinian king during the Muslim refugees' Migration to Abyssinia.[10] According to the Qur'an, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.[11]


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In the Qur'an

Tomb of Yahya Nabi, Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

In the Qur'an, God frequently mentions Zechariah's continuous praying for the birth of a son. Zechariah's wife, mentioned in the New Testament as Elizabeth, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible.[12] As a gift from God, Zechariah (or Zakariya) was given a son by the name of "Yaḥya", a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah's prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesis was born six months later,[13] renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Qur'an says:

(His prayer was answered): "O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before."
He said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?"
He said: "So (it will be) thy Lord saith, 'that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'"
(Zakarya) said: "O my Lord! give me a Sign." "Thy Sign," was the answer, "Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights."

— Qur'an, sura 19 (Maryam), verse 7[14]


Festivity

In many Mediterranean countries, the summer solstice is dedicated to St. John. The associated ritual is very similar to midsummer celebrations in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.

Locations, churches, and other establishments in his name

According to Armenian tradition, the remains of John the Baptist were laid to rest by Gregory the Illuminator at the Saint Karapet Monastery.[15][16]
The Catholic Church in Ein Kerem on the site where John the Baptist is said to have been born
St John the Baptist (Greek Orthodox) Located on Ha-Notsrim street in the Christian Quarter, Old Jerusalem


See also


مراجع

  1. ^ Metzger, Bruce Manning (1993). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 283. Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 CE.
  2. ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Michael D. Coogan (2004). The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 103. Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 CE.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty, pp. 268, 277.
  4. ^ Goldberg, G. J (2001) "John the Baptist and Josephus" – "Having said that, it does appear that Josephus is giving John's death as occurring in 36 CE, which is at least 6 years later than what is expected from the New Testament, and after the crucifixion of Jesus."
  5. ^ أ ب Mhabatzaidal
  6. ^ AynKarm
  7. ^ Kalimatalhayat
  8. ^ "Yahya", Encyclopedia of Islam
  9. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, Mi'raj
  10. ^ Muhammad, Martin Lings, Abysinnia. etc.
  11. ^ القرآن 19:13–15
  12. ^ Lives of the Prophets, Leila Azzam, John and Zechariah
  13. ^ A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, John the Baptist
  14. ^ القرآن 19:7–10
  15. ^ Kharatyan, Lusine; Keskin, Ismail; Keshishyan, Avetis; Ozturk, S. Aykut; Khachatryan, Nane; Albayrak, Nihal; Hakobyan, Karen (2013). Moush, sweet Moush: Mapping Memories from Armenia and Turkey (PDF). The Institute for International Cooperation Of the German Adult Education Association (dvv international). p. 69. ISBN 978-3-942755-12-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2015. The Saint Karapet Monastery is one of the oldest Armenian monasteries in Moush Valley, dating back to the 4th century when Gregory the Illuminator, founder of the Armenian Apostolic Church, is believed to have buried the relics of Saint John the Baptist (Karapet) here.
  16. ^ Avetisyan, Kamsar (1979). "Տարոնի պատմական հուշարձանները [Historical monuments of Taron]". Հայրենագիտական էտյուդներ [Armenian studies sketches] (in الأرمنية). Yerevan: Sovetakan Grogh. p. 204. ...ըստ ավանդության, Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչը ամփոփել է ս. Կարապետի և Աթանագինե եպիսկոպոսի նշխարները։

وصلات خارجية

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Book of John the Baptist


قالب:New Testament Prophets