ميامي

(تم التحويل من ميامي، فلوريدا)
ميامي

Miami, Florida
A collage of images of Miami.
Flag of ميامي
Flag
Official seal of ميامي
Seal
الموقع في مركز ميامي-ديد وولاية فلوريدا
الموقع في مركز ميامي-ديد وولاية فلوريدا
خريطة من مكتب إحصاء الولايات المتحدة تـُظهر حدود المدينة
خريطة من مكتب إحصاء الولايات المتحدة تـُظهر حدود المدينة
الدولة Flag of the United States.svg الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
الولاية Flag of Florida.svg فلوريدا
المركز 20px Miami-Dade
Incorporated July 28, 1896
الحكم
 • النوع Mayor-Commissioner Plan
 • العمدة ماني دياز (م)
 • مدير المدينة Pedro G. Hernandez
 • محامي المدينة Jorge L. Fernandez
 • City Clerk Priscilla Thompson
المساحة
 • مدينة 55٫27 ميل² (143٫15 كم²)
 • البر 35٫68 ميل² (92٫42 كم²)
 • الماء 19٫59 ميل² (50٫73 كم²)
 • العمران 6٬137 ميل² (15٬896 كم²)
التعداد(2006)
 • مدينة 404٬048
 • الكثافة 11٬554/sq mi (4٬407٫4/km2)
 • الحضر 5٬463٬857
 • العمرانية 5٬919٬036
 • صفة المواطن مياميان
مفتاح الهاتف 305, 786
FIPS code 12-45000[1]
GNIS feature ID 0295004[2]
الموقع الإلكتروني http://www.ci.miami.fl.us/

ميامي (بالإنجليزية: Miami) هي مدينة كبرى تقع في جنوب شرق ولاية فلوريدا في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. تعتبر ثاني أكبر مدينة في فلوريدا (بعد مدينة جاكسون‌ڤل) حيث تبلغ مساحتها 139.86 كيلومتراً مربعاً. وهي أكبر مدن مقاطعة ميامي ديد. عدد سكانها 382894 نسمة (عام 2005). تعتبر ميامي مركزاً اقتصادياً وثقافياً هاماً في المنطقة. تقع المدينة على الساحل الجنوبي الشرقي من فلوريدا، عند منبع نهر ميامي. وتقع على خليج بسكاي الذي يبعد نحو 6كم غربي المحيط الأطلسي.

قام أوائل المستوطنين البيض الدائمين بمنطقة ميامي ببناء البيوت على خليج بسكاين. وقد نما ذلك التجمع السكاني الجديد ـ الذي سماه المستوطنون ميامي، تيمنا بنهر ميامي ـ سريعًا بسبب التوسع الصناعي والسياحة المستمرة على مدار العام. وتُعدُّ ميامي ثانية كبريات مدن فلوريدا. فليس هناك سوى مدينة جاكسونفيل التي تفوق ميامي من حيث عدد السكان. وتبلغ مساحة ميامي، وهي حاضرة لإقليم مقاطعة داد، نحو 140كم² بما في ذلك 52كم² من المياه الداخلية.

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التاريخ

نحو 400 رجل صوتوا لتأسيس ميامي في 1896 في المبني إلى يسار الصورة.
جسر كولنز، بني في 1913، كان أول جسر يربط ميامي بميامي بيتش.

عاش هنود تكوستا فيما يعرف حاليًا بمنطقة ميامي، قبل وصول المستوطنين البيض بفترة طويلة. وقد شهدت المدينة في أوائل العشرينيات من القرن العشرين طفرة كبيرة في الناحية العمرانية. فقد جنى الناس الثروات وأنفقوها في بناء البيوت والفنادق والمنتجعات. وعندما بدأت الطفرة في التراجع عام 1926، ضرب المدينة إعصار مدمر.

ومنذ عام 1959 عندما أصبح فيدل كاسترو حاكمًا لكوبا، هرب الآلاف من الكوبيين إلى ميامي التي تبعد 320كم عن كوبا. وضمت مجموعة اللاجئين الأولى جاكسون‌ڤل من رجال الأعمال والعمال المهرة. لكن كثيرًا من الذين قدموا فيما بعد، لم يكونوا من العمال المهرة. وقد وصل عدد كبير من أولئك اللاجئين بشكل خاص في عام 1980. وفي أواخر السبعينيات بدأ كثير من سكان هايتي الاستيطان في منطقة ميامي.

واجهت ميامي، كغيرها من المدن الكبيرة، مشاكل البطالة والنقص في الإسكان. وهي مشاكل تؤثر بشكل خاص على السكان السود. وفي عام 1980، تحول التوتر العرقي إلى العنف، بعد أن تمت تبرئة أربعة من رجال شرطة مقاطعة ميامي-ديد من تهمة قتل رجل أعمال أسود من ميامي. وقد أشعل القرار فتيل الشغب الذي أدّى إلى مقتل 17 شخصًا، وأحدث أضرارًا مادية قدرت بحوالي 100 مليون دولار .

في منتصف الثمانينيات تم بناء عدد من الأبنية الجديدة في أواسط ميامي. وفي عام 1984، بُدئ في تشغيل نظام جديد للنقل بوساطة القطار السريع، وأُضيفت له عام 1986 وسيلة نقل سريعة، وهي خط مكوكي مرتفع. وفي عام 1992، ضرب إعصار أندرو الممطر ولاية فلوريدا، ودمر الإعصار المناطق جنوبي ميامي دماراً هائلاً.


الجغرافيا

Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east, which also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 40 ft (12 m)[3] and averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m)[4] above mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge, whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

جيولوجيا

قالب:More citations needed

View from one of the higher points in Miami, west of downtown. The highest natural point in the city of Miami is in Coconut Grove, near the bay, along the Miami Rock Ridge at 24 feet (7.3 m) above sea level.[5]

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (8 m) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet (90 to 110 m) below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer,[6] a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the Miami metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft (5 to 6 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. Alligators have ventured into Miami communities and on major highways.

In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 56.06 sq mi (145.2 km2). Of that area, 35.99 sq mi (93.2 km2) is land and 20.08 sq mi (52.0 km2) is water. That means Miami comprises over 400,000 people in 36 square miles (93 km2), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia.


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أفق المدينة

Downtown Miami seen from the Rusty Pelican restaurant on Virginia Key
Northern Downtown Miami overlooking Interstate 95
Downtown as seen from the Port of Miami

الأحياء

Miami is split into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and PortMiami. Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue. Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center, which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami VA Hospital, and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.

The southern side of Miami includes Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall in Dinner Key, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, many nightclubs, bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students. It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa Vizcaya, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center and numerous historic homes and estates.

The western side of Miami includes Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami, and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.

The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians, Hispanics, European Americans, bohemians, and artists. Edgewater, and Wynwood, are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District, and the Upper East Side, with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District, a style of architecture originated in Miami in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami also has notable African American and Caribbean immigrant communities such as Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty City.


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المناخ

Typical summer afternoon thunderstorm rolling in from the Everglades

Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am)[7][8] with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shape its climate. With January averaging 68.2 °F (20.1 °C), winter features highs generally ranging between 73–80 °F (23–27 °C). Cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front, which produces much of the little amount of rainfall during the season. Lows fall below 50 °F (10 °C), an average of 10–15 nights during the winter season following the passage of cold fronts.

The wet season begins some time in June, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C), accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's 55.9 inches (1,420 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period. Dew points in the warm months range from 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) in June to 73.7 °F (23.2 °C) in August.[9]

Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1940.[10] While Miami has never officially recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, snow flurries fell in some parts of Miami on January 19, 1977.[11][12][13][14]

Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September.[15] Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 and again in 1997. Around 40% of homes in Miami are built upon floodplains and are considered as flood-risk zones.[16]

Miami falls under the USDA 10b/11a Plant Hardiness zone.[17]

قالب:Miami weatherbox

الثقافة

الترفيه والفنون المسرحية

Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States

الموسيقى

ملهى ليلي في وسط المدينة

وسائل الإعلام

الرياضة

الإقتصاد

The ongoing high-rise construction in Downtown has inspired popular opinion of “Miami manhattanization
Villa Vizcaya, بني في 1914, هو أحد المعالم السياحية الرئيسية

يعتمد اقتصاد منطقة ميامي على السياحة بشكل رئيسي؛ فتدر السياحة نحو 4,5 مليار دولار سنوياً. وتعمل معظم المرافق السياحية على مدار العام. وتتفاوت درجات الحرارة في المدينة بشكل طفيف، حيث تسجل صيفًا 27°م، أما شتاء فتسجل 22°م .

تحتوي منطقة ميامي على مايقرب من3,000 معمل صناعي. وتعدّ المدينة من أكبر مراكز إنتاج الملابس في البلاد. ومن أهم المنتجات الأخرى: المفروشات والصناعات المعدنية والمطبوعات ومعدات النقل.

Economy

Downtown is South Florida's main hub for finance, commerce and international business. Brickell Avenue has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S.
As seen in 2006, the high-rise construction in Miami has inspired popular opinion of "Miami manhattanization"
Brickell Avenue in Downtown Miami's Brickell Financial District

Miami is a major center of commerce, finance, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) in 2010 and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered a "Alpha minus world city".[18] Miami has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion and is ranked 20th worldwide in GMP, and 11th in the United States.[19][20]

Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including but not limited to: Akerman Senterfitt, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Arrow Air, Bacardi, Benihana, Brightstar Corporation, Burger King, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation, Carnival Cruise Lines, Crispin Porter + Bogusky, Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, Espírito Santo Financial Group, Fizber.com, Greenberg Traurig, Holland & Knight, Inktel Direct, Interval International, Lennar, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Oceania Cruises, Perry Ellis International, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Ryder Systems, Seabourn Cruise Line, Sedano's, Telefónica USA, UniMÁS, Telemundo, Univision, U.S. Century Bank, Vector Group, and World Fuel Services. Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG, American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Kraft Foods, LEO Pharma Americas, Microsoft, Yahoo, Oracle, SBC Communications, Sony, Symantec, Visa International, and Wal-Mart.[21]

Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the U.S. for Spanish language media. Univisión, Telemundo and UniMÁS have their headquarters in Miami, along with their production studios. The Telemundo Television Studios produces much of the original programming for Telemundo, such as their telenovelas and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami.[22] Miami is also a major music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin and Universal Music Latin Entertainment headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shootings.

During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the Florida land boom of the 1920s. During this period, the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects in which 50 were actually built.[23] Rapid high-rise construction led to fast population growth in the city's inner neighborhoods, primarily in Downtown, Brickell and Edgewater, with these neighborhoods becoming the fastest-growing areas in the city. Miami's skyline is ranked third-most impressive in the U.S., behind New York City and Chicago, and 19th in the world according to the Almanac of Architecture and Design.[24] The city currently has the eight tallest (as well as thirteen of the fourteen tallest) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the 789-foot (240 m) Four Seasons Hotel & Tower.[25]

A housing market crash in 2007 caused a foreclosure crisis in the area.[26] In 2012, Forbes magazine named Miami the most miserable city in the United States because of a crippling housing crisis that has cost multitudes of residents their homes and jobs. The metro area has one of the highest violent crime rates in the country and workers face lengthy daily commutes.[27] Like other metro areas in the United States, crime in Miami is localized to specific neighborhoods.[28] In a 2016 study by the website 24/7 Wall Street, Miami was rated as the worst U.S. city in which to live, based on crime, poverty, income inequality and housing costs that far exceed the national median.[29]

Miami International Airport and PortMiami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The Port of Miami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida, and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America.[30] Additionally, the city has among the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along Brickell Avenue in Brickell, Miami's financial district. Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, many international banks have offices in Downtown such as Espírito Santo Financial Group, which has its U.S. headquarters in Miami. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations.

Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central and South America. In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral and Hialeah.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2004, Miami had the third highest incidence of family incomes below the federal poverty line in the United States, making it the third poorest city in the US, behind only Detroit, Michigan (ranked #1) and El Paso, Texas (ranked #2). Miami is also one of the very few cities where its local government went bankrupt, in 2001.[31] On the other hand, Miami has won accolades for its environmental policies: in 2008, it was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to Forbes for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and citywide recycling programs.[32]

PortMiami

PortMiami is the world's largest cruise ship port, and is the headquarters of many of the world's largest cruise companies

Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the PortMiami. It is the largest cruise ship port in the world. The port is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas".[33] It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2017, the port served 5,340,559 cruise passengers.[34] Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 9,162,340 tons of cargo in 2017.[34] Among North American ports, it ranks second to the Port of South Louisiana in New Orleans in terms of cargo tonnage imported/exported from Latin America. The port is on 518 acres (2 km2) and has 7 passenger terminals. China is the port's number one import country and number one export country. Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to: Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International. In 2014, the Port of Miami Tunnel was completed and is serving PortMiami.[35]

Tourism and conventions

Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than 144,800 jobs in Miami-Dade County.[36] Tourism is one of the city's largest industries. The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the second-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States, and is one of the top-20 destination cities worldwide by international visitor spending. More than 15.9 million visitors arrived in Miami in 2017, adding US$26.1 billion to the economy.[37] With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the newly renovated Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.

Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Miami include the beaches, South Beach, Lincoln Road, Bayside Marketplace and Downtown Miami. The Art Deco District in South Beach, is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Sony Ericsson Open, Art Basel, Winter Music Conference, South Beach Wine & Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the metropolis every year.

The Vizcaya Museum and Gardens is a National Historic Landmark set on 28 acres in Coral Gables. It is early 20th century estate that includes extensive Italian Renaissance gardens, native woodland landscape, and a historic village outbuildings compound. The landscape and architecture were influenced by Veneto and Tuscan Italian Renaissance models and designed in the Mediterranean Revival architecture style, with Baroque elements.

الديموغرافيا

خريطة لميامي عام 1955
The برج الحرية, Miami's first skyscraper, was completed in 1925
Authentic Cuban dish of ropa vieja, فول أسود, أرز أصفر, plantains and fried yuca مع الجعة
التعداد تاريخياً
الإحصاء التعداد
1840 446
1850 159 -64.3%
1860 83 -47.8%
1870 85 2.4%
1880 257 202.4%
1890 861 235.0%
1900 1٬681 95.2%
1910 5٬471 225.5%
1920 29٬549 440.1%
1930 110٬637 274.4%
1940 172٬172 55.6%
1950 249٬276 44.8%
1960 291٬688 17.0%
1970 334٬859 14.8%
1980 346٬865 3.6%
1990 358٬548 3.4%
2000 362٬470 1.1%
تقديري 2006 404٬048 [38] 11.5%
تعداد منطقة ميامي الحضرية
السنة التعداد
1920 66,542
1930 214,830
1940 387,522
1950 693,705
1960 1,497,099
1970 2,236,645
1980 3,220,844
1990 4,056,100
2000 5,007,564
2006 5,919,036

ولد ما يقرب من 55% من سكان ميامي خارج الولايات المتحدة. ويشكل الكوبيون خُمسي السكان ويُكسبون المدينة ثقافة لاتينية قوية. وقد اجتذبت هذه الثقافة عددًا من المصارف والشركات التي تتولى أعمال التجارة الأمريكية ـ اللاتينية. وتضم المدينة أيضاً عدداً كبيراً من السكان الهاييتيين. وتشمل المجموعات السكانية الأخرى أولئك الذين يرجعون إلى أصول إنجليزية وألمانية وإيطالية. ويشكل السود 25% من سكان ميامي.

اللغات

التعليم

المدارس العامة

المدارس الخاصة

الكليات والجامعات

النقل

المطارات

Aerial view of Miami International Airport, which services roughly 35 million people annually
The Miami Metromover is a free train that runs throughout Downtown

يعدُّ مطار ميامي من أكثر مطارات البلاد ازدحاماً وحركة. ويُعدُّ أيضًا الممر الجوي الرئيسي بين الولايات المتحدة وأمريكا اللاتينية. وعن طريق ميناء ميامي، يتم نقل جموع المسافرين، كما ترسو به سفن الشحن القادمة من كثير من البلدان

وسائل النقل العام

الطرق والسكك الحديدية

الثقافة الشعبية

برج بانك اوڤ أمريكا مضاء بنيون وردي ساخن, أحد الألوان التي أصبحت the epitome of Miami's fashion nostalgia
المنظر من "القمر فوق ميامي Moon Over Miami ", وهو تعبير طالما ألهم العديد الكثير في ثقافة الپوپ, ومنهم فيلم, مسلسل تلفزيوني, أغنية وطبق.


مدن شقيقة

يوجد عشر مدن شقيقة لمدينة ميامي:[39]

انظر أيضا

وصلات خارجية

ميامي travel guide from Wikitravel

أخرى


قالب:Miami قالب:Dade County, Florida

المصادر


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قالب:Miami metropolitan area

قالب:Florida cities and mayors of 100,000 population خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).