بلغار

Bulgarians
Българи
Bǎlgari
إجمالي التعداد
ح. 9–10 million[1][2][3]
مناطق بتجمعات معتبرة
Flag of بلغاريا بلغاريا 6,000,000 (2011)a[›]
Flag of تركيا تركيا 351,000–600,000 (2014–2008)b[›]
Flag of ألمانيا ألمانيا 310,415n[›] (2017)[4]
Flag of أوكرانيا أوكرانيا 204,574e[›]–500,000 (2001)[5][6]
Flag of إسپانيا إسپانيا 126,997n[›]–350,000 (2017)[7][8]
Flag of الولايات المتحدة الولايات المتحدة 115,012h[›]–300,000 (2016)[9][10]
Flag of المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة 91,000/77,000–105,000/n[›] (2016–2017)[11]
Flag of مولدوڤا مولدوڤا (incl. Transnistria) 79,520e[›] (2004)[12]
Flag of اليونان اليونان 72,893n[›]–300,000 (2015)[13][14]b[›]
Flag of الأرجنتين الأرجنتين 70,000 (2008)[15]
Flag of البرازيل البرازيل 62,000h[›] (2006)[16][17]
Flag of إيطاليا إيطاليا 58,620n[›]–120,000 (2016)[18][19]
Flag of كندا كندا 30,485h[›]–70,000 (2011)[14][20]
Flag of بلجيكا بلجيكا 29,100f[›] (2014)[21]
Flag of هولندا هولندا 23,612n[›]–27,729m[›] (2017)[22]
Flag of النمسا النمسا 25,686n[›] (2017)[23]
Flag of روسيا روسيا (2010 area) 24,038e[›]–330,000 (2010)[2][24]
Flag of قبرص قبرص (excl. TRNC) 19,197n[›] (2011)[25]
Flag of صربيا صربيا 18,543e[›] (2011)[26]
Flag of فرنسا فرنسا 17,626n[›]–50,000 (2015)[13][27]
Flag of التشيك التشيك 12,250n[›] (2016)[28]
Flag of الدنمارك الدنمارك 9,955 (2018)[29]
Flag of السويد السويد 6,257d[›]–9,105f[›] (2016)[30]
Flag of النرويج النرويج 6,752n[›]–8,180m[›] (2017)[31]
Flag of سويسرا سويسرا 8,588n[›] (2017)[32]
Flag of الپرتغال الپرتغال 7,019n[›]–12,000 (2016)[33][34]
Flag of رومانيا رومانيا 7,336e[›] (2011)[35]
Flag of أستراليا أستراليا 5,436h[›] (2011)[36]
Flag of قزخستان قزخستان 4,523e[›] (2009)[37]
Flag of جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا 4,224n[›]–20,000 (2015)[13][38]
Flag of المجر المجر 4,022 (2016)[39]
Flag of فنلندا فنلندا 2,840 (2018)[40]
Flag of شمال مقدونيا شمال مقدونيا 1,417 (2002)
اللغات
Bulgarian
الأديان
Predominantly Orthodox Christianity
(Bulgarian Orthodox Church)
with Muslim, Catholic, Protestant and Jewish minorities
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
Other South Slavs, especially Macedonians,[41] Torlaks, and Slavic speakers in Greece.

^ a: The 2011 census figure was 5,664,624.[42] The question on ethnicity was voluntary and 10% of the population did not declare any ethnicity,[43] thus the figure is considered an underestimation. Ethnic Bulgarians are estimated at around 6 million, 85% of the population.[44]
^ b: Estimates[45][46] of the number of Pomaks whom most scholars categorize as Bulgarians[47][48]
^ c: According to the 2002 census there were 1,417 Bulgarians in North Macedonia.[49] Between 2003 and 2017, according to the data provided by Bulgarian authorities some 87,483[50]-200,000[51] permanent residents of Macedonia declared Bulgarian origin in their applications for Bulgarian citizenship, of which 67,355 requests were granted. A minor part of them are among the total of 2,934 Macedonia-born residents, who are residing in Bulgaria by 2016.[52]
^ d: by citizenship excluding dual citizens
^ e: by single ethnic group per person
^ f: by foreign-born
^ h: by heritage
^ n: by legal nationality
^ m: by nationality, naturalisation and descendant background

Bulgarians (بالبلغارية: българи, Bǎlgari, قالب:IPA-bg) are a nation and South Slavic[53][54] ethnic group native to Bulgaria and its immediate region.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

أصل الاسم

Bulgarians derive their ethnonym from the Bulgars. Their name is not completely understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD,[55] but it is possibly derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha ("to mix", "shake", "stir") and its derivative bulgak ("revolt", "disorder").[56] Alternate etymologies include derivation from a compound of Proto-Turkic bel ("five") and gur ("arrow" in the sense of "tribe"), a proposed division within the Utigurs or Onogurs ("ten tribes").[57]


التاريخ

قالب:Bulgarians

Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)

الحركة القومية البلغارية


الديمغرافيا


الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة

Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighbouring Macedonians.[41] The ethnic Macedonians were considered Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond with a big portion of them evidently self-identifying as such.[58][59][60] The Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia and most among the Torlaks in Serbia have also had a history of identifying as Bulgarians and many were members of the Bulgarian Exarchate, which included most of the territory regarded as Torlak. The greater part of these people were also considered Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond.[61][62][63][64]


الثقافة

The Bulgarian culture has largely the product of influence of incoming cultures and is now going through westernization, especially the cuisine.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

اللغة

Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with Serbo-Croatian, especially the eastern dialects.[65] The lexical similarities between Bulgarian and Macedonian are 86%, between Bulgarian and other Slavic languages between 71% and 80%, but with the Baltic languages they are 40–46%, while with English are about 20%.[66][67] Only fewer than a dozen Bulgarian words are derived from Turkic Bulgar.[68]


الأبجدية الكيريلية

الأبجدية الكيريلية للغة البلغارية القديمة من العصور الوسطى


الدين

Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population to include a region into this jurisdiction.[69]


الفنون والعلوم

Jordanov
Assen Jordanoff (left), Bulgarian American inventor considered by prominent aviation specialists the main contributor to the American knowledge of aviation, likewise the Boeing, airbag and tape recorder.[70]
John Vincent Atanasoff (right), Bulgarian American inventor of the Atanasoff-Berry computer, legally the inventor of the electronic digital computer in the U.S. and considered the "father of the computer".[71][72][73]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المطبخ

Bulgarian Peach Kompot - non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit

Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia, mastika and menta. Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator. There are many different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa.


المعتقدات والعادات الشعبية

Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа, Sofia Province

الرموز

The national symbols of the Bulgarians are the Flag, the Coat of Arms, the National anthem and the National Guard, as well other unofficial symbols such as the Samara flag.


Folk dress and music

Bulgarian folk dancers in a national costume with embroidery on the penultimate row of the arpons showing the most spread Slavic cryptogram Bur[74] with a cross inside the rhombus representing the sun and spirals indicating rain,[75] which is similarly represented as the Rising Sun[76] decorative pattern of the Flag of Belarus. Similar carpet patterns appear on the Flag of Turkmenistan ultimately derived from ancient Persia.

The Bulgarian folk costumes feature long white robes, usually with red embrdoiery and ornaments derived from the Slavic Rachenik.


خرائط

See also

== المراجع ==

  1. ^ Danver, Steven L. (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World. google.bg. ISBN 9781317464006.
  2. ^ أ ب Cole, Jeffrey E. (25 May 2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. google.bg. ISBN 9781598843033.
  3. ^ Conference, Foundation for Endangered Languages; Argenter, Joan A.; McKenna Brown, R. (2004). On the Margins of Nations. google.bg. ISBN 9780953824861.
  4. ^ "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit - Ausländische Bevölkerung, Ergebnisse des Ausländerzentralregisters (2017)" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Ukrainian 2001 census". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
  6. ^ "Bulgarians in Ukraine". Bulgarian Parliament (in البلغارية). Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  7. ^ "TablaPx". Ine.es. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  8. ^ Dimitrova, Tanya; Kahl, Thede (1 November 2013). Migration from and towards Bulgaria 1989–2011. p. 56. ISBN 9783865965202. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  9. ^ "2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  10. ^ Cortés, Carlos E (15 August 2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. p. 404. ISBN 9781452276267. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality - Office for National Statistics". Ons.gov.uk (in الإنجليزية).
  12. ^ "National Bureau of Statistics // Population Census 2004". Statistica.md. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  13. ^ أ ب ت "World Migration". International Organization for Migration (in الإنجليزية). 15 January 2015.
  14. ^ أ ب "3 млн. българи са напуснали страната за последните 23 години". bTV, quote of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  15. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria – Bulgarians in Argentina". Mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 29 April 2008.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  16. ^ De acordo com dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), cerca de 62.000 brasileiros declararam possuir ascendência búlgara no ano de 2006, o que faz com que o país abrigue a nona maior colônia búlgara do mundo.
  17. ^ "bTV – estimate for Bulgarians in Brazil" (in Bulgarian). btv.bg. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  18. ^ "Италианските българи". 24 Chasa (in Bulgarian).CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  19. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". demo.istat.it. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  20. ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  21. ^ "International Migration Outlook 2016 - OECD READ edition". OECD iLibrary. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  22. ^ "CBS StatLine - Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". cbs.nl.
  23. ^ STATISTIK AUSTRIA. "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistik.at.
  24. ^ "Russia 2010 census" (XLS). Gks.ru (in الروسية). Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Cypriot 2011 census". Cystat.gov.cy.
  26. ^ "Serbian 2011 census" (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  27. ^ Dimitrova, Tanya; Kahl, Thede (1 November 2013). Migration from and towards Bulgaria 1989–2011. p. 39. ISBN 9783865965202.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Population by country of origin". statbank.dk.
  30. ^ "Utrikes födda efter födelseland, kön och år". Scb.se. Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  31. ^ "Many new Syrian immigrants". Ssb.no. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  32. ^ statistique, Office fédéral de la. "Population". Bfs.admin.ch (in الفرنسية).
  33. ^ "National Institute of Statistics of Portugal – Foreigners in 2013" (PDF). Sefstat.sef.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 April 2011.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  34. ^ "Bulgaria's State Agency for Bulgarians Abroad – Study about the number of Bulgarian immigrants as of 03.2011". Aba.government.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 22 November 2016.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  35. ^ "Romanian 2011 census" (XLS). Edrc.ro (in Romanian).CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  36. ^ "Australian 2011 census" (PDF). Abs.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria – Bulgarians in South Africa". Mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 8 February 2011.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  39. ^ Vukovich, Gabriella (2018). Mikrocenzus 2016 - 12. Nemzetiségi adatok [2016 microcensus - 12. Ethnic data] (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in الهنغارية). Budapest. ISBN 978-963-235-542-9. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  40. ^ http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_11rl.px/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4
  41. ^ أ ب Day, Alan John; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2002). Political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 9780203403747. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  42. ^ "Bulgarian 2011 census" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). nsi.bg. p. 25. Retrieved 15 October 2012.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  43. ^ "EPC 2014". Epc2014.princeton.edu. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  44. ^ Свободно време (27 July 2011). "Експерти по демография оспориха преброяването | Dnes.bg Новини". Dnes.bg. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  45. ^ Raymond G. Gordon, Jr.; Barbara F. Grimes, eds. (2005). "Languages of Turkey (Europe)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  46. ^ "Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!" (in Turkish). 6 June 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2010.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  47. ^ Thomas, Raju G. C. (2003). Yugoslavia Unraveled: Sovereignty, Self-Determination, Intervention. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739107577. Most scholars categorize Pomaks as "Slav Bulgarians...
  48. ^ Poulton, Hugh; Committee, Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights (1989). Minorities in the Balkans. Minority Rights Group. p. 7. ...'Pomaks', are a religious minority. They are Slav Bulgarians who speak Bulgarian...
  49. ^ "Republic of North Macedonia - State Statistical Office". 3 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  50. ^ "Новите българи". Capital.bg (in البلغارية).
  51. ^ "Јончев: Над 200.000 Македонци чекаат бугарски пасоши". МКД.мк (in المقدونية).
  52. ^ Perspectives migrations internationales 2016 et Eurostat.
  53. ^ Slavs
  54. ^ Cultural Proximity of the Slavic Nations
  55. ^ Gurov, Dilian (March 2007). "The Origins of the Bulgars" (PDF). p. 3.
  56. ^ Bowersock, Glen W. & al. Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World, p. 354. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-51173-5.
  57. ^ Karataty, Osman. In Search of the Lost Tribe: the Origins and Making of the Croatian Nation, p. 28.
  58. ^ Cousinéry, Esprit Marie; Langlumé (20 December 2017). "Voyage dans la Macédoine: contenant des recherches sur l'histoire, la géographie et les antiquités de ce pays". Imprimerie Royale. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via Google Books.
  59. ^ "I. The Middle Ages 1". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  60. ^ "II. The National Revival Period 1". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  61. ^ Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The Struggle for Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 9781850654926. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  62. ^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-85065-238-4, p. 109.
  63. ^ Felix Philipp Kanitz, (Das Konigreich Serbien und das Serbenvolk von der Romerzeit bis dur Gegenwart, 1904, in two volume) # "In this time (1872) they (the inhabitants of Pirot) did not presume that six years later the often damn Turkish rule in their town will be finished, and at least they did not presume that they will be include in Serbia, because 'they always feel that they are Bulgarians'. ("Србија, земља и становништво од римског доба до краја XIX века", Друга књига, Београд 1986, p. 215)"And today (in the end of the 19th century) among the older generation there are many fondness to Bulgarians, that it led him to collision with Serbian government. Some hesitation can be noticed among the youngs..." ("Србија, земља и становништво од римског доба до краја XIX века", Друга књига, Београд 1986, c. 218; Serbia – its land and inhabitants, Belgrade 1986, p. 218)
  64. ^ Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui, "Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841" (Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из България през 1841 година. Прев. от френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев. София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 9789545293672.) It describes a population in Nish sandjak as Bulgarian, see: [1]
  65. ^ Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", 2006
  66. ^ Girdenis A., Maziulis V. Baltu kalbu divercencine chronologija // Baltistica. T. XXVII (2). - Vilnius, 1994. - P. 9.
  67. ^ "Топоров В.Н. Прусский язык. Словарь. А - D. - М., 1975. - С. 5". S7.hostingkartinok.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  68. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة fine
  69. ^ Hupchick, D.The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe, p. 67. Springer, 2016, ISBN 9781137048172
  70. ^ От Труд онлайн. "Архивът е в процес на прехвърляне – Труд". Trud.bg. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  71. ^ [2][dead link]
  72. ^ Harry Henderson (14 May 2014). A to Z of Computer Scientists. p. 8. ISBN 9781438109183. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  73. ^ Clark R. Mollenhoff (28 February 1999). Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. ISBN 9780813800325. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  74. ^ "Значение узоров и орнаментов - Русские орнаменты и узоры". 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  75. ^ "Символы в орнаментах древних славян". Etnoxata.com.ua. 25 January 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  76. ^ В. В. Якжик, Государственный флаг Республики Беларусь, w: Рекомендации по использованию государственной символики в учреждениях образования, page 3.

خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "dnevnik.bg" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "maritsa.com" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Hupchick, Dennis P. 2004" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Runciman" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Ottoman rule" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "experts" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "2001census" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.

خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "outsourcingmonitor.eu" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.

Sources

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Bulgarian diaspora

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).