اللغة البلغارية

(تم التحويل من لغة بلغارية)
هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
البلغارية
български
bălgarski
Bulgarska Azbuka.png
موطنهابلغاريا، صربيا، شمال مقدونيا، اليونان، تركيا, Ukraine, مولدوڤا, رومانيا, روسيا
المنطقةجنوب شرق أوروپا
العرقالبلغار
الناطقون الأصليون
8[1]–9[2][3][4][5] مليون (2011)
اللهجات
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
لغة أقلية
معترف بها في
ينظمهاInstitute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1bg
ISO 639-2bul
ISO 639-3bul
Glottologbulg1262[8]
Linguasphere53-AAA-hb < 53-AAA-h
Distribution of Bulgarian Speakers.png
The Bulgarian-speaking world: ██ regions where Bulgarian is the language of the majority ██ regions where Bulgarian is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

اللغة البلغارية ( /bʌlˈɡɛəriən/, /bʊlˈʔ/ bu(u)l-GAIR-ee-ən; بالبلغارية: български, تـُنطـَق [ˈbɤɫɡɐrski] ( استمع)) هي لغة سلاڤية جنوبية تُستَخدَم في جنوب شرق أوروپا، أساساً في بلغاريا. وهي لغة البلغار.


Along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), it is a member of the Balkan sprachbund. The two languages have several characteristics that set them apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. One such major development is the innovation of evidential verb forms to encode for the source of information: witnessed, inferred, or reported.

It is the official language of Bulgaria, and since 2007 has been among the official languages of the European Union.[9][10] It is also spoken by minorities in several other countries.

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التاريخ

One can divide the development of the Bulgarian language into several periods.

  • The Prehistoric period covers the time between the Slavonic migration to the eastern Balkans (ح. 7th century CE) and the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia in the 860s.
  • Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th centuries, also referred to as "Old Church Slavonic") – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Common Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved. Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples used this norm when translating the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic.
  • Middle Bulgarian (12th to 15th centuries) – a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations occurred. A language of rich literary activity, it served as the official administration language of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
  • Modern Bulgarian dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries. The present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian vernacular. The historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a highly synthetic language (Old Bulgarian) to a typical analytic language (Modern Bulgarian) with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition.
Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century


اللهجات

خريطة اللهجات البلغارية داخل بلغاريا
انتشار اللهجات البلغارية حسب أكاديمية العلوم البلغارية[11] shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.


العلاقة بالمقدونية


الأبجدية

أبجدية رِقعة بلغارية

في 886 م، قدّمت الامبراطورية البلغارية Glagolitic alphabet which was devised by the Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 850s. The Glagolitic alphabet was gradually superseded in later centuries by the Cyrillic script, developed around the Preslav Literary School, بلغاريا في القرن التاسع.

في الجدول التالي الحروف الأبجدية البلغارية:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ь ь Ю ю Я я


معجم

Most of the vocabulary of modern Bulgarian consists of terms inherited from Proto-Slavic and local Bulgarian innovations and formations of those through the mediation of Old and Middle Bulgarian. The native terms in Bulgarian account for 70% to 80% of the lexicon.

Bulgarian lexis according to word origin[12]
directly inherited from Proto-Slavic
  
50%
later formations
  
30%
foreign borrowings
  
17%
Foreign borrowings in Bulgarian (1955-59)[13]
Latin
  
26%
Greek
  
23%
French
  
15%
Turkish, Arabic, Persian
  
14%
Russian
  
10%
Italian
  
4%
German
  
4%
English
  
2%
other
  
4%


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انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

المراجع

  1. ^ "Bulgarian".
  2. ^ "Bulgarian language". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press.
  3. ^ Rehm, Georg; Uszkoreit, Hans (2012). "The Bulgarian Language in the European Information Society". The Bulgarian Language in the Digital Age. White Paper Series. 4. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 50–57. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30168-1_8. ISBN 978-3-642-30167-4.
  4. ^ Strazny, Philipp (2005). Encyclopedia of Linguistics: M-Z (1 ed.). Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 958. ISBN 978-1579583910.
  5. ^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. ISBN 9781593394929.
  6. ^ "Národnostní menšiny v České republice a jejich jazyky" [National Minorities in Czech Republic and Their Language] (PDF) (in Czech). Government of Czech Republic. p. 2. Podle čl. 3 odst. 2 Statutu Rady je jejich počet 12 a jsou uživateli těchto menšinových jazyků: ..., srbština a ukrajinštinaCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ "Implementation of the Charter in Hungary". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bulgarian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  9. ^ EUR-Lex (12 December 2006). "Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006". Official Journal of the European Union. Europa web portal. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  10. ^ "Languages in Europe – Official EU Languages". EUROPA web portal. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  11. ^ Кочев (Kochev), Иван (Ivan) (2001). Български диалектен атлас (Bulgarian dialect atlas) (in Bulgarian). София: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 954-90344-1-0. OCLC 48368312.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  12. ^ Corbett, Professor Greville; Comrie, Professor Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 239. ISBN 9781136861444. The relative weight of inherited Proto-Slavonic material can be estimated from Nikolova (1987) – a study of a 100,000-word corpus of conversational Bulgarian. Of the 806 items occurring there more than ten times, approximately 50 per cent may be direct reflexes of Proto Slavonic forms, nearly 30 per cent are later Bulgarian formations and 17 per cent are foreign borrowings
  13. ^ Corbett, Professor Greville; Comrie, Professor Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 240. ISBN 9781136861444.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Pisani, Vittore (2012). Old Bulgarian Language. Sofia: Bukvitza. ISBN 978-9549285864.
  • Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (1993). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-04755-5.
  • Klagstad Jr., Harold L. (1958), The Phonemic System of Colloquial Standard Bulgarian, American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, pp. 42–54 
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0 
  • Бояджиев и др. (1998) Граматика на съвременния български книжовен език. Том 1. Фонетика
  • Жобов, Владимир (2004) Звуковете в българския език
  • Кръстев, Боримир (1992) Граматика за всички
  • Пашов, Петър (1999) Българска граматика
  • Vladimir I. Georgiev, ed. (1971–2011), Български етимологичен речник, I-VII, Българска академия на науките 
  • Notes on the Grammar of the Bulgarian language - 1844 - Smyrna (now Izmir) - Elias Riggs


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وصلات خارجية

تقارير لسانية

القواميس

الكورسات

قالب:Bulgarian language قالب:Bulgarian dialects قالب:Languages of Bulgaria

الكلمات الدالة: