الثورات الملونة

Map of colour revolutions from 2000 to 2005

الثورات الملونة Colour revolutions، هو مصطلح يستخدم لوصف الحركات والعصيان المدني وأعمال الشغب أو الحركات المطلبية في بعض الدول وخاصة المناوئة منها للغرب كالدولة الشيوعية السابقة في وسط وشرق اوروپا ووسط آسيا، ولبنان وإيران في بداية القرن الحادي والعشرين.

استخدم المشاركون في هذه الثورات المقاومة السلمية والاحتجاجات والمظاهرات مع استخدام وشاح ذو لون محدد أو زهرة كرمز. ومنها ثورة الورد (أو ثورة الزهور أو الثورة الوردية) في جورجيا والثورة البرتقالية أو ثورة البرتقال في أوكرانيا وثورة التوليب (أو ثورة السوسن أو ثورة الزنبق أو ثورة الأقحوان أو الثورة الزهرية) في قيرغيزيا وثورة الأرز في لبنان وقد سمى البعض اعتراض مير حسين موسوي على نتائج الانتخابات الرئاسية الإيرانية التي خسر فيها الثورة الخضراء في إيران. وقد أطلق البعض اسم الثورة الزرقاء على المطالبة عام 2005 بمشاركة المرأة في الحياة السياسية في الكويت. وأطلق اسم ثورة الزعفران على تحرك المعارضة في بورما أو ميانمار عام 2007. وأطلق على أعمال الشغب في التبت عام 2008 اسم الثورة القرمزية.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

قائمة الثورات الملونة

Color revolutions map 2.svg
الثورة الموقع تاريخ الاندلاع تاريخ الانتهاء الوصف
الثورة الصفراء Flag of the Philippines (light blue).svg Philippines 22 February 1986 25 February 1986 The 1986 People Power Revolution (also called the "EDSA" or the "Yellow" Revolution) in the Philippines was the first successful non-violent uprising in the contemporary period. It was the culmination of peaceful demonstrations against the rule of then-President Ferdinand Marcos – all of which increased بعد اغتيال سنة 1983 للسناتور المعارض بنينيو أكينو A contested snap election on 7 February 1986 and a call by the powerful Filipino Catholic Church sparked mass protests across Metro Manila from 22 to 25 February. The Revolution's iconic L-shaped Laban sign comes from the Filipino term for People Power, "Lakás ng Bayan", whose acronym is "LABAN" ("fight"). The yellow-clad protesters, later joined by the Armed Forces, ousted Marcos and installed Aquino's widow Corazón as the country's eleventh President, ushering in the present Fifth Republic.
ثورة جوز الهند Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea 1 December 1988 20 April 1998 Long-standing secessionist sentiment in Bougainville eventually led to conflict with Papua New Guinea. The inhabitants of Bougainville Island formed the Bougainville Revolutionary Army and fought against government troops. On 20 April 1998, Papua New Guinea ended the civil war. In 2005, Papua New Guinea gave autonomy to Bougainville. In 2020, citizens of Bougainville voted for independence from Papua New Guinea.
الثورة المخملية (تشيكوسلوڤاكيا) Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg تشيكوسلوڤاكيا 17 نوفمبر 1989 29 ديسمبر 1989 In 1989, a peaceful demonstration by students (mostly from Charles University) was attacked by the police – and in time contributed to the collapse of the communist government in Czechoslovakia.
ثورة البولدوزر Flag of Serbia and Montenegro.svg يوغسلاڤيا 5 أكتوبر 2000 The 'Bulldozer Revolution' in 2000, which led to the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević. These demonstrations are usually considered to be the first example of the peaceful revolutions which followed. However, the Serbians adopted an approach that had already been used in parliamentary elections in Bulgaria (1997), Slovakia (1998) and Croatia (2000), characterized by civic mobilization through get-out-the-vote campaigns and unification of the political opposition. The nationwide protesters did not adopt a colour or a specific symbol; however, the slogan "Gotov je" (Serbian Cyrillic: Готов је, English: He is finished) did become an aftermath symbol celebrating the completion of the task. Despite the commonalities, many others refer to Georgia as the most definite beginning of the series of "colour revolutions." The demonstrations were supported by the youth movement Otpor!, some of whose members were involved in the later revolutions in other countries.
الثورة الوردية Flag of Georgia (1990-2004).svg Georgia 3 November 2003 23 November 2003 The Rose Revolution in Georgia, following the disputed 2003 election, led to the overthrow of Eduard Shevardnadze and replacing him with Mikhail Saakashvili after new elections were held in March 2004. The Kmara civic resistance movement supported the Rose Revolution.
الثورة الوردية الثانية Flag of Adjara (2000–2004).svg Adjara (Georgia) 20 February 2004 May-July 2004 Following the Rose Revolution in Georgia, the Adjara crisis (sometimes called "Second Rose Revolution"[1] or Mini-Rose Revolution[2]) led to the exit of Chairman of the Government Aslan Abashidze from office.
الثورة البرتقالية  أوكرانيا 22 November 2004 23 January 2005 The Orange Revolution in Ukraine followed the disputed second round of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, leading to the annulment of the result and the repeat of the round – Leader of the Opposition Viktor Yushchenko was declared President, defeating Viktor Yanukovych. PORA supported the Orange Revolution.
الثورة القرمزية Flag of Iraq (2004-2008).svg Iraq يناير 2005 Purple Revolution was a name first used by some hopeful commentators and later picked up by United States President George W. Bush to describe the coming of democracy to Iraq following the 2005 Iraqi legislative election and intentionally drawing the parallel with the Orange and Rose revolutions. However, the name "purple revolution" has not achieved widespread use in Iraq, the United States, or elsewhere. The name comes from the colour that voters' index fingers were stained to prevent fraudulent multiple voting. The term first appeared shortly after the January 2005 election in various weblogs and editorials of individuals supporting the U.S. invasion of Iraq.[3] The term received its widest usage during a visit by U.S. President George W. Bush on 24 February 2005 to Bratislava, Slovak Republic, for a summit with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Bush stated: "In recent times, we have witnessed landmark events in the history of liberty: A Rose Revolution in Georgia, an Orange Revolution in Ukraine, and now, a Purple Revolution in Iraq."[4]
ثورة التيوليپ  قيرغيزستان 27 فبراير 2005 11 April 2005 The Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan (also sometimes called the "Pink Revolution") was more violent than its predecessors and followed the disputed 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary election. At the same time, it was more fragmented than previous "colour" revolutions. The protesters in different areas adopted the colours pink and yellow for their protests. This revolution was supported by the youth resistance movement KelKel.
ثورة الأرز  لبنان 14 February 2005 27 April 2005 The Cedar Revolution in Lebanon between February and April 2005 followed not a disputed election but rather the assassination of opposition leader Rafik Hariri in 2005. Also, instead of the annulment of an election, the people demanded an end to the Syrian occupation of Lebanon. Nonetheless, some of its elements and some of the methods used in the protests have been similar enough that it is often considered and treated by the press and commentators as one of the series of "colour revolutions." The Cedar of Lebanon is the symbol of the country, and the revolution was named after it. The peaceful demonstrators used the colours white and red, which are found in the Lebanese flag. The protests led to the pullout of Syrian troops in April 2005, ending their nearly 30-year presence there, although Syria retains some influence in Lebanon.
الثورة الزرقاء  الكويت مارس 2005 Blue Revolution was a term used by some Kuwaitis[5] to refer to demonstrations in Kuwait in support of women's suffrage beginning in March 2005; it was named after the colour of the signs the protesters used. In May of that year, the Kuwaiti government acceded to their demands, granting women the right to vote beginning in the 2007 parliamentary elections.[6] Since there was no call for regime change, the so-called "blue revolution" cannot be categorized as a true colour revolution.
ثورة الجينز Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg Belarus 19 March 2006 25 March 2006 In Belarus, there have been a number of protests against President Alexander Lukashenko, with participation from student group Zubr. One round of protests culminated on 25 March 2005; it was a self-declared attempt to emulate the Kyrgyzstan revolution and involved over a thousand citizens. However, police severely suppressed it, arresting over 30 people and imprisoning opposition leader Mikhail Marinich.

A second, much larger round of protests began almost a year later, on 19 March 2006, soon after the presidential election. Official results had Lukashenko winning with 83% of the vote; protesters claimed the results were achieved through fraud and voter intimidation, a charge echoed by many foreign governments.[بحاجة لمصدر] Protesters camped out in October Square in Minsk over the next week, calling variously for the resignation of Lukashenko, the installation of rival candidate Alaksandar Milinkievič, and new, fair elections.

The opposition originally used as a symbol the white-red-white former flag of Belarus; the movement has had significant connections with that in neighboring Ukraine. During the Orange Revolution, some white-red-white flags were seen being waved in Kyiv. During the 2006 protests, some called it the "Jeans Revolution" or "Denim Revolution,"[7] blue jeans being considered a symbol for freedom. Some protesters cut up jeans into ribbons and hung them in public places.[8] It is claimed that Zubr was responsible for coining the phrase.

Lukashenko has said in the past: "In our country, there will be no pink or orange, or even banana revolution." More recently, he's said, "They [the West] think that Belarus is ready for some 'orange' or, what is a rather frightening option, 'blue' or 'cornflower blue' revolution. Such 'blue' revolutions are the last thing we need".[9] On 19 April 2005, he further commented: "All these coloured revolutions are pure and simple banditry."[10]

ثورة الزعفران Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg Myanmar 15 August 2007 26 September 2007 In Myanmar (unofficially called Burma), a series of anti-government protests were referred to in the press as the Saffron Revolution[11][12] after Buddhist monks (Theravada Buddhist monks usually wear the colour saffron) took the vanguard of the protests. A previous, student-led revolution, the 8888 Uprising on 8 August 1988, had similarities to the colour revolutions but was violently repressed.
الحشد الأصفر Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia 10 November 2007 19 November 2016 A series of demonstrations in Kuala Lumpur. The rally, organised by the Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih), was supported by Pakatan Rakyat, the coalition of the three largest opposition parties in Malaysia, but was deemed illegal by the government. Bersih, chaired by former president of the Bar Council Ambiga Sreenevasan, were pushing the Election Commission of Malaysia (EC) to ensure free and fair elections in Malaysia. It demanded that the EC clean up the electoral roll, reform postal voting, use indelible ink, introduce a minimum 21-day campaign period, allow all parties free access to the media, and put an end to electoral fraud.
ثورة العنب  مولدوڤا 6 April 2009 12 April 2009 The opposition is reported to have hoped for and urged some kind of Orange revolution, similar to that in Ukraine, in the follow-up of the 2005 Moldovan parliamentary elections, while the Christian Democratic People's Party adopted orange for its colour in a clear reference to the events of Ukraine.

A name hypothesized for such an event was the "Grape Revolution" because of the abundance of vineyards in the country; however, such a revolution failed to materialize after the governmental victory in the elections. Many reasons have been given for this, including a fractured opposition and the fact that the government had already co-opted many of the political positions that might have united the opposition (such as a perceived pro-European and anti-Russian stance). Also, the elections themselves were declared fairer in the OSCE election monitoring reports than had been the case in other countries where similar revolutions occurred, even though the CIS monitoring mission strongly condemned them.

There was civil unrest all over Moldova following the 2009 Parliamentary election, owing to the opposition's assertion that the communists had fixed the election. Eventually, the Alliance for European Integration created a governing coalition that pushed the Communist party into opposition.

التحرك الأخضر  إيران 13 يونيو 2009 11 February 2010 Green Movement is a term widely used to describe the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests. The protests began in 2009, several years after the main wave of colour revolutions, although like them, it began because of a disputed election, the 2009 Iranian presidential election. Protesters adopted the colour green as their symbol because it had been the campaign colour of presidential candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi, whom many protesters thought had won the elections.[13] However, Mousavi and his wife went under house arrest without any trial issued by a court.
ثورة البطيخ  قيرغيزستان 6 April 2010 14 December 2010 The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 in Kyrgyzstan (also sometimes called the "Melon Revolution")[14][15][16][17] led to the exit of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev from office. The total number of deaths should be 2,000.
ثورة الياسمين  تونس 18 December 2010 14 January 2011 Jasmine Revolution was a widely used term[18] for the Tunisian Revolution. The Jasmine Revolution led to the exit of President Ben Ali from office and the beginning of the Arab Spring.
ثورة اللوتس  مصر 25 January 2011 11 February 2011 Lotus Revolution was a term used by various western news sources to describe the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 that forced President Mubarak to step down in 2011 as part of the Arab Spring, which followed the Jasmine Revolution of Tunisia. Lotus is known as the flower representing resurrection, life, and the sun of ancient Egypt. It is uncertain who gave the name, while columnist of Arabic press Asharq Alawsat and prominent Egyptian opposition leader Saad Eddin Ibrahim claimed to name it the Lotus Revolution. Lotus Revolution later became common on western news sources such as CNN.[19] Other names, such as White Revolution and Nile Revolution, are used but are minor terms compare to Lotus Revolution. The term Lotus Revolution is rarely if ever, used in the Arab world.[بحاجة لمصدر]
ثورة اللؤلؤ  البحرين 14 February 2011 22 November 2014 In February 2011, Bahrain was also affected by protests in Tunisia and Egypt. Bahrain has long been famous for its pearls and Bahrain's speciality. Moreover, there was Pearl Square in Manama, where the demonstrations began. The people of Bahrain were also protesting around the square. At first, the government of Bahrain promised reform to the people. However, when their promises were not followed, the people resisted again. And in the process, bloodshed took place (18 March 2011). After that, a small demonstration took place in Bahrain.[بحاجة لمصدر]
ثورة القهوة  اليمن 27 January 2011 23 November 2011 An anti-government protest started in Yemen in 2011. The Yemeni people sought to resign Ali Abdullah Saleh as the ruler. On 24 November, Ali Abdullah Saleh decided to transfer the regime. In 2012, Ali Abdullah Saleh finally fled to the United States(27 February).[بحاجة لمصدر]
ثورة الياسمين الصينية  الصين 20 February 2011 20 March 2011 A call which first appeared on 17 February 2011 on the Chinese language site Boxun.com in the United States for a "Jasmine revolution" in the People's Republic of China and repeated on social networking sites in China resulted in blocking of internet searches for "jasmine" and a heavy police presence at designated sites for protest such as the McDonald's in central Beijing, one of the 13 designated protest sites, on 20 February 2011. A crowd gathered there, but their motivations were ambiguous as a crowd tended to draw a crowd in that area.[20] Boxun experienced a denial of service attack during this period and was inaccessible.[21]
ثورة الثلج  روسيا 4 December 2011 18 July 2013 Protests started on 4 December 2011 in the capital, Moscow against the results of the parliamentary elections, which led to the arrests of over 500 people. On 10 December, protests erupted in tens of cities across the country; a few months later, they spread to hundreds both inside the country and abroad. The Snow Revolution derives from December - the month when the revolution had started - and from the white ribbons the protesters wore.
الثورة الملونة  مقدونيا 12 April 2016 20 July 2016 Many analysts and participants of the protests against President of Macedonia Gjorge Ivanov and the Macedonian government refer to them as a "colourful Revolution" owing to the demonstrators' throwing of paintballs of different colours at government buildings in Skopje, the capital.[22][23]
الثورة المخملية (أرمينيا)  أرمنيا 31 March 2018 8 May 2018 In 2018, a peaceful revolution was led by a member of parliament, Nikol Pashinyan in opposition to the nomination of Serzh Sargsyan as Prime Minister of Armenia, who had previously served as both President of Armenia and prime minister, eliminating term limits that would have otherwise prevented his 2018 nomination. Concerned that Sargsyan's third consecutive term as the most powerful politician in the government of Armenia gave him too much political influence, protests occurred throughout the country, particularly in Yerevan. However, demonstrations in solidarity with the protesters also occurred in other countries where the Armenian diaspora live.[24] During the protests, Pashinyan was arrested and detained on 22 April, but he was released the following day. Sargsyan stepped down from the position of Prime Minister, and his Republican Party decided not to put forward a candidate.[25] An interim Prime Minister was selected from Sargsyan's party until elections were held, and protests continued for over one month. Crowd sizes in Yerevan consisted of 115,000 to 250,000 people throughout the revolution, and hundreds of protesters were arrested. Pashinyan referred to the event as a Velvet Revolution.[26] A vote was held in parliament, and Pashinyan became the Prime Minister of Armenia.
حراك تشرين  لبنان 17 October 2019 الحاضر A series of civil protests in Lebanon. These national protests were triggered by planned taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and VoIP calls on applications such as WhatsApp,[27][28][29] but quickly expanding into a country-wide condemnation of sectarian rule,[30] stagnant economy, unemployment that reached 46% in 2018,[31] endemic corruption in the public sector,[30] legislation that was perceived to shield the ruling class from accountability (such as banking secrecy)[32][33] and failures of the government to provide basic services such as electricity, water, and sanitation.[34]
ثورة پيتيتا  بوليڤيا 21 أكتوبر

2019

11 November 2019 After the 2019 elections, where Incumbent President Evo Morales was re-elected, protests erupted across the country claiming fraud. A report from the Organization of American States also reported fraud, although it was later challenged by some researchers.[35] After being pressured by the military, Morales and many of his supporters resigned, and an interim government took over.[36] Some, including the Áñez interim government, called these events the "Pitita Revolution."[37] It has been called a colour revolution by some analysts, especially Morales' supporters.[38]
ثورة الشباشب  بلاروس 24 May 2020 present After the 2020 Belarusian presidential election, where incumbent president Alexander Lukashenko was re-elected, protests started claiming fraud. The main opposition candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya declared herself the winner, saying that she won by a large margin. She then set up the “Coordination Council,” which was recognized as the legitimate interim government by the European Parliament. As of December 2020, some of the media states that the revolution failed and that Lukashenko managed to prevent a repeat of the Euromaidan.[39]


العوامل المؤثرة

الثورات المناهضة للشيوعية

حركات الطلاب

مؤسسة سوروس والنفوذ الأمريكي

كثيرا ما يتهم معارضو الثورات الملونة مؤسسة سوروس و/أو حكومة الدعم وحتى التخطيط للثورات بتحريض من الولايات المتحدة لخدمة المصالح الغربية. من الجدير بالذكر أنه بعد قيام الثورة البرتقالية في مختلف دول وسط آسيا قد اتخذت إجراءات ضد معهد المجتمع المنفتح الذي يديره جورج سوروس بمختلف الوسائل -- اوزبكستان، على سبيل المثال، قامت بإغلاق مكاتب المعهد بالقوة، فيما اتهمت وسائل الإعلام الطاجيكية المملوكة للدولة، مكاتب المعهد في البلاد بالمحسوبية والفساد. [40]

تشير الدلائل إلى تورط الحكومة الأمريكية بما في ذلك هيئة المعونة الأمريكية (وبرنامج الأمم المتحدة الإنمائي) في دعم هياكل الإنترنت التي تسمى فري‌نت، ومن المعروف أنها تشكل جزء كبير من بنية الانترنت في واحدة على الأقل من البلدان - قيرغيزستان - في احدى الثورات الملونة.

ادعت گارديان[41]أن المعونة الأمريكية، المنحة الوطنية للديموقراطية، المعهد الجمهوري الدولي، المعهد الديمقراطي الوطني للشؤون الدولية، وبيت الحرية متورطون بصفة مباشرة؛ أفادت واشنطن پوست ونيويورك تايمز عن تدخل الغرب في تلك الأحداث.[42][43]

نشطاء من اوتپور في صربيا وپورا في اوكرانيا أعلنوا أن المنشورات والتدريبات التي تلقوها قد حصلوا عليها من طاقم معهد ألبرت إينشتاين الأمريكي، والذي كان لها دوراً أساسياً في تشكيل استراتيجيتهم.[44][45]

ردود الفعل والأحداث المرتبطة في بلدان أخرى

الارتداد خارج -كومنولث الدول المستقلة

أنظر أيضًا

مراجع

  1. ^ Prof. Dr. Jürgen Nautz (2008). Die großen Revolutionen der Welt. ISBN 9783843800341.
  2. ^ "Der Hoffnungsträger vertrieb den Löwen". Zeit. 6 May 2004. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  3. ^ "The Purple Revolution". Real Clear Politics. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  4. ^ "President Addresses and Thanks Citizens of Slovakia". The White House. 24 February 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  5. ^ Charles Paul Freund (7 March 2005). "Kuwait: Blue Revolution – Hit & Run". Reason. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  6. ^ "Leaders hail Kuwait women's votes". BBC News. 17 May 2005. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  7. ^ Fraud claims to follow Lukashenko win in Belarus election ABC News (Australia)
  8. ^ "Dissidents of the theatre in Belarus pin their hopes on denim". The Independent (in الإنجليزية). 2006-03-09. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  9. ^ [1] Archived 30 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Different Voices". Politico Europe. April 20, 2005. Archived from the original on September 16, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  11. ^ "Military junta threatens monks in Burma", The Times (UK) Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "100,000 Protestors Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"". Novinite.com. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  13. ^ Akbar E. Torbat, The Arab Uprisings and Iran's Green Movement Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 19 October 2011.
  14. ^ Isayev, Boris (6 April 2019). Политическая история: революции. Учебник для бакалавриата и магистратуры. ЛитРес. p. 278. ISBN 9785041554125.
  15. ^ "Volksparteien verlieren Parteivolk". Центр Льва Гумилёва (in الروسية). 12 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Why 'Color Revolutions' Can't Be Exported". Bloomberg News. 15 February 2018.
  17. ^ "Zweischneidige Sanktionen gegen Russland". de (Allgemeine Schweizerische Militärzeitschrift) (in الألمانية). April 2015.
  18. ^ Tucker, Joshua (15 January 2011). "Initial Thoughts on Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution". The Monkey Cage. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  19. ^ "Egyptian-American leaders call for U.S. support of 'Lotus Revolution'". CNN. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  20. ^ Andrew Jacobs (20 February 2011). "Chinese Government Responds to Call for Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  21. ^ Cara Anna, Associated Press (19 February 2011). "China cracks down on call for 'Jasmine Revolution'". Boxun.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  22. ^ Petrevska, Anastasija. Arrests Add Fuel to Anti-Impunity Protesters’ Fire in Macedonia. Global Voices Online. Published 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  23. ^ O'Sullivan, Feargus. How Paint Became a Weapon in Macedonia's 'Colorful Revolution'. CityLab. Published 9 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  24. ^ "A 'Color Revolution' In Armenia? Mass Protests Echo Previous Post-Soviet Upheavals". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Breaking: Serge Sarkisian Resigns as Prime Minister". The Armenian Weekly. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  26. ^ ""Velvet Revolution" Takes Armenia into the Unknown". Crisis Group. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Lebanese govt to charge USD 0.20 a day for WhatsApp calls". The Daily Star. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  28. ^ "Protests erupt in Lebanon over plans to impose new taxes". aljazeera.com. 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  29. ^ "Lebanon: WhatsApp tax sparks mass protests". DW (in الإنجليزية). Deutsche Welle. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  30. ^ أ ب "Lebanon Protesters Found Strength in Unity, Ditched Sectarianism". Report Syndication. 27 October 2019.
  31. ^ "Jobless rate at 46 PCT, president warns | Business , Local | THE DAILY STAR".
  32. ^ "Protesters march from Al Nour Square to Central Bank in Tripoli". MTV Lebanon (in الإنجليزية). 22 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Protesters block Karakoul Druze-Mar Elias road". MTV Lebanon (in الإنجليزية). 22 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  34. ^ Khraiche, Dana (17 October 2019). "Nationwide Protests Erupt in Lebanon as Economic Crisis Deepens". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Pesquisadores do MIT questionam conclusão da OEA sobre fraude na eleição da Bolívia". G1 (in البرتغالية). Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  36. ^ Collyns, Dan (2019-11-11). "Bolivian president Evo Morales resigns after election result dispute". The Guardian (in الإنجليزية). ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  37. ^ embajadadebolivia, Autor entrada. "The "Pitita Revolution" in Bolivia – Embajada de Bolivia en Bélgica" (in الإسبانية). Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  38. ^ Newswire, Eds Imperialism Bolivia (2019-09-05). "MR Online | The U.S. footprint in Bolivia's incipient colour revolution". MR Online (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  39. ^ Episkopos, Mark (2020-11-20). "Why America's Belarus Strategy Backfired". The National Interest (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2020-12-11.
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ [3]
  42. ^ Dobbs, Michael. "U.S. Advice Guided Milosevic Opposition." 11 December 2000.
  43. ^ Cohen, Roger. "Who Really Brought Down Milosevic?" New York Times. 26 November 2000.
  44. ^ Strijbosch, Margreet. "Ukraine: The Resistance Will Not Stop." Radio Netherlands. [4]
  45. ^ Dobbs, Michael. "U.S. Advice Guided Milosevic Opposition." Washington Post. 11 December 2000. [5]

قراءات إضافية

  • Mark R. Beissinger, Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions, Perspectives on Politics 5 (2007): 259-276. [6].
  • Pavol Demes and Joerg Forbrig (eds.). Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe. German Marshall Fund, 2007.
  • Joerg Fobrig (Hrsg.): Revisiting Youth Political Participation: Challenges for research and democratic practice in Europe. Council of Europe, Publishing Division, Strassbourg 2005, ISBN 92-871-5654-9
  • Kurt Schock: Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Nondemocracies. University of Minnesota Press, 2005.
  • Joshua A. Tucker: Enough! Electoral Fraud, Collective Action Problems, and Post-Communist coloured Revolutions. 2007. Perspectives on Politics, 5(3): 537-553. [7]

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Revwave