علوم عصبية

(تم التحويل من علم الأعصاب)

العلوم العصبية هي الحقل الذي يدرس و يتعامل مع البنى العصبية ، الوظائف العصبية ، التطور العصبي ، علم الجينات ، الكيمياء الحيوية ، الفيزيولوجيا ، علم الأدوية ، إضافة إلى علم الأمراض العصبي .

يطلق عليه أيضا اسم البيولوجيا العصبية حيث يندرج ضمن الطب و يدرس الظواهر المخية. فقد أكتشف مثلا أن عدد الخلايا المخية لا يتغير تقريبا مع الزمن ولكن الذي يتغيير هو كيفية تواصل و تلاحم هذه الخلايا. فكلما درب المرء نفسه و أجهد دماغه بالتفكير كلما زاد عدد الوصلات و إلتحامها و هو ما يؤدي إلى مقدرة أكبر على الإستيعاب و الذكاء و العكس بالعكس.

الدراسة البيولوجية للدماغ البشري يشكل أساس هذا الحقل المتداخل الذي يتضمن العديد من مستويات الدراسة ، من المستوى الجزيئي إلى المستوى الخلوي (العصبونات المفردة) ، إلى مستوى التجمعات الصغيرة نسبيا من العصبونات مثل cortical columns ، و الجمل الفرعية الأكثر تعقيدا مثل ساحات الإدراك البصري visual perception ، و حتى الجمل العصبية الضخمة مثل القشرة المخية cerebral cortex و المخيخ cerebral cortex كأعلى مستويات التعقيد ضمن الجهاز العصبي .

في المستويات العالية من التعقيد ، تصبح طرق البحث العصبية مندمجة مع علوم الإدراك cognitive science لتشكل ما يمكن تسميته علوم عصبية إدراكية cognitive neuroscience ، و هو عبارة عن تخصص أول من تحدث به علماء النفس الإدراكي cognitive psychologists ، لكنه أصبح الأن تخصصا منفردا تتم خلاله الكثير من الأبحاث و الدراسات . الكثير من الباحثين يعتقد أن العلوم العصبية الإدراكية تشكل طريقة بحث علمية أدنى-اعلى (من المستوى الأبسط إلى الأعقد) bottom-up approach لفهم العقل و الوعي ، و هذا يكمل الطريقة أعلى-أدنى (من المستوى الأعقد إلى الأبسط) the top-down approach التي يتصف بها علم النفس.

Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal

من ضمن مجالات العلوم العصبية حقول متنوعة مختلفة مثل :

stained neuron
Animation of a stack of vertical MRI sections of a normal adult human brain

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History of Neuroscience


Major branches

Current neuroscience education and research activities can be very roughly categorized into the following major branches, based on the subject and scale of the system in examination as well as distinct experimental or curricular approaches. Individual neuroscientists, however, often work on questions that span several distinct subfields.

Branch Major topics Experimental and theoretical methods
Molecular and Cellular neuroscience behavioral genetics, neurocytology, glia, protein trafficking, ion channel, synapse, action potential, neurotransmitters, neuroimmunology PCR, immunohistochemistry, patch clamp, voltage clamp, molecular cloning, gene knockout, biochemical assays, linkage analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern blots, DNA microarray, green fluorescent protein, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy, HPLC, microdialysis
Behavioral neuroscience biological psychology, circadian rhythms, neuroendocrinology, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotransmitters, homeostasis, dimorphic sexual-behavior, motor control, sensory processing, photo reception, organizational/activational effects of hormones, drug/alcohol effects animal models (gene knockout), in situ hybridization, golgi stain, fMRI, immunohistochemistry, functional genomics, PET, pattern recognition, EEG, MEG
Systems neuroscience primary visual cortex, perception, audition, sensory integration, population coding, Pain and nociception, spontaneous and evoked activity, color vision, حاسة الشم, تذوق, motor system, spinal cord, نوم, homeostasis, arousal, attention single unit recording, intrinsic signal imaging, microstimulation, voltage sensitive dyes, fMRI, patch clamp, genomics, training awake behaving animals, local field potential, ROC, cortical cooling, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy
Developmental neuroscience axon guidance, neural crest, growth factors, growth cone, neuromuscular junction, cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, cell survival and apoptosis, synaptic formation, motor differentiation, injury and regeneration Xenopus oocyte, protein chemistry, genomics, Drosophila, Hox gene
Cognitive neuroscience attention, cognitive control, behavioral genetics, decision making, emotion, language, memory, motivation, motor learning, perception, sexual behavior, social neuroscience experimental designs from cognitive psychology, psychometrics, EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, SPECT, single unit recording, human genetics
Theoretical and computational neuroscience cable theory, Hodgkin-Huxley model, شبكات عصبية، voltage-gated currents, Hebbian learning Markov chain Monte Carlo, simulated annealing, high performance computing, partial differential equations, self-organizing nets, pattern recognition, swarm intelligence
Diseases and aging dementia, peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury, autonomic nervous system, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, addiction, memory loss clinical trials, neuropharmacology, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery
Neural engineering Neuroprosthetic, brain-computer interface
Neurolinguistics language, Broca's area, generative grammar, language acquisition, syntax
دراسات علم الأعصاب Neuroscience education: undergraduate models, best practices, interface of neuroscience with all liberal arts disciplines, علم الأعصاب والمجتمع, فلسفة علم الأعصاب, interdisciplinary research, علم الأعصاب والثقافة العامة, علم الأعصاب والإعلام

Note: In 1990s, neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp coined the term "affective neuroscience"[1] to emphasize that emotion research should be a branch of neurosciences, distinguishable from the nearby fields like cognitive neuroscience or behavioral neuroscience. More recently, the social aspect of the emotional brain has been integrated in what is called "social-affective neuroscience".

There has also been some research published arguing that some of fair play and the Golden Rule may be stated and rooted in terms of neuroscientific and neuroethical principles.[2]

Major Themes of Research

Neuroscience research from different areas can also be seen as focusing on a set of specific themes and questions. (Some of these are taken from http://www.northwestern.edu/nuin/fac/index.htm)

Allied and Overlapping Fields

Neuroscience, by its very interdiciplinary nature, overlaps with and encompasses many different subjects. Below is a list of related subjects and fields.


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Future directions

انظر أيضاً

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هناك كتاب ، Consciousness studies، في معرفة الكتب.


هناك كتاب ، Neuroscience، في معرفة الكتب.


الهامش

Citations

  1. ^ Panksepp, J., 1990 - A role for “affective neuroscience” in understanding stress: The case of separation distress circuitry. In: Puglisi-Allegra, S. and Oliverio, A., Editors, 1990, Psychobiology of stress, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 41–58.
  2. ^ Pfaff, Donald W., "The Neuroscience of Fair Play: Why We (Usually) Follow the Golden Rule", Dana Press, The Dana Foundation, New York, 2007. ISBN 9781932594270

Textbooks

  • Bear, M.F. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0-7817-3944-6. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Kandel, ER (2000). Principles of Neural Science (4th ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  • Squire, L. et al. (2003). Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-660303-0
  • Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-148660-5
  • Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-618621-9
  • Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-088397-X
  • Rieke, F. et al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. The MIT Press; Reprint edition ISBN 0-262-68108-0


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Online textbooks

  • Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2001.
  • Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Popular works

  • Andreasen, Nancy C. (2004). Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195145090. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, Avon Books. ISBN 0-399-13894-3 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-380-72647-5 (Paperback)
  • Gardner, H. (1976). The Shattered Mind: The Person After Brain Damage. New York, Vintage Books, 1976 ISBN 0-394-71946-8
  • Goldstein, K. (2000). The Organism. New York, Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-96-5 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-942299-97-3 (Paperback)
  • Llinas R. (2001). I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-12233-2 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-262-62163-0 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1997). The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a Brain Wound. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-224-00792-0 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-674-54625-3 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1998). The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About A Vast Memory. New York, Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-674-57622-5
  • Medina, J. (2008). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School.Seattle, Pear Press. ISBN 0-979-777704 (Hardcover with DVD)
  • Pinker, S. (1999). How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31848-6
  • Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03151-8
  • Ramachandran, V.S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York, New York Harper Collins. ISBN 0-688-15247-3 (Paperback)
  • Rose, S. (2006). 21st Century Brain: Explaining, Mending & Manipulating the Mind ISBN 0099429772 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Summit Books ISBN 0-671-55471-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097079-0 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. (1990). Awakenings. New York, Vintage Books. (See also Oliver Sacks) ISBN 0-671-64834-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097368-4 (Paperback)
  • Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Notes From Online Courses

وصلات خارجية