هوراشيو نلسون


الڤايكونت نلسون
Vice-Admiral The Viscount Nelson

HoratioNelson1.jpg
الأميرال هوراشيو نلسون، 1799، بريشة لمويل فرانسيس آبوت
ولد(1758-09-29)29 سبتمبر 1758
برنم ثورپ، نورفوك، إنگلترة
توفي21 أكتوبر 1805(1805-10-21) (عن عمر 47 عاماً)
HMS Victory، مقابل رأس الطرف الأغر، إسپانيا
دُفـِنكاتدرائية القديس پولس
الولاءمملكة بريطانيا العظمى بريطانيا العظمى
المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا المملكة المتحدة
الخدمة/الفرعالمملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا البحرية الملكية
سنين الخدمة1771–1805
الرتبةنائب أميرال البيض
قيادات مناطةMediterranean Fleet
المعارك/الحروبAmerican War of Independence

War of the First Coalition

War of the Second Coalition

War of the Third Coalition

الأوسمةKnight of the Order of the Bath
التوقيعHoratio Nelson Signature.svg

هوراشيو نلسون بالإنگليزية: Horatio Nelson (عاش 29 سبتمبر 1758- 21 أكتوبر 1805) نائب أميرال إنجليزي. اشتهر بمشاركته بمعركة النيل ومعركة الطرف الأغر، يعد أحد أبرز القادة العسكريين في تاريخ المعارك.

توفي نلسون يوم 21 أكتوبر 1805 وهو يقاسي بعد اصابته في العمود الفقري لدى وقوفه على مقدمة سفينته أثناء معركة طرف الغار التي غيرت التاريخ، على سواحل اسبانيا. واعتبرت المعركة بداية النهاية لغزو نابليون بونابرت امبراطور فرنسا لاوروبا، وأمنت لبريطانيا السيادة على البحار لأكثر من قرن.

His inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, and unconventional tactics brought about a number of decisive British naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded in combat, losing sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 35, and most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when he was 40. He was fatally shot during his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer. Nelson rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command at the age of 20 in 1778. He developed a reputation for personal valour and firm grasp of tactics, but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was particularly active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of إتش‌إم‌إس Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

Shortly after that battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where the attack failed and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, and was forced to return to England to recuperate. The following year he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801 he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen. He commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle became one of Britain's greatest naval victories, but Nelson, aboard إتش‌إم‌إس Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral.

Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures. The significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being regularly quoted, paraphrased and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory, and his legacy remains highly influential.

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النشأة

The site of the rectory in Burnham Thorpe where Nelson was born in 1758



السيرة البحرية المبكرة

Captain Horatio Nelson, painted by John Francis Rigaud in 1781, with Fort San Juan – the scene of his most notable achievement up to that point – in the background. The painting itself was begun and nearly finished prior to the battle, when Nelson held the rank of lieutenant; when Nelson returned, the artist added the new captain's gold-braided sleeves.[1]


القيادة

الخدمة في البحر المتوسط

كورسيكا

Horatio, Lord Nelson, by John Hoppner (National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth)


Genoa and the fight of the Ça Ira

The fight of the Ça Ira


أميرال

معركة سانت ڤنسنت

Nelson receives the surrender of the San Nicholas, an 1806 portrait by Richard Westall


اصطياد الفرنسيين


معركة النيل

المكافآت

Lady Hamilton as either a bacchante or Ariadne, by Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, 1790ح. 1790, a painting owned by Nelson that hung above his bed till his death


الحملة الناپولية

العودة إلى إنگلترة

Emma Hamilton in an 1800 portrait owned by Nelson
An antique photograph of a portrait of Horatia Ward née Nelson from the Style/Ward Family collection. Horatia was the daughter of Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson and Emma, Lady Hamilton.


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Parker and the Baltic

معركة كوبنهاگن

The Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801, by Nicholas Pocock (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London). Nelson's fleet exchanges fire with the Danes, with the city of Copenhagen in the background


العودة إلى البحر

Admiral Sir Robert Calder's action off Cape Finisterre, 23 July 1805, by William Anderson (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich)


معركة الطرف الأغر

The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of the signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty" flying from Victory


الإصابة والوفاة

Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck, painted by Denis Dighton, c. 1825

Shortly after 1:00, Hardy realised that Nelson was not by his side. He turned to see Nelson kneeling on the deck, supporting himself with his hand, before falling onto his side. Hardy rushed to him, at which point Nelson smiled:

Hardy, I do believe they have done it at last .... my backbone is shot through.[2]


The Death of Nelson by Daniel Maclise (Houses of Parliament, London)


الجنازة

Nelson's coffin in the crossing of St Paul's during the funeral service, with the dome hung with captured French and Spanish flags
The sarcophagus of Nelson in the crypt of St Paul's


التقييم

Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant's Apotheosis of Nelson, c. 1805–18. Nelson ascends into immortality as the Battle of Trafalgar rages in the background. He is supported by Neptune, whilst Fame holds a crown of stars as a symbol of immortality over Nelson's head. A grieving Britannia holds out her arms, whilst Hercules, Mars, Minerva and Jupiter look on.

Nelson was regarded as a highly effective leader, and someone who was able to sympathise with the needs of his men. He based his command on love rather than authority, inspiring both his superiors and his subordinates with his considerable courage, commitment and charisma, dubbed "the Nelson touch".[3][4] Nelson combined this talent with an adept grasp of strategy and politics, making him a highly successful naval commander. The memorandum he wrote before Trafalgar expresses his attitude well: "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy."[5]


الذكرى



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انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

المراجع

  1. ^ Sugden 2004, p. 464
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Hibbert 370
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Lambert107-8
  4. ^ Lambert 2004, xvii
  5. ^ "Nelson's Trafalgar Memorandum". www.bl.uk.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "The Heraldry Society" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.

وصلات خارجية

Peerage of Great Britain
سبقه
(مستحدث)
البارون نلسون
(للنيل ولبرنم ثورپ)

1798-1805
تبعه
(انقطع)
Peerage of the United Kingdom
سبقه
(مستحدث)
البارون نلسون
(للنيل وهيلبورو)

1801-1805
تبعه
وليام نلسون
سبقه
(مستحدث)
الڤايكونت نلسون
1801-1805
تبعه
(انقرض)
ألقاب نبالة
سبقه
(مستحدث)
دوق برونته
(في مملكة الصقليتين)

1799-1805
تبعه
وليام نلسون


الكلمات الدالة: