Subregions (Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia), as well as sovereign and dependent islands of Oceania
Micronesia is one of three major cultural areas of the Pacific Ocean islands, along with Melanesia and Polynesia.
Outline of sovereign (dark orange) and dependent islands (bright orange)

مـَيكرونيزيا هي مجموعة جزر في النصف الجنوبي من المحيط الهادي. تقع الفلبين إلى غرب مايكرونيزيا، وإندونيسيا في الجنوب الغربي، وپاپوا غينيا الجديدة وميلانيزيا إلى الجنوب، وپولي‌نزيا إلى المنطقة الجنوب الشرقي والشرق.

The region has a tropical marine climate and is part of the Oceanian realm. It includes four main archipelagos—the Caroline Islands, the Gilbert Islands, the Mariana Islands, and the Marshall Islands — as well as numerous islands that are not part of any archipelago.

Political control of areas within Micronesia varies depending on the island, and is distributed among six sovereign nations. Some of the Caroline Islands are part of the Republic of Palau and some are part of the Federated States of Micronesia (often shortened to "FSM" or "Micronesia"—not to be confused with the identical name for the overall region). The Gilbert Islands (along with the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands in Polynesia) comprise the Republic of Kiribati. The Mariana Islands are affiliated with the United States; some of them belong to the U.S. Territory of Guam and the rest belong to the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The island of Nauru is its own sovereign nation. The Marshall Islands all belong to the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The sovereignty of Wake Island is contested: it is claimed both by the United States and by the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The United States has actual possession of Wake Island, which is under the immediate administration of the United States Air Force.

Notwithstanding the fact that the notion of "Micronesia" has been quite well established since 1832 and has been used ever since, by most popular works, this set does not correspond to any geomorphological, archaelogical, linguistic, ethnic or cultural unity, but on the contrary represents a disparate ensemble, with no real deep unity. In fact, "Micronesian people" doesn't exist as a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people, who may also include the Polynesian people and the hypothetical Australo-Melanesian or "Melanesian people".[1] Human settlement of Micronesia began several millennia ago.[2] Based on the current scientific consensus, the Austronesian peoples originated from a prehistoric seaborne migration, known as the Austronesian expansion, from pre-Han Formosa, at around 3000 to 1500 BCE. Austronesians reached the northernmost Philippines, specifically the Batanes Islands, by around 2200 BCE. Austronesians were the first people to invent oceangoing sailing technologies (notably catamarans, outrigger boats, lashed-lug boat building, and the crab claw sail), which enabled their rapid dispersal into the islands of the Indo-Pacific.[3][4][5] From 2000 BCE they assimilated (or were assimilated by) the earlier populations on the islands in their migration pathway.[6][7][8][9][10]

The earliest known contact of Europeans with Micronesia was in 1521, when Magellan expedition landed in the Marianas. Jules Dumont d'Urville is usually credited with coining the term "Micronesia" in 1832, but in fact, fr (Louis Domeny de Rienzi) used this term a year earlier.[11][12]

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Micronesia is a region in Oceania that includes approximately 2100 islands, with a total land area of 2,700 km2 (1,000 sq mi), the largest of which is Guam, which covers 582 km2 (225 sq mi). The total ocean area within the perimeter of the islands is 7,400,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi).[13]

There are four main island groups in Micronesia:

This does not include the separate island nation of Nauru, along with other distinctly separate islands and smaller island groups.

Caroline Islands

The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago consisting of about 500 small coral islands, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. The Carolines consist of two republics: the Federated States of Micronesia, consisting of approximately 600 islands on the eastern side of the chain with Kosrae being the most eastern; and Palau consisting of 250 islands on the western side.

Gilbert Islands

The Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands, arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands. The Republic of Kiribati contains all of the Gilberts, including the island of Tarawa, the site of the country's capital.

جزر ماريانا

Mount Marpi in Saipan.

The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region that is the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth. The Marianas were politically divided in 1898, when the United States acquired title to Guam under the Treaty of Paris, 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. Spain then sold the remaining northerly islands to Germany in 1899. Germany lost all of her colonies at the end of World War I and the Northern Mariana Islands became a League of Nations Mandate, with Japan as the mandatory. After World War II, the islands were transferred into the United Nations Trust Territory System, with the United States as Trustee. In 1976, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States entered into a covenant of political union under which commonwealth status was granted the Northern Mariana Islands and its residents received United States citizenship.

جزر مارشال

Beach scenery at Laura, Majuro, Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands are located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia, and south of the U.S. territory of Wake Island. The islands consist of 29 low-lying atolls and 5 isolated islands,[14] comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The atolls and islands form two groups: the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain (meaning "sunrise" and "sunset" chains). All the islands in the chain are part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a presidential republic in free association with the United States. Having few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture. Of the 29 atolls, 24 of them are inhabited.

Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands. There are 23 islands in the Bikini Atoll. The islands of Bokonijien, Aerokojlol and Nam were vaporized during nuclear tests that occurred there.[15] The islands are composed of low coral limestone and sand.[بحاجة لمصدر][16] The average elevation is only about 2.1 metres (7 ft) above low tide level.


Nauru is an oval-shaped island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km (26 mi) south of the Equator, listed as the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km2 (8 sq mi).[18] With 11,347 residents, it is the third least-populated country, after Vatican City and Tuvalu. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles.[19] The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island.[20] A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 m (490 to 980 ft) wide lies inland from the beach.[19]

Wake Island

Wake Island is a coral atoll with a coastline of 19 km (12 mi) just north of the Marshall Islands. It is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States. Access to the island is restricted and all activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force. While geographically adjacent, it is not ethnoculturally part of Micronesia, due to its historical lack of human inhabitation.[بحاجة لمصدر] Micronesians may have possibly visited Wake Island in prehistoric times to harvest fish, but there is nothing to suggest any kind of settlement.[21]


The majority of the islands in the area are part of a coral atoll. Coral atolls begin as coral reefs that grow on the slopes of a central volcano. When the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level. One exception is Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia, which still has the central volcano and coral reefs around it.


The Yap Islands host a number of endemic bird species, including the Yap monarch and the Olive white-eye, in addition to four other restricted-range bird species.[22] The endangered Yap flying-fox, though often considered a subspecies of the Pelew flying fox or the Mariana fruit bat, is also endemic to Yap.[22]


The region has a tropical marine climate moderated by seasonal northeast trade winds. There is little seasonal temperature variation. The dry season runs from December or January to June and the rainy season from July to November or December. Because of the location of some islands, the rainy season can sometimes include typhoons.

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المناطق الواقعة في مايكرونيزيا

ميكرونيزيا . (غنيا الجديدة)

وتقع ضمن أرخبيل جزر الهند الشرقية، كما تقع إلى الشمال من أستراليا وتنقسم جزيرة غينيا الجديدة بين إندونسيا (إيريان الغربية) وأستراليا (پاپوا) وتتبعها مجموعة من الجزر تقع في شرقها وتبلغ مساحة پاپوا 234ألف كم ، وقدر عدد سكانها في سنة 1988 بحوالي 380 ألف نسمة ، والعاصمة بورت مورسبي يدين سكانها بالهندوسية ، والمسيحية، وبها أقلية مسلمة قليلة العدد، وبها عدد كبير من الوثنيين ، إلى جانب هذا البوذية والقاديانية.


تبلغ مساحة أرخبيل ميكرونيزيا 5288كم²، ويصل عدد سكانها إلى 561 ألف نسمة. وتعني كلمة ميكرونيزيا «الجزر الصغيرة» وتقع جميعها ما بين خط الاستواء ومدار السرطان شمال أرخبيل ميلانيزيا. يتكون أرخبيل ميكرونيزيا من أكثر من 2000 جزيرة. تتسم هذه الجزر بأنها صغيرة وذات منشأ مرجاني، ترتصف حول بحيرات ضخمة من مياه المحيط الهادي.


الجزر ومجموعات الجزر التالية تعتبر جزءاً من ميكرونيزيا:

إجمالي المساحة البرية: 1,229.95 square miles (3,185.6 km2)


تتصف هذه الجزر بسبب موقعها الفلكي على خطوط العرض بمناخ دافئ رطب على مدار السنة، إذ قلما تهبط درجات الحرارة فيها عن 20 ْم أو ترتفع أكثر من 27 ْم، والمدى الحراري اليومي والسنوي يراوح ما بين 5 ـ 7ْم، ويستمر الفصل المطير من أيار/مايو حتى كانون الأول/ديسمبر (موسمي)، أما فصل الخريف فيستمر من كانون الثاني/ديسمبر حتى نيسان/أبريل. وقد تشهد ميكرونيزيا بسبب موقعها الأعاصير العنيفة.


السكان اليوم يشكلون العديد من الأعراق، ولكن جميعهم ينحدر من الثقافة الميكرونيزية.[23] بعض جزر الأرخبيل خالية تماماً من السكان، وبعضها الآخر قليل السكنى، ولكن هناك جزر مأهولة بوضوح. وقد وَفَدَ السكان إلى الأرخبيل من جنوب شرقي آسيا منذ آلاف السنين واستوطنوا أولاً في ميكرونيزيا، بعدها انتشروا في جزر بولينيزيا. ويعتقد العلماء أن سكان كل من ميكرونيزيا وميلانيزيا عبارة عن مجموعات جنسية تفرعت عن النغريتوس Negritos (الأقزام الآسيويين) واختلطت بالأقزام الأوقيانوسيين. والسكان في ميكرونيزيا خليط من السكان الأصليين والأوربيين والهنود والصينيين واليابانيين؛ لذا تنوعت الثقافة في الأرخبيل تبعاً لما حمله القادمون واختلاف البيئة الجغرافية.

سكن القادمون ومازالوا في تجمعات سكانية صغيرة (أصغر من قرية) بسبب طبيعة الحياة الاقتصادية الفقيرة القائمة على الجمع والالتقاط والصيد. والميكرونيزيون متوسطو القامة لكنهم أطول من الميلانيزيين، ولهم بشرة بنية اللون، شعرهم مجعد، أما القريبون منهم من الجزر الآسيوية فلهم سمات آسيوية، مثل بروز عظام الوجه والشعر الناعم. يتحدث السكان لهجات عديدة تدعى «بولينيزية ملايو» إضافة إلى 13 لغة منها اليابانية واللهجة الهجينة (لغة محلية + لغة أجنبية). أما اللغة الرسمية فهي الإنكليزية. قسم كبير من الميكرونيزيين وثنيون ويتعاطون السحر والشعوذة، ولكن دخلت المسيحية في القرنين السابع عشر والثامن عشر واعتنقها أناس كثيرون منهم.

يعتمد السكان في غذائهم على اليام والتارو وفاكهة البحر والأناناس وجوز الهند وصيد الأسماك.

يرتدي سكان أرخبيل ميكرونيزيا في المدن لباساً غربياً، لكن الغالبية العظمى تُصنِّع ملابسها من البيئة الغابية، خاصة لحاء الشجر.


قبل التاريخ

Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific[24]

The Northern Mariana Islands were the first islands in Oceania colonized by the Austronesian peoples. They were settled by the voyagers who sailed eastwards from the Philippines in approximately 1500 BCE. These populations gradually moved southwards until they reached the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands by 1300 BCE and reconnected with the Lapita culture of the southeast migration branch of Austronesians moving through coastal New Guinea and Island Melanesia. By 1200 BCE, they again began crossing open seas beyond inter-island visibility, reaching Vanuatu, Fiji, and New Caledonia; before continuing eastwards to become the ancestors of the Polynesian people.[24][25][26]

Further migrations by other Austronesians also followed, likely from Sulawesi, settling Palau and Yap by around 1000 BCE. The details of this colonization, however, are not very well known.[24][25][27] In 200 BCE, a loosely connected group of Lapita colonists from Island Melanesia also migrated back northwards, settling the islands of eastern Micronesia almost simultaneously. This region became the center of another wave of migrations radiating outwards, reconnecting them with other settled islands in western Micronesia.[24][25]

Around 800 CE, a second wave of migrants from Southeast Asia arrived in the Marianas, beginning what is now known as the Latte period. These new settlers built large structures with distinctive capped stone pillars known as haligi. They also reintroduced rice (which did not survive earlier voyages), making the Northern Marianas the only islands in Oceania where rice was grown prior to European contact. However, it was considered a high-status crop and only used in rituals. It did not become a staple until after Spanish colonization.[26][28][29]

Construction of Nan Madol, a megalithic complex made from basalt lava logs in Pohnpei, began in around 1180 CE. This was followed by the construction of the Leluh complex in Kosrae in around 1200 CE.[25][30][31]

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الاتصال الأوروبي المبكر

تقوم البعثات التبشيرية منذ اكتشاف جزر الأرخبيل بالعمل على نشر الديانة المسيحية والمساعدة في التعليم والصحة. وقد تبع هذه البعثات قوافل التجار الأوربيين والأمريكيين للبحث عن الثروات وتجارة العبيد وصيد الحيتان. وقد استوطن بعضهم وأقاموا مزارع لجوز الهند والبن والأناناس وقصب السكر.


استقلَّت جزر كثيرة من الأرخبيل، لكنها لا زالت تابعة ومرتبطة بسياسات الدول التي استعمرتها. بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية أجرت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية فوق بعض جزر ميكرونيزيا تجارب نووية. وعلى الرغم من ذلك تقيم معظم جزر الأرخبيل المستقلة ـ وخاصة دولة ميكرونيزيا ـ أفضل العلاقات مع الولايات المتحدة مقابل مساعدة سنوية تقدر بـنحو 58 مليون دولار؛ على أن تلتزم التصويت في الأمم المتحدة لمصلحتها، إلى جانب وضع أراضيها في الخدمة الأمريكية.

دولة ميكرونيزيا من المؤيدين الدائمين لإسرائيل، وترتبط معها بعلاقات قوية وودية مقابل بعض المساعدات الطبية والرياضية.


A proportional representation of Micronesia exports, 2019

تحفل جزر الأرخبيل بالعديد من الثروات المعدنية وشبه المعدنية مثل : النيكل والنحاس الأصفر والذهب والفضة والنفط والكروم والحديد والحجر الجيري والفوسفات. الصناعة ضعيفة عموماً وتقوم على استثمارات أجنبية تهتم باستغلال الثروات المذكورة آنفاً، وتطوير صناعات زيت جوز الهند والصابون والسكر والأخشاب والإسمنت والتبغ والكبريت وصيد الحيتان. أما الصناعات اليدوية فتعتمد على السلال والحصر والخشب المحفور. التعليم مازال متواضعاً يستفيد منه عدد ضئيل من السكان في المراحل الابتدائية والثانوية إلى جانب بعض الكليات والمعاهد.

أما وسائل المواصلات في هذه البيئة الجزرية فتقتصر على أنواع مختلفة من الزوارق، ولكن منذ خمسينات القرن العشرين انتشرت الموانئ والمطارات، وعملت السفن والطائرات على ربط جزر الأرخبيل بعضها ببعض وبالعالم الخارجي. شبكات الطرق البرية لازالت محدودة.

من أهم ثروات أرخبيل ميكرونيزيا الزارعية: قصب السكر والأرز و البطاطا الحلوة و الموز وجوز الهند والكاسافا والكوبرا (لب جوز الهند المجفف) والكاكاو، ويربى الخنزير على نطاق واسع في كل جزر المحيط الهادي.

انظر أيضاً


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  2. ^ Kirch 2001, p. 167.
  3. ^ Doran, Edwin B. (1981). Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 9780890961070.
  4. ^ Dierking, Gary (2007). Building Outrigger Sailing Canoes: Modern Construction Methods for Three Fast, Beautiful Boats. International Marine/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780071594561.
  5. ^ Horridge, Adrian (1986). "The Evolution of Pacific Canoe Rigs". The Journal of Pacific History. 21 (2): 83–89. doi:10.1080/00223348608572530. JSTOR 25168892.
  6. ^ Bellwood, Peter (1988). "A Hypothesis for Austronesian Origins" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 26 (1): 107–117. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  7. ^ Bellwood, Peter (1991). "The Austronesian Dispersal and the Origin of Languages". Scientific American. 265 (1): 88–93. Bibcode:1991SciAm.265a..88B. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0791-88. JSTOR 24936983.
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  12. ^ « Although based on a superficial understanding of the Pacific islanders, Dumont d’Urville’s tripartite classification stuck. Indeed, these categories — Polynesians, Micronesians, Melanesians — became so deeply entrenched in Western anthropological thought that it is difficult even now to break out the mould in which they entrap us (Thomas, 1989). Such labels provide handy geographical referents, yet they mislead us greatly if we take them to be meaningful segments of cultural history. Only Polynesia has stood the tests of time and increased knowledge, as a category with historical significance », Patrick Vinton Kirch, On the Road of the Winds : an Archeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact, Berkeley, University of California Press, 2000 : 5.
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  • Kirch, Patrick Vinton (2000). On the Road of the Winds. An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact. University of California Press. pp. 166–167. ISBN 0-520-22347-0.
  • Goetzfridt, Nicholas J. and Karen M. Peacock. (2002) Micronesian Histories: An Analytical Bibliography and Guide to Interpretations. Westport. CT: Greenwood Press.

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