فلفل حار

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Chili
Madame Jeanette and other chillies.jpg
التصنيف العلمي e
أصنوفة غير معروفة (أصلحها): Capsicum
Species: ''C. annuum''
Binomial name
Capsicum annuum
L.
Varieties and Groups
Synonyms[3]
Young chili plants
Illustration from the Japanese agricultural encyclopedia Seikei Zusetsu (1804)

فلفل أحمر هونبات حولي من الفصيلة الباذنجانية ، يزرع في المناطق الحارة في العالم، وهو من النباتات العشبية المعمرة. يصل ارتفاع الساق إلى 150 سم، وهى غزيرة التفريع ذات فروع مضلعة الشكل خضراء اللون تحمل أوراقا قليلة بيضاوية الشكل، وأما الأزهار فصغيرة الحجم تخرج في مجموعات لونها أبيض أو أرجوانى، والثمار رفيعة مدببة القمة لونها أحمر بعد النضج تحتوى على بعض الجلوكسيدات الملونة وفيتامين ج وزيت طيار مجهول التركيب ومادة فعالة بنسبة 2 % وصبغ الكاروتين، ومن المعروف أن المادة الفعالة ذات الطعم الحريف تزداد شدتها كلما أصبحت الثمرة تامة النضج.

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Production

Green chili production – 2016
Country (millions of tonnes)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg الصين
17.4
Flag of Mexico.svg المكسيك
2.7
Flag of Turkey.svg تركيا
2.5
 الاتحاد الأوروپي
2.3
Flag of Indonesia.svg اندونيسيا
2.0
Flag of Spain.svg إسپانيا
1.1
 الولايات المتحدة
0.9
World
34.5
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[4]

Worldwide in 2016, 34.5 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.9 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced.[4] China was the world's largest producer of green chilis, providing half of the global total. Global production of dried chili peppers was about one ninth of fresh production, led by India with 36% of the world total.[4]


Species and cultivars

Thai pepper, similar in variety to the African birdseye, exhibits considerable strength for its size

There are five domesticated species of chili peppers. Capsicum annuum includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, wax, cayenne, jalapeños, chiltepin, and all forms of New Mexico chile. Capsicum frutescens includes malagueta, tabasco and Thai peppers, piri piri, and Malawian Kambuzi. Capsicum chinense includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet. Capsicum pubescens includes the South American rocoto peppers. Capsicum baccatum includes the South American aji peppers.[5]

Though there are only a few commonly used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chili peppers that have different names for culinary use. Green and red bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum, immature peppers being green. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano (which when dried is referred to as ancho), New Mexico, serrano, and other cultivars.

Peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings: bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them.

Intensity

A display of hot peppers and a board explaining the Scoville scale at a Houston, Texas, grocery store

The substances that give chili peppers their pungency (spicy heat) when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids.[6][7] The quantity of capsaicin varies by variety, and on growing conditions. Water stressed peppers usually produce stronger pods. When a habanero plant is stressed, by absorbing low water for example, the concentration of capsaicin increases in some parts of the fruit.[8]

When peppers are consumed by mammals such as humans, capsaicin binds with pain receptors in the mouth and throat, potentially evoking pain via spinal relays to the brainstem and thalamus where heat and discomfort are perceived.[9] The intensity of the "heat" of chili peppers is commonly reported in Scoville heat units (SHU). Historically, it was a measure of the dilution of an amount of chili extract added to sugar syrup before its heat becomes undetectable to a panel of tasters; the more it has to be diluted to be undetectable, the more powerful the variety, and therefore the higher the rating.[10] The modern method is a quantitative analysis of SHU using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to directly measure the capsaicinoid content of a chili pepper variety. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, and crystalline-to-waxy solid at room temperature, and measures 16,000,000 SHU.

Capsaicin is produced by the plant as a defense against mammalian predators and microbes, in particular a fusarium fungus carried by hemipteran insects that attack certain species of chili peppers, according to one study.[11] Peppers increased the quantity of capsaicin in proportion to the damage caused by fungal predation on the plant's seeds.[11]

Common peppers

Red Bhut Jolokia and green bird's eye chilies

A wide range of intensity is found in commonly used peppers:

Bell pepper 0 SHU
New Mexico green chile 0–70,000 SHU
Fresno, jalapeño 3,500–10,000 SHU
Cayenne 30,000–50,000 SHU
Piri piri 50,000–100,000 SHU
Habanero, Scotch bonnet, bird's eye 100,000–350,000 SHU[12]


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Notable hot chili peppers

Some of the world's hottest chili peppers are:

NOTE: SHU claims marked with an asterisk (*) has not been confirmed by Guinness World Records.[21]

Uses

Culinary uses

Smoke-dried chipotle

Chili pepper pods, which are berries, are used fresh or dried. Chilies are dried to preserve them for long periods of time, which may also be done by pickling.

Filipino tinola chicken soup with labuyo chili leaves
Chilies at a market in India
Sambal is the name for chili pastes in Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean cuisine
Thai curry pastes contain large amounts of chilies

Dried chilies are often ground into powders, although many Mexican dishes including variations on chiles rellenos use the entire chili. Dried whole chilies may be reconstituted before grinding to a paste. The chipotle is the smoked, dried, ripe jalapeño.

Many fresh chilies such as poblano have a tough outer skin that does not break down on cooking. Chilies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath. When cooled, the skins will usually slip off easily.

The leaves of every species of Capsicum are edible. Though almost all other Solanaceous crops have toxins in their leaves, chili peppers do not.[بحاجة لمصدر] The leaves, which are mildly bitter and nowhere near as hot as the fruit, are cooked as greens in Filipino cuisine, where they are called dahon ng sili (literally "chili leaves"). They are used in the chicken soup tinola.[22] In Korean cuisine, the leaves may be used in kimchi.[23] In Japanese cuisine, the leaves are cooked as greens, and also cooked in tsukudani style for preservation.

Chili is a staple fruit in Bhutan. Bhutanese call this crop ema (in Dzongkha) or solo (in Sharchop). The ema datsi recipe is entirely made of chili mixed with local cheese.

In India, most households always keep a stock of fresh hot green chilies at hand, and use them to flavor most curries and dry dishes. It is typically lightly fried with oil in the initial stages of preparation of the dish. Some states in India, such as Rajasthan, make entire dishes only by using spices and chilies.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Chilies are present in many cuisines. Some notable dishes other than the ones mentioned elsewhere in this article include:

  • Arrabbiata sauce from Italy is a tomato-based sauce for pasta always including dried hot chilies.
  • Puttanesca sauce is tomato-based with olives, capers, anchovy and, sometimes, chilies.
  • Paprikash from Hungary uses significant amounts of mild, ground, dried chilies, known as paprika, in a braised chicken dish.
  • Chiles en nogada from the Puebla region of Mexico uses fresh mild chilies stuffed with meat and covered with a creamy nut-thickened sauce.
  • Curry dishes usually contain fresh or dried chiles.
  • Kung pao chicken (Mandarin Chinese: 宫保鸡丁 gōng bǎo jī dīng) from the Sichuan region of China uses small hot dried chilies briefly fried in oil to add spice to the oil then used for frying.
  • Mole poblano from the city of Puebla in Mexico uses several varieties of dried chilies, nuts, spices, and fruits to produce a thick, dark sauce for poultry or other meats.
  • Nam phrik are traditional Thai chili pastes and sauces, prepared with chopped fresh or dry chilies, and additional ingredients such as fish sauce, lime juice, and herbs, but also fruit, meat or seafood.
  • 'Nduja, a more typical example of Italian spicy specialty, from the region of Calabria, is a soft pork sausage made "hot" by the addition of the locally grown variety of jalapeño chili.
  • Paprykarz szczeciński is a Polish fish paste with rice, onion, tomato concentrate, vegetable oil, chili pepper powder and other spices.
  • Sambal terasi or sambal belacan is a traditional Indonesian and Malay hot condiment made by frying a mixture of mainly pounded dried chili s, with garlic, shallots, and fermented shrimp paste. It is customarily served with rice dishes and is especially popular when mixed with crunchy pan-roasted ikan teri or ikan bilis (sun-dried anchovies), when it is known as sambal teri or sambal ikan bilis. Various sambal variants existed in Indonesian archipelago, among others are sambal badjak, sambal oelek, sambal pete (prepared with green stinky beans) and sambal pencit (prepared with unripe green mango).
  • Som tam, a green papaya salad from Thai and Lao cuisine, traditionally has, as a key ingredient, a fistful of chopped fresh hot Thai chili, pounded in a mortar.

Fresh or dried chilies are often used to make hot sauce, a liquid condiment—usually bottled when commercially available—that adds spice to other dishes. Hot sauces are found in many cuisines including harissa from North Africa, chili oil from China (known as rāyu in Japan), and sriracha from Thailand. Dried chilies are also used to infuse cooking oil.


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Ornamental plants

The contrast in color and appearance makes chili plants interesting to some as a purely decorative garden plant.

  • Black pearl pepper: small cherry-shaped fruits and dark brown to black leaves
    Black Pearl Pepper.
    Black pearl pepper
  • Black Hungarian pepper: green foliage, highlighted by purple veins and purple flowers, jalapeño-shaped fruits[24]
  • Bishop's crown pepper, Christmas bell pepper: named for its distinct three-sided shape resembling a red bishop's crown or a red Christmas bell[25]

Psychology

Psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that eating chilies is an example of a "constrained risk" like riding a roller coaster, in which extreme sensations like pain and fear can be enjoyed because individuals know that these sensations are not actually harmful. This method lets people experience extreme feelings without any significant risk of bodily harm.[26]

Medicinal

Capsaicin, the chemical in chili peppers that makes them hot, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal patches to relieve pain.[27]

Chemical irritants

Capsaicin extracted from chilies is used in manufacturing pepper spray and tear gas as chemical irritants, forms of less-lethal weapons for control of unruly individuals or crowds.[28] Such products have considerable potential for misuse, and may cause injury or death.[28]

Crop defense

Conflicts between farmers and elephants have long been widespread in African and Asian countries, where elephants nightly destroy crops, raid grain houses, and sometimes kill people. Farmers have found the use of chilies effective in crop defense against elephants. Elephants do not like capsaicin, the chemical in chilies that makes them hot. Because the elephants have a large and sensitive olfactory and nasal system, the smell of the chili causes them discomfort and deters them from feeding on the crops. By planting a few rows of the pungent fruit around valuable crops, farmers create a buffer zone through which the elephants are reluctant to pass. Chili dung bombs are also used for this purpose. They are bricks made of mixing dung and chili, and are burned, creating a noxious smoke that keeps hungry elephants out of farmers' fields. This can lessen dangerous physical confrontation between people and elephants.[29]

Food defense

Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin, because it targets a specific pain receptor in mammals. Chili peppers are eaten by birds living in the chili peppers' natural range, possibly contributing to seed dispersal and evolution of the protective capsaicin in chili peppers.[30]

Nutritional value

Peppers, hot chili, red, raw
القيمة الغذائية لكل 100 غ (3.5 أونصة)
الطاقة166 kجول (40 ك.سعرة)
8.8 g
Sugars5.3 g
ألياف غذائية1.5 g
0.4 g
1.9 g
الڤيتامينات
مكافئ ڤيتامين أ
(6%)
48 μg
(5%)
534 μg
ڤيتامين B6
(39%)
0.51 mg
Vitamin C
(173%)
144 mg
آثار فلزات
حديد
(8%)
1 mg
الماغنسيوم
(6%)
23 mg
پوتاسيوم
(7%)
322 mg
مكونات أخرى
ماء88 g
Capsaicin0.01g – 6 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

While red chilies contain large amounts of vitamin C (table), other species contain significant amounts of provitamin A beta-carotene.[31] In addition, peppers are a rich source of vitamin B6 (see table).

Spelling and usage

The three primary spellings are chili, chile and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.

  • Chili is widely used in historically Anglophone regions of the United States[32] and Canada.[33] However, it is also commonly used as a short name for chili con carne (literally "chili with meat"). Most versions are seasoned with chili powder, which can refer to pure dried, ground chili peppers, or to a mixture containing other spices.
  • Chile is the most common Spanish spelling in Mexico and several other Latin American countries,[34] as well as some parts of the United States and Canada, which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit. In the Southwest United States (particularly New Mexico), chile also denotes a thick, spicy, un-vinegared sauce made from this fruit, available in red and green varieties, and served over the local food, while chili denotes the meat dish. The plural is chile or chiles.
  • Chilli was the original Romanization of the Náhuatl language word for the fruit (chīlli) and is the preferred British spelling according to the Oxford English Dictionary, although it also lists chile and chili as variants.[35] Chilli (and its plural chillies) is the most common spelling in Australia, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore and South Africa.[36][37]

The name of the plant is almost certainly unrelated to that of Chile, the country, which has an uncertain etymology perhaps relating to local place names.[38] Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico are some of the Spanish-speaking countries where chilies are known as ají, a word of Taíno origin. Though pepper originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum, the latter usage is included in English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary (sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster.[39] The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chili plants and their fruits.

Gallery

See also

الأجزاء المستعملة

الثمار تستعمل كمنشط فعال للجسم، فهي تنشط الدورة الدموية وتقوى الجهاز العصبي وتفتح الشهية وتعالج عسر الهضم وتساعد على إفراز العرق والشطة أو الفلفل الأحمر مضاد للجراثيم يصنع منه معجون أو مرهم لعلاج الروماتيزم والتهاب المفاصل تخفف من 5 ـ 10 نقاط من صبغة الفلفل الأحمر(الشطة) في نصف فنجان ماء ساخن، ويؤخذ المزيج لتنشيط الدورة الدموية

وصفة طبية

يضاف 25 جراما من مسحوق الفلفل الأحمر (الشطة) إلى 500 مل من زيت عباد الشمس ويسخن المزيج لمدة ساعتين، ويوضع منه كمية صغيرة على الجلد الذي يحيط بالقرحة الدوالية لتشجيع جريان الدم بعيدا عن المنطقة المتقرحة

فوائده

هاضم ومنشط للعصارة المعدية وله تاثير علي دهون الدم ومنشط للأوعية الدموية . طارد للأرياح ومعرق ومفيد في الربو والبرد وإلتهاب الشعب الرئوية ومنشط وضد الأورام ومجدد لخلايا جهاز المناعة في الدم والطحال والأنسجة الليمفاوية ومنشط لإفراز مركبات الأجسام المضادة (immunoglobulins) التي تحسن جهاز المناعة. غني بفيتامين ج ومضادات الأكسدة المقاومة للبرد.

الاضرار الناجمة من الإفراط في تناولة

ينصح بعدم الإفراط في تناول الفلفل الأحمر خلال الوجبات الغذائية لأنها تعمل على ظهور البواسير مع طول فترة تناولها بكثرة ، ولذلك يجب تناولها باعتدال أحيانا تكون بذور الشطة الفلفل الأحمر سامة، لذا يجب تجنبها يجب عدم تناول الفلفل الأحمر أثناء الحمل والإرضاع

References

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  3. ^ The Plant List, Capsicum annuum L.
  4. ^ أ ب ت "Chili production in 2016; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity/Green Chillies and Peppers from pick lists". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
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  10. ^ "History of the Scoville Scale | FAQS". Tabasco.Com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
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  16. ^ "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title" Retrieved 11 May 2013
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  20. ^ Henderson, Neil (19 February 2011). ""Record-breaking" chilli is hot news". BBC News. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  21. ^ url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com title=World's Hottest Chilli
  22. ^ [1] Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ [2] Archived 14 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Chilies as Ornamental Plants, Seedsbydesign Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Bishop's crown pepper, image, cayennediane
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  32. ^ "chili" from Merriam-Webster[dead link]; other spellings are listed as variants, with "Chili" identified as "chiefly British"
  33. ^ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary lists chili as the main entry, and labels chile as a variant, and chilli as a British variant.
  34. ^ Heiser, Charles (August 1990). Seed To Civilization: The Story of Food. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-79681-2.
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  37. ^ "Chilli, Capsicum and Pepper are spicy plants grown for the pod. Green chilli is a culinary requirement in any Sri Lankan household". Sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
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  39. ^ "va=pepper – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". M-w.com. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.

External links

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ابحث عن chili في
قاموس المعرفة.
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