اللغات السامية

السامية
السورية-العربية
التوزيع
الجغرافي:
غرب آسيا، شمال أفريقيا،
شمال شرق أفريقيا، مالطة
التبويب اللغوي: الأفرو-آسيوية
  • السامية
اللغة الأولية: السامية الأولى
الأقسام:
ISO 639-2 / 5: sem
Glottolog: semi1276[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
خط زمني للغات السامية

اللغات السامية هي لغات تتبع تحت عائلة الشمالي الشرقي اللغات الأفروآسيوية. ينسب الساميون إلى سام بن نوح، الذي هو أبو الشعوب التي تتحدثها حسب الميثولوجيا الدينية اليهودية، وهو ما لم يعد متناسبا مع النظريات اللغوية الحديثة.

يتحدث باللغات السامية حاليا حوالي 400 مليون شخص تقديرا، ويتركز متحدثوها حاليا في الشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا وشرق أفريقيا. أكثر اللغات السامية انتشارا هذه الأيام هي العربية إذ يفوق متحدثيها المئتي مليون متحدث، تليها الأمهرية بـ27 مليون متحدث ثم العبرية بـ7 ملايين متحدث ثم التجرينية بحوالي 6 ملايين متحدث.

اللغات السامية كانت لهجات شفاهية متداولة بين شعوب الشرق الأوسط. وقد سبقت الكتابة بها. وجدت كتابات أكادية سامية تعود للألفية الثالثة قبل الميلاد أي قبل حوالي 5 آلاف سنة مما يجعلها من أقدم اللغات المكتوبة في العالم. انقرضت معظم لغات الشرق الأوسط ولم تبق إلا في النصوص الدينية فقط ولعدة قرون.

رسالة دبلوماسية بالأكدية، من القرن الرابع عشر ق.م.، عُثر عليها في العمارنة، بمصر.

ولقد كان فك شفرة مخطوطات اللغة المسمارية وهي لغة غير سامية أدى لاستعادة اللغات التي كانت مستعملة قديما في بلاد الرافدين لدي السومريين والبابليين والحيثيين والكاشانيين. ويقال أن هذه اللغة قد اندثرت في القرن الثالث أو الثاني ق.م. وقد كان في جنوب بلاد الرافدين توجد السومرية ولهجات من اللغات السامية . وكان شمالها وفي الشام لغات ولهجات سامية وفي غربي نهر دجلة كانت اللغة الأكادية وقبلها كانت اللغة العمورية .لكن لم يبت علماء اللغات القديمة عن أسباب إختفاء هذه اللغات القديمة.

تقسم اللغات السامية إلى ثلاث مجموعات رئيسية هي:

  1. اللغات السامية الشرقية.
  2. اللغات السامية الغربية: تنقسم لثلاث مجموعات لغوية رئيسية هي العمورية والأغورية والمجموعة الثانية الكنعانية والثالثة الآرامية. وقد عرفت اللغة العمورية في النصف الأول من القرن الثاني ق.م. وكانت متداولة بين البدو في الشام ومعلولا. وقد ورد بعض أسمائها في النصوص الأكادية والمصرية. وكانت الأغورية متداولة بين الكنعانيين بفلسطين والساحل الشمالي للفنيقيين ولاسيما في بلدة أوغاريت بشرق البحر الأبيض المتوسط . وقد إكتشفت مخطوطات في منطقة رأس شمر ترجع للقرنين 12 و13 ق.م. تشبه أبجدية كتاباتهاالكتابة باللغة المسمارية بالعراق. وكانت اللغة الكنعانية تضم مجموعة من اللغات واللهجات الفينيقية بسواحل لبنان وترجع كتاباتها إلي 1500 سنة ق.م. ومنها إنحدرت العبرية والفينيقية والبونيقية والأنوميتية والأدموتية. وكانت تكتب بالكتابة الفينيقية. وقد عثر علي رسائل دبلوماسية كنعانية وردت للقصر بتل العمارنة بمصر ترجع للقرن 14 ق.م. كما وجدت سجلات ترجع لسنة 1000 ق.م. بالفينيقية في الشام وفلسطين وقبرص. وكانت هذه اللغة متداولة في المستعمرات الفينيقية حول حوض البحر المتوسط. وظلت حتي القرن الخامس ميلادي. وكانت الأنومتية والأدموتية تسودان بالأردن مابين القرنين التاسع والخامس ق.م. وكان يشوبهما اللغة الآرامية. واللغة الآرامية قد ظهرت عام 850 ق.م. كما يدل حجر منقوش عثر عليه في سوريا بتل فخرية . وانتشرت هذه اللغة وقتها في الشرق الأوسط كلغة رسمية إبان الإمبراطورية الفارسية من أفغانستان مرورا بفارس وحتي مصر. وحلت الآرامية محل الأكادية والعبرية ومنها ظهرت القبطية ولاسيما وأن الروم الأغريق قد ظلوا يحيونها كلغة للمسيحية حتي الفتح العربي بالقرن السابع ميلادي. وكانت أبجديتها من اللغة الكنعانية الفنيقية. وبينما كان سكان الشام وفلسطين يتكلمون الآرامية كان الأنباط لهم مملكتهم في مدينة البتراء وجنوب الأردن. وكانوا يتكلمون النبطية وهي منحدرة من الآرامية التي إنحدرت منها الكتابة العربية.
  3. اللغة السامية الغربية والجنوبية: تضم اللغات العربية الجنوبية باليمن وعمان وكانت أبجديتها مشتقة من الكنعانية وظلت سائدة منذ عام 1300 ق.م. حتي عام 500 م. وقد جلبها معهم عرب شمال الجزيرة العربية. وكانت تتكون من عدة لهجات إندثرت حاليا. واللغة العربية التقليدية التي جاء بها الإسلام تبنت لغة قريش بمكة والتي نزل بها القرآن. فانتشرت العربية وحلت محل لغات أخري قبله بالعالم الإسلامي من الصين حتي المحيط الأطلنطي وفي شبه جزيرة إيبيريا بأسبانيا وآسيا الصغري وشرق أوربا بالبلقان. واللغات الحبشية (الإثيوبية) التي تشبه لحد كبير اللغة العربية الجنوبية باليمن حيث حملها المهاجرون الأوائل للحبشة، فنشروا كتاباتها التي حاكتها اللغات الإثيوبية ولاسيما في اللغة الأمهرية التي تنتشر في إثيوبيا وإرتريا وهي اللغة الرسمية حالياً.
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فهرست

الاسم والتعرف

مقارنة من سنة 1538 للعبرية والعربية، قام بها گي‌يوم پوستل – ولعلها كان أول عرض في الأدب الأوروبي الغربي[2]

التشابه بين اللغات العربية والعبرية والآرامية قبـِل به دارسو اليهودية والإسلام منذ العصور الوسطى. اللغات كانت مألوفة للدارسين الأوروپيين بسبب التواصل التاريخي مع البلدان الإسلامية المجاورة وعبر الدراسات التوراتية، ونُشِر تحليل مقارن للعبرية والعربية والآرامية باللغة اللاتينية في عام 1538 كتبه گي‌يوم پوستل.[2] Almost two centuries later, هيوب لودولف described the similarities between these three languages and the Ethiopian Semitic languages.[2] However, neither scholar named this grouping as "Semitic".[2]

The term was created by members of the مدرسة گوتنگن للتاريخ, and specifically by أوگوست لودڤيگ فون شلوتسر[3] (1781)[4] ويوهان گوتفريد أيخ‌هورن[5] (1787)[6] first coined the name "Semitic" in the late 18th century to designate the languages closely related to Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew.[3] The choice of name was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the genealogical accounts of the biblical سفر التكوين,[3] or more precisely from the يونانية كوينه rendering of the name, Σήμ (Sēm). أيخ‌هورن is credited with popularising the term,[7] particularly via a 1795 article "Semitische Sprachen" (Semitic languages) in which he justified the terminology against criticism that Hebrew and Canaanite were the same language despite Canaan being "الحامية" في جدول الأمم:[8][7]

In the Mosaic Table of Nations, those names which are listed as Semites are purely names of tribes who speak the so-called Oriental languages and live in Southwest Asia. As far as we can trace the history of these very languages back in time, they have always been written with syllabograms or with alphabetic script (never with hieroglyphs or pictograms); and the legends about the invention of the syllabograms and alphabetic script go back to the Semites. In contrast, all الشعوب الحامية originally used hieroglyphs, until they here and there, either through contact with the Semites, or through their settlement among them, became familiar with their syllabograms or alphabetic script, and partly adopted them. Viewed from this aspect too, with respect to the alphabet used, the name "Semitic languages" is completely appropriate.

وقبل ذلك كانت تلك اللغات يشيع معرفتها بإسم "اللغات الشرقية" في الأدبيات الأوروپية.[3][5] وفي القرن 19، "السامية" أصبحت الاسم المعتاد؛ إلا أن اسماً بديلاً، "اللغات السورية-العربية"، تم تقديمه لاحقاً من جيمس كاولز پرتشارد and used by some writers.[5]


التاريخ

الشعوب القديمة الناطقة بالسامية

توجد عدة أماكن مقترحة كمواقع محتملة لأصول الشعوب الناطقة بالسامية قبل التاريخ: بلاد الرافدين، المشرق، حوض المتوسط، الجزيرة العربية وشمال أفريقيا.[9]

بعد الميلاد

Approximate distribution of Semitic languages around the 1st century
فن الخط العربي

Syriac, a fifth century BCE Assyrian[10] Mesopotamian descendant of Aramaic used in northeastern Syria and Mesopotamia,[11] rose to importance as a literary language of early Christianity in the third to fifth centuries and continued into the early Islamic era.

With the advent of the early Muslim conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries, the hitherto largely uninfluential Arabic language slowly but surely replaced many of the indigenous Semitic languages and cultures of the Near East. Both the Near East and North Africa saw an influx of Muslim Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula, followed later by non-Semitic Muslim Iranian and Turkic peoples. The previously dominant Aramaic dialects gradually began to be sidelined, however descendant dialects of Aramaic (including Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo and Mandaic) survive to this day among the Assyrians and Mandaeans of northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey. The Arabs spread their Central Semitic language to North Africa where it gradually replaced Coptic and many Berber languages (although Berber is still largely extant), and for a time to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain, Portugal and Gibraltar).

Page from a 12th-century Quran in Arabic

With the patronage of the caliphs and the prestige of its liturgical status, Arabic rapidly became one of the world's main literary languages. Its spread among the masses took much longer, however, as many (although not all) of the native populations outside the Arabian Peninsula only gradually abandoned their languages in favour of Arabic. As Bedouin tribes settled in conquered areas, it became the main language of not only central Arabia, but also Yemen,[12] the Fertile Crescent, and Egypt. Most of the Maghreb followed, particularly in the wake of the Banu Hilal's incursion in the 11th century, and Arabic became the native language of many inhabitants of al-Andalus. After the collapse of the Nubian kingdom of Dongola in the 14th century, Arabic began to spread south of Egypt into modern Sudan; soon after, the Beni Ḥassān brought Arabization to Mauritania. A number of South Arabian languages distinct from Arabic still survive, such as Soqotri, Mehri and Shehri which are mainly spoken in Socotra, Yemen and Oman, and are likely descendants of the languages spoken in the ancient kingdoms of Sheba, Magan, Ubar, Meluhha and Dilmun.

Meanwhile, Semitic languages were diversifying in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where, under heavy Cushitic influence, they split into a number of languages, including Amharic and Tigrinya. With the expansion of Ethiopia under the Solomonic dynasty, Amharic, previously a minor local language, spread throughout much of the country, replacing both Semitic (such as Gafat) and non-Semitic (such as Weyto) languages, and replacing Ge'ez as the principal literary language (though Ge'ez remains the liturgical language for Christians in the region); this spread continues to this day, with Qimant set to disappear in another generation.

الوضع الراهن

Map showing the distribution of Semitic (orange) and other Afro-Asiatic language speakers today.
Map showing the historical distribution of Semitic (yellow) and other Afro-Asiatic language speakers about 1000 - 2000 years ago.

Arabic languages and dialects are currently the native languages of majorities from Mauritania to Oman, and from Iraq to the Sudan. Classical Arabic is the language of the Quran, it is also studied widely in the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim world. The Maltese language is genetically a descendant of the extinct Siculo-Arabic, a variety of Maghrebi Arabic formerly spoken in Sicily. The modern Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin script with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs. Maltese is the only Semitic official language of a nation state within the European Union.

الصوتيات

The phonologies of the attested Semitic languages are presented here from a comparative point of view. See Proto-Semitic language#Phonology for details on the phonological reconstruction of Proto-Semitic used in this article. This comparative approach is natural for the consonants, as sound correspondences among the consonants of the Semitic languages are very straightforward for a family of its time depth; for the vowels there are more subtleties.


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Consonants

Each Proto-Semitic phoneme was reconstructed to explain a certain regular sound correspondence between various Semitic languages. Note that Latin letter values (italicized) for extinct languages are a question of transcription; the exact pronunciation is not recorded.

Most of the attested languages have merged a number of the reconstructed original fricatives, though South Arabian retains all fourteen (and has added a fifteenth from *p > f).

In Aramaic and Hebrew, all non-emphatic stops occurring singly after a vowel were softened to fricatives, leading to an alternation that was often later phonemicized as a result of the loss of gemination.

In languages exhibiting pharyngealization of emphatics, the original velar emphatic has rather developed to a uvular stop [q].

Proto-Semitic IPA Arabic Standard
Arabic
Classical
Arabic
[13]
Old
Arabic
[14]
Akkadian Ugaritic Phoenician Hebrew Modern
Hebrew
Aramaic Ge'ez Maltese
*b b ب b /b/ /b/ [b] b b Phoenician beth.svg b ב /b6 /v/, /b/ ב /b6 /b/ b
*d d د d /d/ /d/ [d] d d Phoenician daleth.svg d ד /d6 /d/ ד /d6 /d/ d
*g ɡ ج ǧ1 /d͡ʒ/ /ɟ/ [g] g g Phoenician gimel.svg g ג /g6 /ɡ/ ג /g6 /ɡ/ ġ
*p p ف f /f/ /f/ [pʰ] p p Phoenician pe.svg p פ /p6 /f/, /p/ פ /p6 /f/ f
*t t ت t /t/ /t/ [tʰ] t t Phoenician taw.svg t ת /t6 /t/ ת /t6 /t/ t
*k k ك k /k/ /k/ [kʰ] k k Phoenician kaph.svg k כ /k6 /χ/, /k/ כ /k6 /k/ k
*ṭ ط /tˤ/ /tˤ/ *ṭ Phoenician teth.svg ט /t/ ט /tʼ/ t
*ḳ ق q /q/ /q/ *ḳ q q q ק q /k/ ק q /kʼ/ k
*ḏ ð / d͡ð ذ /ð/ /ð/ [ð] z > d Phoenician zayin.svg z ז z /z/ قالب:Bdo 4/d /z/ d
*z z / d͡z ز z /z/ /z/ [z] z ז z ż
*ṯ θ / t͡θ ث /θ/ /θ/ [θ] š Phoenician sin.svg š שׁ š /ʃ/ قالب:Bdo 4/t /s/ t
ʃ / t͡ʃ س s /s/ /s/ [s] š שׁ š s
ɬ / t͡ɬ ش š1 /ʃ/ /ɕ/ [ɬ] שׂ2 ś2 /s/ قالب:Bdo ś4/s /ɬ/ x
*s s / t͡s س s /s/ /s/ [s] s s Phoenician samekh.svg s ס s ס s /s/ s
*ṱ θʼ / t͡θʼ ظ 1 /ðˤ/ /ðˤ/ *ṱ > ġ ṣ צ /ts/ قالب:Bdo ṯʼ 4/ /tsʼ/ d
*ṣ / t͡sʼ ص /sˤ/ /sˤ/ *ṣ צ s
*ṣ́ ɬʼ / t͡ɬʼ ض 1 /dˤ/ /ɮˤ/ *ṣ́ قالب:Bdo *ġʼ 4/ʻ /ɬʼ/ d
ɣ~ʁ غ ġ /ɣ~ʁ/ /ʁ/ [ɣ] ġ,ʻ Phoenician ayin.svg /ʕ/ ע3 ʻ3 /ʔ/, - قالب:Bdo ġ4/ʻ /ʕ/
ʕ ع ʻ /ʕ/ /ʕ/ [ʕ] -5 ʻ ע ʻ
ʔ ء ʼ /ʔ/ /ʔ/ [ʔ] ʼ Phoenician aleph.svg /ʔ/ א ʼ /ʔ/, - א ʼ /ʔ/ q
*ḫ x~χ خ /x~χ/ /χ/ [x] Phoenician heth.svg ח3 3 /χ/ قالب:Bdo 4/ /χ/ ħ
*ḥ ħ ح /ħ/ /ħ/ [ħ] -5 ח /ħ/
*h h ه h /h/ /h/ [h] h Phoenician he.svg h ה h /h/, - ה h /h/
*m m م m /m/ /m/ [m] m m Phoenician mem.svg m מ m /m/ מ m /m/ m
*n n ن n /n/ /n/ [n] n n Phoenician nun.svg n נ n /n/ נ
ר
n
r
/n/ n
*r ɾ ر r /r/ /r/ [r] r r Phoenician res.svg r ר r /ʁ/ ר r /r/ r
*l l ل l /l/ /l/ [l] l l Phoenician lamedh.svg l ל l /l/ ל l /l/ l
*y j ي y /j/ /j/ [j] y y Phoenician yodh.svg y י y /j/ י y /j/ j
*w w و w /w/ /w/ [w] w w
y7
Phoenician waw.svg
Phoenician yodh.svg
w
y7
ו
י
w
y7
/v/, /w/
/j/
ו
י
w
y7
/w/ w
Proto-Semitic IPA Arabic Standard Arabic Classical Arabic Old Arabic Akkadian Ugaritic Phoenician Hebrew Modern Hebrew Aramaic Ge'ez Maltese

Notes:

  1. Arabic pronunciation is largely based on Modern Standard Arabic which differs from that of reconstructed Qur'anic Arabic of the 7th and 8th centuries.
  2. Proto-Semitic was still pronounced as [ɬ] in Biblical Hebrew, but no letter was available in the Phoenician alphabet, so the letter ש did double duty, representing both /ʃ/ and /ɬ/. Later on, however, /ɬ/ merged with /s/, but the old spelling was largely retained, and the two pronunciations of ש were distinguished graphically in Tiberian Hebrew as שׁ /ʃ/ vs. שׂ /s/ < /ɬ/.
  3. Biblical Hebrew as of the 3rd century BCE apparently still distinguished the phonemes ġ /ʁ/ and /χ/, based on transcriptions in the Septuagint. As in the case of /ɬ/, no letters were available to represent these sounds, and existing letters did double duty: ח /χ/ /ħ/ and ע /ʁ/ /ʕ/. In both of these cases, however, the two sounds represented by the same letter eventually merged, leaving no evidence (other than early transcriptions) of the former distinctions.
  4. Although early Aramaic (pre-7th century BCE) had only 22 consonants in its alphabet, it apparently distinguished all of the original 29 Proto-Semitic phonemes, including *ḏ, *ṯ, *ṱ, , *ṣ́, and *ḫ – although by Middle Aramaic times, these had all merged with other sounds. This conclusion is mainly based on the shifting representation of words etymologically containing these sounds; in early Aramaic writing, the first five are merged with z, š, , š, q, respectively, but later with d, t, , s, ʿ.[15][16] (Also note that due to begadkefat spirantization, which occurred after this merger, OAm. t > ṯ and d > ḏ in some positions, so that PS *t,ṯ and *d, ḏ may be realized as either of t, ṯ and d, ḏ respectively.) The sounds and *ḫ were always represented using the pharyngeal letters ʿ , but they are distinguished from the pharyngeals in the Demotic-script papyrus Amherst 63, written about 200 BCE.[17] This suggests that these sounds, too, were distinguished in Old Aramaic language, but written using the same letters as they later merged with.
  5. The earlier pharyngeals can be distinguished in Akkadian from the zero reflexes of *h, *ʔ by e-coloring adjacent *a, e.g. pS *ˈbaʕal-um 'owner, lord' > Akk. bēlu(m).[18]
  6. Hebrew and Aramaic underwent begadkefat spirantization at a certain point, whereby the stop sounds /b ɡ d k p t/ were softened to the corresponding fricatives [v ɣ ð x f θ] (written ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ) when occurring after a vowel and not geminated. This change probably happened after the original Old Aramaic phonemes /θ, ð/ disappeared in the 7th century BCE,[19] and most likely occurred after the loss of Hebrew /χ, ʁ/ c. 200 BCE.[nb 1] It is known to have occurred in Hebrew by the 2nd century.[20][متناقض] After a certain point this alternation became contrastive in word-medial and final position (though bearing low functional load), but in word-initial position they remained allophonic.[21] In Modern Hebrew, the distinction has a higher functional load due to the loss of gemination, although only the three fricatives /v χ f/ are still preserved (the fricative /x/ is pronounced /χ/ in modern Hebrew). (The others are pronounced like the corresponding stops, apparently under the influence of later non-native speakers whose native European tongues lacked the sounds /ɣ ð θ/ as phonemes.)
  7. In the Northwest Semitic languages, */w/ became */j/ at the beginning of a word, e.g. Hebrew yeled "boy" < *wald (cf. Arabic walad).
  8. There is evidence of a rule of assimilation of /j/ to the following coronal consonant in pre-tonic position,[مطلوب توضيح] shared by Hebrew, Phoenician and Aramaic[22]
  9. In Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, [ħ] is nonexistent. In general cases, the language would lack pharyngeal fricative [ʕ] (as heard in Ayin). However though, /ʕ/ is retained in educational speech, especially among Assyrian priests.[23]

In addition to those in the table, Modern Hebrew has introduced the new phonemes /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʒ/ through borrowings.

The following table shows the development of the various fricatives in Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic through cognate words:

Proto-Semitic Hebrew Aramaic Arabic Examples
Hebrew Aramaic Arabic meaning
*/ð/ *ḏ */z/ ז */d/ ד */ð/ ذ זהב
זָכָר
דהב
דכרא
ذهب
ذَكَر
'gold'
'male'
*/z/1 *z */z/ ז */z/ ز מאזנים
זמן
מאזנין
זמן
موازين
زمن
'scale'
'time'
*/ʃ/ */ʃ/ שׁ */ʃ/ שׁ */s/ س שׁנה
שלום
שׁנה
שלם
سنة
سلام
'year'
'peace'
*/θ/ *ṯ */t/ ת */θ/ ث שלוש
שתים
תלת
תרין
ثلاثة
اثنان
'three'
'two'
*/θʼ/1 *ṱ */sˤ~ts/1 צ */tʼ/ ט */ðˤ/ ظ צל
צהרים
טלה
טהרא
ظل
ظهر
'shadow'
'noon'
*/ɬʼ/1 *ṣ́ */ʕ/ ע */dˤ/ ض ארץ
צחק
ארע
עחק
أرض
ضحك
'land'
'laughed'
*/sʼ/1 *ṣ */sʼ/ צ */sˤ/ ص צרח
צבר
צרח
צבר
صرخ
صبر
'shout'
'water melon like plant'
*/χ/ *ḫ */ħ~χ/ ח */ħ/ ח */χ/ خ חֲמִשָּׁה
צרח
חַמְשָׁה
צרח
خمسة
صرخ
'five'
'shout'
*/ħ/ *ḥ */ħ/ ح מלח
חלום
מלח
חלם
ملح
حلم
'salt'
'dream'
*/ʁ/ */ʕ~ʔ/ ע */ʕ/ ע */ʁ/ غ עורב
מערב
ערב
מערב
غراب
غرب
'raven'
'west'
*/ʕ/ */ʕ/ ع עבד
שבע
עבד
שבע
عبد
سبعة
'slave'
'seven'
*/ɬ/ */s/ שׂ */s/ שׂ */ʃ/ ش עשׂר עשׂר عشر 'ten'
  1. possibly affricated (/dz/ /tɬʼ/ /ʦʼ/ /tθʼ/ /tɬ/)


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الصوائط

Proto-Semitic vowels are, in general, harder to deduce due to the nonconcatenative morphology of Semitic languages. The history of vowel changes in the languages makes drawing up a complete table of correspondences impossible, so only the most common reflexes can be given:

Vowel correspondences in Semitic languages (in proto-Semitic stressed syllables)[24]
pS العربية الآرامية العبرية گعز الأكدية
Classical Modern usually4 /_C.ˈV /ˈ_.1 /ˈ_Cː2 /ˈ_C.C3
*a a a a ə ā a ɛ a a, e, ē5
*i i i e, i,
WSyr. ɛ
ə ē e ɛ, e ə i
*u u u u, o ə ō o o ə, ʷə6 u
ā ā ā ō[nb 2] ā ā, ē
ī ī ī ī ī ī
ū ū ū ū ū ū
*ay. ay ē, ay BA, JA ay(i), ē,
WSyr. ay/ī & ay/ē
ayi, ay ay, ē ī
*aw. aw ō, aw ō,
WSyr. aw/ū
ō,
pausal ˈāwɛ
ō ū
  1. in a stressed open syllable
  2. in a stressed closed syllable before a geminate
  3. in a stressed closed syllable before a consonant cluster
  4. when the proto-Semitic stressed vowel remained stressed
  5. pS *a,*ā > Akk. e,ē in the neighborhood of pS *ʕ,*ħ and before r.
  6. i.e. pS *g,*k,*ḳ,*χ > Ge'ez gʷ,kʷ,ḳʷ,χʷ / _u

تناظر الأصوات مع اللغات الأفروآسيوية الأخرى

انظر الجدول في اللغة الأفروآسيوية الأولى#تناظرات الصوامط.

مواضيع ذات صلة

معجم مشترك

Due to the Semitic languages' common origin, they share many words and roots. Others differ. For example:

English السامية الأولى Akkadian العربية Aramaic Syriac Hebrew Ge'ez Mehri Maltese
أب *ʼab- ab- ʼab- ʼaḇ-āʼ bābā ʼāḇ ʼab ḥa-yb missier
heart *lib(a)b- libb- lubb- lebb-āʼ lëbā lëḇ(āḇ) libb ḥa-wbēb qalb
house *bayt- bītu, bētu bayt-, dar bayt-āʼ bētā báyiṯ, bêṯ bet beyt, bêt dar
peace *šalām- šalām- salām- šlām-āʼ šlāmā šālôm salām səlōm sliem
tongue *lišān-/*lašān- lišān- lisān- leššān-āʼ lišānā lāšôn lissān əwšēn ilsien
water *may-/*māy- mû (root *mā-/*māy-) māʼ-/māy mayy-āʼ mēyā máyim māy ḥə-mō ilma

Sometimes, certain roots differ in meaning from one Semitic language to another. For example, the root b-y-ḍ in Arabic has the meaning of "white" as well as "egg", whereas in Hebrew it only means "egg". The root l-b-n means "milk" in Arabic, but the color "white" in Hebrew. The root l-ḥ-m means "meat" in Arabic, but "bread" in Hebrew and "cow" in Ethiopian Semitic; the original meaning was most probably "food". The word medina (root: m-d-n) has the meaning of "metropolis" in Amharic, "city" in Arabic and Ancient Hebrew, and "State" in Modern Hebrew.

Of course, there is sometimes no relation between the roots. For example, "knowledge" is represented in Hebrew by the root y-d-ʿ, but in Arabic by the roots ʿ-r-f and ʿ-l-m and in Ethiosemitic by the roots ʿ-w-q and f-l-ṭ.

For more comparative vocabulary lists, see Wiktionary appendices:


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الشعوب الناطقة بالسامية

The following is a list of some modern and ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and nations:

السامية الوسطى

السامية الشرقية

  • Akkadian Empire – ancient Semitic speakers moved into Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium BCE and settled among the local peoples of Sumer.[27][28] The remnants of these people became the modern Assyrian people (also known as Chaldo-Assyrians) of Iraq, Iran, south eastern Turkey and northeast Syria.
  • Ebla – 23rd century BCE

السامية الجنوبية

غير المعروفة

  • Suteans – 14th century BCE
  • Thamud – 2nd to 5th centuries CE


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انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ According to the generally accepted view, it is unlikely that begadkefat spirantization occurred before the merger of /χ, ʁ/ and /ħ, ʕ/, or else [x, χ] and [ɣ, ʁ] would have to be contrastive, which is cross-linguistically rare. However, Blau argues that it is possible that lenited /k/ and /χ/ could coexist even if pronounced identically, since one would be recognized as an alternating allophone (as apparently is the case in Nestorian Syriac). See Blau (2010:56).
  2. ^ see Canaanite shift

الهامش

  1. ^ قالب:Glottolog
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث Ruhlen, Merritt (1991), A Guide to the World's Languages: Classification, Stanford University Press, ISBN 9780804718943, https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=mYwmDE3f6wUC&pg=PA77#v=onepage&q&f=false, "The other linguistic group to be recognized in the eighteenth century was the Semitic family. The German scholar Ludwig von Schlozer is often credited with having recognizes, and named, the Semitic family in 1781. But the affinity of Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic had been recognized for centuries by Jewish and Islamic scholars, and this knowledge was published in Western Europe as early as 1538 (انظر پوستل 1538). Around 1700 هيوب لودولف، who had written grammars of Geez and Amharic (both Ethiopic Semitic languages) in the seventeenth century, recognized the extension of the Semitic family into East Africa. Thus when فون شلوتسر named the family in 1781 he was merely recognizing genetic relationships that had been known for centuries. Three Semitic languages (Aramaic, Arabic, and Hebrew) were long familiar to Europeans both because of their geographic proximity and because the Bible was written in Hebrew and Aramaic." 
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث Kiraz, George Anton (2001). Computational Nonlinear Morphology: With Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780521631969. التعبير "سامي" مستعار من التوراة (التكوين x.21 and xi.10–26). وقد استُخدِم لأول مرة من قِبل المستشرق أ. ل. شلوتسر في 1781 لتمييز اللغات اللائي يتكلمها الآراميون والعبرانيون والعرب وشعوب أخرى في الشرق الأدنى (Moscati et al., 1969, Sect. 1.2). قبل شلوتسر، كانت تلك اللغات واللهجات تُعرف بإسم اللغات الشرقية. 
  4. ^ Baasten 2003, p. 67.
  5. ^ أ ب ت Kitto, John (1845). A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature. London: W. Clowes and Sons. p. 192. That important family of languages, of which the Arabic is the most cultivated and most widely-extended branch, has long wanted an appropriate common name. The term Oriental languages, which was exclusively applied to it from the time of Jerome down to the end of the last century, and which is even now not entirely abandoned, must always have been an unscientific one, inasmuch as the countries in which these languages prevailed are only the east in respect to Europe; and when السنسكريتية, الصينية، و other idioms of the الشرق الأبعد were brought within the reach of our research, it became palpably incorrect. Under a sense of this impropriety, أيخ‌هورن was the first, as he says himself (Allg. Bibl. Biblioth. vi. 772), to introduce the name Semitic languages, which was soon generally adopted, and which is the most usual one at the present day. [...] In modern times, however, the very appropriate designation اللغات السورية العربية has been proposed by Dr. پريتشارد, in his Physical History of Man. This term, [...] has the advantage of forming an exact counterpart to the name by which the only other great family of languages with which we are likely to bring the Syro-Arabian into relations of contrast or accordance, is now universally known—the Indo-Germanic. Like it, by taking up only the two extreme members of a whole sisterhood according to their geographical position when in their native seats, it embraces all the intermediate branches under a common band; and, like it, it constitutes a name which is not only at once intelligible, but one which in itself conveys a notion of that affinity between the sister dialects, which it is one of the objects of comparative philology to demonstrate and to apply. 
  6. ^ Baasten 2003, p. 68.
  7. ^ أ ب Baasten 2003, p. 69.
  8. ^ Eichhorn 1794.
  9. ^ "Semite". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  10. ^ ^ Averil Cameron,Peter Garnsey (1998). "The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 13". p. 708.
  11. ^ ^ Amir Harrak (1992). "The ancient name of Edessa". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51 (3): 209–214. doi:10.1086/373553. JSTOR 545546.
  12. ^ Nebes, Norbert, "Epigraphic South Arabian," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pps.335.
  13. ^ Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic (PDF). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 13. 
  14. ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad (2015). An Outline of the Grammar of the Safaitic Inscriptions. BRILL. p. 48. 
  15. ^ "Old Aramaic (c. 850 to c. 612 BCE)". Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  16. ^ "LIN325: Introduction to Semitic Languages. Common Consonant Changes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-21. Retrieved 2006-06-25. 
  17. ^ Kaufman, Stephen (1997), "Aramaic", in Hetzron, Robert, The Semitic Languages, Routledge, pp. 117–119 .
  18. ^ Dolgopolsky 1999, p. 35.
  19. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999:72)
  20. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999:73)
  21. ^ Blau (2010:78–81)
  22. ^ Garnier, Romain; Jacques, Guillaume (2012). "A neglected phonetic law: The assimilation of pretonic yod to a following coronal in North-West Semitic". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 75.1: 135–145. doi:10.1017/s0041977x11001261. 
  23. ^ Brock, Sebastian (2006). An Introduction to Syriac Studies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-349-8.
  24. ^ Dolgopolsky 1999, pp. 85–86.
  25. ^ "Aramaean – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27. 
  26. ^ "Akhlame – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27. 
  27. ^ "Mesopotamian religion – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27. 
  28. ^ "Akkadian language – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27. 

مراجع

وصلات خارجية