كرلا

(تم التحويل من Kerala)
Kerala

Kēraḷam
Niyamasabha.jpg
Boathouse (7063399547).jpg
Rice fields of Kuttanad.jpg
Athirappilly Waterfalls 1.jpg
01KovalamBeach&Kerala.jpg
Kathakali performer.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Niyamasabha Mandiram, Rice fields of Kuttanad,
Kovalam Beach, Kathakali performer, Athirappilly Falls,
Boathouse
Official logo of Kerala
Emblem
Nickname(s): 
God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts
Location of Kerala
Location of Kerala
الإحداثيات (Thiruvananthapuram): 8°30′N 77°00′E / 8.5°N 77°E / 8.5; 77الإحداثيات: 8°30′N 77°00′E / 8.5°N 77°E / 8.5; 77
Country  الهند
Statehood نوفمبر 1956, 1; 62 years ago (1-11-1956)
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Districts 14
الحكم
 • الهيئة Government of Kerala
 • Governor P. Sathasivam[1]
 • Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan (CPI (M))
 • Legislature Unicameral (141 seats)[2]
 • Parliamentary constituencies Rajya Sabha 9
Lok Sabha 20
 • High Court Kerala High Court Kochi
المساحة
 • الإجمالية 38٬863 كم² (15٬005 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة 22nd
أعلى ارتفاع 2٬695 m (8٬842 ft)
أوطى ارتفاع −2٫2 m (−7٫2 ft)
التعداد(2011)[2]
 • الإجمالي 33٬387٬677
 • الترتيب 13th
 • الكثافة 860/km2 (2٬200/sq mi)
صفة المواطن Keralite, Malayali
GDP (2018–19)[3][4]
 • Total INR7٫73 lakh crore ({{INRConvert/خطأ في التعبير: علامة ترقيم غير متعرف عليها "["|7.73|12||USD|year={{{year}}}}})
 • Per capita INR162٬718 ({{INRConvert/خطأ في التعبير: علامة ترقيم غير متعرف عليها "["|162718|0||USD|year={{{year}}}}})
Languages
 • Official Malayalam[5]
 • Additional official English[6]
منطقة التوقيت IST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL
تسجيل السيارة KL
HDI (2018) 0.784[7] (High) · 1st
Literacy (2011) 94%[8]
Sex ratio (2011) 1084 /1000 [8]
الموقع الإلكتروني kerala.gov.in
'
Symbols
الشعار Emblem of Kerala state Vector.svg Seal of Kerala
الحيوان
Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg
Indian Elephant
الطائر
Great-Hornbill.jpg
Great hornbill
السمكة
Etroplus suratensis.jpg
Green chromide
الزهرة
Konnamaram.JPG
Kanikonna
Fruit
Jackfruit hanging.JPG
Jackfruit
الشجرة
Coconut green.JPG
Coconut tree
احداثيات
المساحة
العاصمة ثيروڤاننثاپورام (تريڤاندرم)
أكبر مدينة ثيروڤاننثاپورام
Region جنوب الهند
المقاطعات 14
اللغة ملايالام
التشريع (مقاعد) أحادي الغرفة ()


كـِرلا (بالإنگليزية: Kerala؛ /ˈkɛrələ/)، ويشار إليها إقليمياً بإسم Keralam هي ولاية تقع جنوب غرب الهند على ساحل ملبار. وهي ذات كثافة سكانية عالية إذ يبلغ عدد سكانها 29,011,237 نسمة حسب تعداد 1991م، مساحتها 38,863كم²، ونسبة التعليم تصل إلى نحو 90% بين السكان. وعاصمتها مدينة تريفاندرم. والولاية فقيرة في الموارد الطبيعية، ويعتمد اقتصادها على الزراعة وصيد الأسماك والتعدين والمنتجات الصناعية. ويرأس الولاية حاكم يساعده وزير. It was formed on 1 November 1956 as per the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi) it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and north east, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the twelfth largest state by population and is divided into 14 districts. Malayalam is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The state capital is Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), other major cities include Kochi, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kollam, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kannur, Palakkad, and Malappuram.

The region was a prominent spice exporter from 3000 BCE to 3rd century. The Chera Dynasty was the first powerful kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks from the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. During the Chera period, Kerala remained an international spice trading center. Later, in the 15th century, the lucrative spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and eventually paved the way for the European colonisation of the whole of India. After independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state. Later, the state was formed in 1956 by merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.

Kerala is the state with the lowest positive population growth rate in India (3.44%) and has a density of 860 people per km2. The state has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) (0.790) in the country according to the Human Development Report 2011.[9] It also has the highest literacy rate 95.5%, the highest life expectancy (Almost 77 years) and the highest sex ratio (as defined by number of women per 1000 men: 1,084 women per 1000 men) among all Indian states. Kerala has the lowest homicide rate among Indian states, for 2011 it was 1.1 per 100,000.[10] A survey in 2005 by Transparency International ranked it as the least corrupt state in the country. Kerala has witnessed significant emigration of its people, especially to the Gulf states during the Gulf Boom during the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture of the state traces its roots from 3rd century CE. It is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over centuries under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

Production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to a significant portion of the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people of the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% of the state's income. The state's 145,704 kilometres (90,536 mi) of roads, constitute 4.2% of all Indian roadways. There are three existing and two proposed international airports. Waterways are also used for transportation. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine different languages; mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is an important tourist destination, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism, and tropical greenery among its major attractions.

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أصل الاسم

A 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by the Mauryan emperor Asoka the Great refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra (Sanskrit for "son of Kerala"; or "son of Chera[s]", this is contradictory to a popular theory that etymology derives "kerala" from "kera", or coconut tree in Malayalam).[11]

Two thousand years ago, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word.[12] The Graeco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to this Keralaputra as Celobotra.[13] Ralston Marr derives "Kerala" from the word "Cheral" that refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings.[14] In turn the word "Cheral" is derived from the proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake".


النصوص الدينية القديمة

Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna to part the seas and reveal Kerala.

According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, 6th avatar of Vishnu, hence Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram ("The Land of Parasurama"). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.[15] Consensus among scientific geographers agrees that a substantial portion of this area was under the sea in ancient times.[16] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The legend later expanded, and found literary expression in the 17th or 18th century with Keralolpathi, which traces the origin of aspects of early Kerala society, such as land tenure and administration, to the story of Parasurama.[17] In medieval times Kuttuvan may have emulated the Parasurama tradition by throwing his spear into the sea to symbolize his lordship over it.[18] Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical king of justice, who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to Patala (the netherworld) to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala.[19]

التاريخ

قبل التاريخ

دولمن نصبه شعب في العصر الحجري الحديث في مارايور.
كتابة من العصر الحجري، كهوف إداكال، كرلا.

Prehistorical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area in Idukki district. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).[20] Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves (in Wayanad) are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 6000 BCE.[21][22] Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala.[23] The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages.[24] However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation.[25] The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.[26]

الفترة القديمة

خريطة طريق الحرير. The spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).

Kerala was a major spice exporter from as early as 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records.[27] Its fame as the land of spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Arabs and Phoenicians were also successful in establishing their prominence in the Kerala trade during this early period.[28] The word Kerala is first recorded (as Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription (Rock Edict 2) left by the Maurya emperor Asoka (274–237 BCE).[29] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Asoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra.[30] Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first powerful dynasty based on Kerala.[31][32] These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamiḻakam.[33] While the Cheras ruled the major part of modern Kerala, its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas,[34] which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi).[35] At later times the region fell under the control of the Pandyas, Cheras, and Cholas. Ays and Mushikas were two other remarkable dynasties of ancient Kerala, whose kingdoms lay to the south and north of Cheras respectively.[36][37]


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العصور الوسطى المبكرة

ألواح ثاريساپالي: تشهد بأنه أثناء فترة كولاسخارا، لعبت نقابات التجار والحرفيين دوراً بارزاً في الاقتصاد والحياة الاجتماعية.


العصر الاستعماري

مسار ڤاسكو دا گاما متجهاً لأول مرة إلى الهند (الخط الأسود)

The monopoly of maritime spice trade in the Indian Ocean stayed with Arabs during the high and late medieval periods. However, the dominance of Middle East traders got challenged in the European Age of Discovery during which the spice trade, particularly in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders.[38] Around the 15th century, the Portuguese began to dominate the eastern shipping trade in general, and the spice-trade in particular, culminating in Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498.[39][40][41] The Zamorin of Calicut permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects. The Portuguese trade in Calicut prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked Zamorin and finally led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between Zamorin and king of Kochi; they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed as the Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was at Kochi. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses in Malabar coast.[42] Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks from the attacks of Zamorin forces; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Calicut known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. In 1571, Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam fort.[43]

حصن تيپو سلطان في پلكاد؛ المنظر من خارج الجدار الشمالي.

The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade.[44] The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741.[45] An agreement, known as "Treaty of Mavelikkara", was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region.[46][47][48] In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala.[49]

In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala.[50] His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.[51][52] Tipu ultimately ceded Malabar District and South Kanara to the Company in the 1790s; both were annexed to the Madras Presidency of British India in 1792.[53][54][55] The Company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795.[56] Thus, by the end of 18th century, the whole of Kerala fell under the control of the British, either administered directly or under suzerainty.[57]

خريطة من القرن 19 لـ رئاسة مدراس في الهند البريطانية. بعد الاستقلال، تشكلت كرلا من دمج ملبار، كوتشين، تراڤنكوره ومقاطعة جنوب كنرا

There were major revolts in Kerala during its transition to democracy in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the many social struggles in Travancore. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj.[58] Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes;[59]



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جغرافيا

Vembanad Lake


Kerala's agroecological zones.
خريطة طبوغرافية لكرلا.
بيانات مناخ Kerala
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 28.0
(82.4)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
34
(93)
34
(93)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
34
(93)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
Source: [60]


الفلورا والفونا

النمر يقطن غابات شرق كرلا
A blue tiger (Tirumala limniace) butterfly


الأقسام الإدارية

Population density map of Kerala graded from darkest shading (most dense) to lightest (least dense)

الحكومة

قالب:Kerala symbols

The Kerala High Court in Ernakulam
A CPI(M) rally in Ernakulam


معرض الصور

الاقتصاد

In the Backwaters, waterways are key thoroughfares for merchants selling fish, rice, and other products. Pictured is a waterway bordering a farm.
Interior of the Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram.

السكان

Most Keralites, such as this fisherman, live in rural areas.
الدين في كرلا[64]
الديانة النسبة
الهندوسية
  
56.2%
الإسلام
  
24.7%
المسيحية
  
19.0%
غيرهم
  
1.1%


الثقافة


A Kathakali artist
ملف:Onam Flowers Pookkalam Kerala India.jpg
During Onam, Keralites create floral pookkalam designs in front of their houses.

ملاحظات

  • ^ α: Around the 9th century, the Cheras fell from power. Several small kingdoms (swaroopams) formed under the leadership of Nair chieftains, filling the resulting political vacuum.[41]

الهامش

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