جائزة نوبل للإقتصاد

پول كروگمان, (و. 1953) آخر الفائزين بالجائزة "لتحليله لأنماط وأماكن التجارة في الأنشطة الإقتصادية."

جائزة نوبل التذكارية في العلوم الاقتصادية أو رسمياً جائزة سڤريگس ريكسبانكس في العلوم الاقتصادية على ذكرى ألفريد نوبل (بالسويدية:Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne) هي جائزة تمنح للإنجازات المتميزة في حقل العلوم الاقتصادية، وتعتبر الجائزة هي قمة التكريم في هذا المجال. تعرف بشكل مختصر باسم جائزة نوبل في الاقتصاد، وهي واحدة من خمس جوائز تسمى جوائز نوبل (في مجالات الفيزياء، الكيمياء، الطب، الأدب، والسلام) والتي قام ألفريد نوبل بتأسيسها في عام 1895.

تم البدء بالعمل بجائزة نوبل للاقتصاد في عام 1986 في الذكرى المئوية الثالثة لتأسيس بنك السويد المركزي وهي ممولة من هذا البنك. November 17, 2007.</ref>

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تمويل الجائزة

An endowment "in perpetuity" from Sveriges Riksbank covers the Nobel Foundation's administrative expenses associated with the prize and funds the monetary component of the award.[1] Since 2001, the monetary portion of the Prize in Economics has been 10 million Swedish kronor (in January 2008, approx. US$1.6 million; 1.1 million Euro), equivalent to the amount given for the Nobel Prizes.[2][3][4] Since 2006, Sveriges Riksbank has given the Nobel Foundation an annual grant of 6.5 million Swedish kronor (in January 2008, approx. US$1 million; 0.7 million Euro) for its administrative expenses associated with the prize as well as 1 million Swedish kronor (until the end of 2008) to include information about the prize on the Nobel Foundation's internet museum.[5]


العلاقة بجائزة نوبل

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is not a Nobel Prize.[6] However, the nomination process, selection criteria, and awards presentation are conducted in a manner similar to the Nobel Prizes.[1][3][7] The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences "in accordance with the rules governing the award of the Nobel Prizes instituted through his [Alfred Nobel's] will",[1] which stipulates that the prize is awarded annually to "those who ... shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind".[8]

الترشيح والأختيار

إعلان جائزة نوبل التذكارية في العلوم الإقتصادية لعام 2008

أكاديمية العلوم السويدية الملكية "administers a researcher exchange with academies in other countries and publishes six scientific journals. Every year the Academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize and a number of other large prizes" (official website).[9]

Each September the Academy's Economics Prize Committee, which consists of five elected members, "sends invitations to thousands of scientists, members of academies and university professors in numerous countries, asking them to nominate candidates for the Prize in Economics for the coming year. Members of the Academy and former laureates are also authorised to nominate candidates."[9][1][10] All proposals and their supporting evidence must be received before February 1.[10] The proposals are reviewed by the Prize Committee and specially appointed experts. Before the end of September, the committee chooses potential laureates. If there is a tie, the chairman of the committee casts the deciding vote. Next, the potential laureates must be approved by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Members of the Ninth Class (the social sciences division) of the Academy vote in mid-October to determine the next laureate or laureates of the Prize in Economics.[1][9][11] As with the Nobel Prizes, no more than three people can share the prize for a given year; they must still be living at the time of the Prize announcement in October; and information about Prize nominations cannot be publicly disclosed for 50 years.[10]

With the Nobel Laureates in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature, the each Laureate in Economics receives a diploma, gold medal, and monetary grant award document from the King of Sweden at the annual Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm, on December 10—the anniversary of Nobel's death.[12][13]

On October 15, 2007 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Bank of Sweden, and the Nobel Foundation announced the Academy's award of the Prize in Economic Sciences to three Americans, Leonid Hurwicz, Eric Maskin, and Roger Myerson, "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory. [Their work] has among other things helped economists identify efficient trading mechanisms, regulation schemes and voting procedures."[4]

تغييرات في الجائزة

Sylvia Nasar wrote in her book A Beautiful Mind that in February 1995, after acrimony pertaining to the awarding of the 1994 Prize in Economics to John Forbes Nash, the Prize in Economics was redefined as a prize in social science, opening it to fields such as political science, psychology, and sociology.[14][15] Moreover, the composition of the Economics Prize Committee changed to include two non-economists. This has not been confirmed by the Economics Prize Committee. The members of the 2007 Economics Prize Committee contradict Nasar's claim since the secretary and 4 of the 5 members are professors of economics.[16] One should note, however, that Herbert Simon was the first non-economist to win the prize in 1978 (his PhD was in political science, though his influence on economics is well-known).

الخلافات والنقد

Some critics argue that the prestige of the Prize in Economics derives in part from its association with the Nobel Prizes, an association that has often been a source of controversy. Among the most vocal critics of the Prize in Economics is the Swedish human rights lawyer Peter Nobel, a great-grandnephew of Alfred Nobel.[17] Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal and former Swedish minister of finance Kjell-Olof Feldt have also advocated that the Prize in Economics should be abolished.[18] Myrdal's objections were based on his view that the 1976 Prize in Economics to Milton Friedman and the 1974 Prize in Economics shared by Friedrich Hayek (both classical liberal economists) were undeserved, on the argument that the economics did not qualify as a science. If he had been asked about the establishment of the Prize before receiving it, Hayek stated that he would "have decidedly advised against it."[18][19]

Some critics claim the selection of recipients for the Prize in Economics is biased toward mainstream economics.[20][21] The Department of Economics at the University of Chicago has garnered nine of these Prizes—more than any other university—leading some critics to opine that such an outcome demonstrates either a bias, or the appearance of one, against candidates with alternative views.[21]

ملتون فريدمان حصل على الجائزة في 1976 لأبحاثه في النقدية. The prize to Friedman caused international protests,[22] primarily in relation to a six-day trip he took to تشيلي في مارس 1975 حيث أعطى محاضرات عن التضخم وقابل العديد من مسئولي الحكومة التشيلية, ومنهم الديكتاتور أوگستو پينوشيه.[23] Four Nobel Prize laureates – George Wald, Linus Pauling, David Baltimore and Salvador Luria – wrote letters to the New York Times protesting the award in October 1976.[24][25]

The 1994 prize to John Forbes Nash caused controversy within the prize's selection committee because of his history of mental illness and alleged anti-semitism.[26] The controversy resulted in a change to the rules governing the committee in 1994. Previously, members of the Economics Prize Committee members had no limit to their term of service; they now serve for three years.[14]

نسيم طالب ينتقد الجائزة لترويجها لنظريات اقتصادية مبنية على فهم خاطئ للمخاطرة. ويشير غلى جائزة عام 1990 في الإقتصاد, والتي مـُنحت إلى وليام شارپ وهاري مركويتس لتطويرهم نظريات, يقول عنها طالب, أنها قد قـُوِّضـَت بالفعل في إنهيار البورصة عام 1987; وجائزة 1997, الممنوحة إلى روبرت مرتون ومايرون شولز for their option pricing formula; and the 2003 Prize, awarded to روبرت إنگل for his "ARCH" method of prediction of volatility, which Taleb says underperforms relative to volatility forecasts made by ordinary traders.[27]

الأسماء البديلة

The official Swedish name of the Prize is Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne. The Nobel Foundation's translations of the Swedish name into English have varied since 1969:

الأعوام الاسم الرسمي بالإنگليزية
1969–1970 Prize in Economic Science dedicated to the memory of Alfred Nobel[28][29]
1971 Prize in Economic Science[30]
1972 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[31]
1973–1975 Prize in Economic Science in Memory of Alfred Nobel[32][33]
1976–1977, 1983 Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[34][35][36]
1978–1981, 1984–1990 Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences[37][38][39][40]
1982 Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science[41]
1991 Sveriges Riksbank (Bank of Sweden) Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[42]
1992–2005 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[43][44]
2006–present The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[45][46]

During the Nobel Banquet, many laureates have referred to the prize as something other than the "Prize in Economics":

السنة: الفائز اسم الفائز بالجائزة
1969: Jan Tinbergen[47] Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics
1970: Paul A. Samuelson[48] Alfred Nobel Memorial Awards in Economics
1971: Simon Kuznets,[49]
1994: John C. Harsanyi[50]
Nobel Memorial Prize
1974: Friedrich August von Hayek[51] Nobel Memorial Prize for economic science
1975: Tjalling C. Koopmans[52] award for economics
1976: Milton Friedman,[53]
1981: James Tobin[54],
2006: Edmund S. Phelps[55]
Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
1979: Theodore W. Schultz,[56]
1995: Robert E. Lucas Jr.,[57]
Nobel Prize in Economics
1988: Maurice Allais[58] Prix Nobel d'Economie (French for Nobel Prize in Economics)
1981: Lawrence R. Klein[59] Prize in Economic Science

While some sources observe that the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is commonly referred to informally as the "Nobel Prize in Economics," the press and other agencies have also called it by other names:

  • Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences[60]
  • Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science[61]
  • Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics[62][63]
  • Nobel Memorial Prize[64]

Economics Prize Committee members

Economics Prize Committee members from 1969-1984[65]
Name Years Affiliation
Bertil Ohlin Chairman 1969-1974 Stockholm School of Economics
Erik Lundberg 1969-1979

Chairman 1975-1979
Associate member 1980-

Stockholm School of Economics
Ingvar Svennilson 1969-1971 University of Stockholm
Herman Wold 1969-1980 University of Uppsala

University of Gothenburg

Assar Lindbeck 1969-1994

Chairman 1980-1994[66]

University of Stockholm
Ragnar Bentzel 1975-1990

Secretary 1969-1980, 1982-

University of Uppsala
Sune Carlson 1972-1979

Associate member 1980-

University of Uppsala
Lars Werin 1980-

Secretary 1981
Associate member 1975-1979

University of Stockholm
Ingemar Ståhl 1980- University of Lund
Karl-Göran Mäler 1981- Stockholm School of Economics
Economics Prize Committee members from 1998-2008[67][68][69]
Name Years Affiliation
Jörgen Weibull 1998–2007

Chairman 2004–2007[70]

A.O. Wallenberg Professor of Economics
Stockholm School of Economics
Peter Englund 1993–1995

Secretary 1996–1997, 2002–[71]

Professor of Banking and Insurance
Stockholm School of Economics
Lars Calmfors 1996–1998, 2003–2007[72] Professor of International Economics
Stockholm University
Bertil Näslund 1999[73] Professor
Stockholm School of Economics
Per Krusell 2003–

Adjunct member 2003–2004[74]

Professor of Economics
Princeton University
Karl-Gustaf Löfgren 2002?– Professor of Economics
Umeå University
Timo Tiräsvirta 2003?- Professor of Economic Statistics (emeritus)
Stockholm School of Economics

Professor of Econometrics
School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus[75]

Bertil Holmlund Adjunct member 1998-2001, 2005-2006

Chairman 2008[76]

Professor of Economics

Uppsala University


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الفائزون

The following chart lists all Laureates in Economics, the dates of their awards, their nationalities, and their award citations.[77]

السنة الاسم الجنسية الاقتباس
1969 Ragnar Frisch Flag of Norway.svg نرويج "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes."
Jan Tinbergen Flag of the Netherlands.svg هولندا
1970 Paul Samuelson  الولايات المتحدة "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science."
1971 Simon Kuznets  الولايات المتحدة "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development."
1972 John Hicks Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة "for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory."
Kenneth Arrow  الولايات المتحدة
1973 Wassily Leontief  الولايات المتحدة "for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems."
1974 Gunnar Myrdal Flag of Sweden.svg السويد "for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena."
Friedrich Hayek Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة
1975 Leonid Kantorovich
(Леонид Канторович)
 الاتحاد السوڤيتي "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources."
Tjalling Koopmans  الولايات المتحدة
1976 Milton Friedman  الولايات المتحدة "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilisation policy."
1977 Bertil Ohlin Flag of Sweden.svg السويد "for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements."
James Meade Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة
1978 Herbert Simon  الولايات المتحدة "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations."
1979 Theodore Schultz  الولايات المتحدة "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."
Arthur Lewis Flag of Saint Lucia.svg سانت لوشيا
1980 Lawrence Klein  الولايات المتحدة "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies."
1981 James Tobin  الولايات المتحدة "for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices."
1982 George Stigler  الولايات المتحدة "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation."
1983 Gérard Debreu  الولايات المتحدة "for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium."
1984 Richard Stone Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة "for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis."
1985 Franco Modigliani Flag of Italy.svg إيطاليا "for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets."
1986 James M. Buchanan  الولايات المتحدة "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making."
1987 Robert Solow  الولايات المتحدة "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth."
1988 Maurice Allais Flag of France.svg فرنسا "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources."
1989 Trygve Haavelmo Flag of Norway.svg نرويج "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures."
1990 Harry Markowitz
Merton Miller
William Forsyth Sharpe
 الولايات المتحدة "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics."
1991 Ronald Coase Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة "for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy."
1992 Gary Becker  الولايات المتحدة "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including non-market behaviour."
1993 Robert Fogel
Douglass North
 الولايات المتحدة "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change."
1994 John Harsanyi  الولايات المتحدة "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games."
John Forbes Nash  الولايات المتحدة
Reinhard Selten Flag of Germany.svg ألمانيا
1995 Robert Lucas, Jr.  الولايات المتحدة "for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy."
1996 James Mirrlees Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة "for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information."
William Vickrey  الولايات المتحدة
1997 Robert C. Merton  الولايات المتحدة "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives."
Myron Scholes Flag of Canada.svg كندا
1998 Amartya Sen Flag of India.png الهند "for his contributions to welfare economics."
1999 Robert Mundell Flag of Canada.svg كندا "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas."
2000 James Heckman  الولايات المتحدة "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples."
Daniel McFadden  الولايات المتحدة "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice."
2001 George Akerlof
Michael Spence
Joseph E. Stiglitz
 الولايات المتحدة "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information."
2002 Daniel Kahneman  الولايات المتحدة
 إسرائيل
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty."
Vernon L. Smith  الولايات المتحدة "for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms."
2003 Robert F. Engle  الولايات المتحدة "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)."
Clive Granger Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)."
2004 Finn E. Kydland Flag of Norway.svg نرويج "for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles."
Edward C. Prescott  الولايات المتحدة
2005 Robert Aumann
(ישראל אומן)
 إسرائيل
 الولايات المتحدة
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis."
Thomas Schelling  الولايات المتحدة
2006 Edmund Phelps  الولايات المتحدة "for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy."
2007 Leonid Hurwicz
Eric Maskin
Roger Myerson
 الولايات المتحدة "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory."
2008 پول كروگمان  الولايات المتحدة "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity." [1]


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Demographics of the Economics Prize laureates

Whereas the five Nobel Prizes have been awarded to females, all Laureates in Economics so far have been men.[78] And to date (2008) some 60% of them have been USA citizens. 42% of all recipients have been Jews.[2]

أنظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج "Statutes for The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel approved by the Crown on the 19th day of December 1968". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-16. In celebration of the Tercentenary of Sveriges Riksbank, the Bank has instituted a prize in economic sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel. ... The Prize shall be awarded annually to a person who has written a work on economic sciences of the eminent significance expressed in the will of Alfred Nobel drawn up on November 27, 1895. ... The Prize shall be awarded by the Royal Academy of Sciences in accordance with the rules governing the award of the Nobel Prizes instituted through his will. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "statutes-econ" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "statutes-econ" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  2. ^ "The Prize Amount". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  3. ^ أ ب Assar Lindbeck, "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969-2006", nobelprize.org, April 18, 1999, accessed November 11, 2007.
  4. ^ أ ب "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007", press release, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, October 15, 2007, accessed November 16, 2007.
  5. ^ "Framställning till riksdagen 2006/07: RB1, Årsredovisning för Sveriges riksbank för räkenskapsåret 2006" (PDF). Sveriges Riksbank. 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2008-01-08. I posten ekonomipris ingår prissumman om 10 miljoner kronor samt administrationskostnader för detta pris om 6,5 miljoner kronor. Dessutom har bidrag givits till det interaktiva Internetmuseum som Nobelstiftelsen byggt upp. Bidraget avser täckande av kostnaden för information om ekonomipriset. Bidraget ska enligt avtal utbetalas årligen med 1 miljon kronor till och med 2008. line feed character in |quote= at position 238 (help)
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة econ-nominators
  7. ^ "Prize in Economic Sciences", Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, accessed November 17, 2007.
  8. ^ "Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  9. ^ أ ب ت خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة nomaw
  10. ^ أ ب ت "Nomination and Selection of the Laureates in Economics". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-18. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "selectionProcess" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "selectionProcess" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  11. ^ "Members". Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
  12. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة EB-NP
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies and Banquets". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  14. ^ أ ب Sylvia Nasar (1998). A Beautiful Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 372. ISBN 0-684-81906-6.
  15. ^ Samuel Brittan, "The Not So Nobel Nobel Prize", The Financial Times, December 19, 2003, accessed November 10, 2007.
  16. ^ "The Economics Prize Committee". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  17. ^ "Nobel descendant slams Economics prize". The Local. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ أ ب Brittan, Samuel (19 December 2003). "The not so noble Nobel Prize". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  19. ^ Hayek, Friedrich (1974-12-10). "Friedrich August von Hayek - Banquet Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
  20. ^ Nasar, Sylvia (October 13 2001). "The Sometimes Dismal Nobel Prize in Economics". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ أ ب Millmow, Alex (May 2 2002). "An IgNobel Scandal". Post-Autistic Economics Review. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. ^ Feldman, Burton (2000). "Chapter 9: The Economics Memorial Prize". The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. New York: Arcade Publishing. p. 350. ISBN 1-55970-537-X.
  23. ^ Friedman, Milton; Friedman, Rose D. "Two Lucky People: One Week in Stockholm". Hoover Digest: Research and Opinion on Public Policy. 1998 (4).
  24. ^ Wald, George; Pauling, Linus (1976-10-24). "Letters to the Editor: The Laureate". New York Times. p. 166.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  25. ^ Baltimore, David; Luria, S.E. (1976-10-24). "Letters to the Editor: The Laureate". New York Times. p. 166.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  26. ^ Nasar, Sylvia (1998). "The Prize". A Beautiful Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 356–373. ISBN 0-684-81906-6.
  27. ^ Taleb, Nassim Nicholas (2007-10-23). "The pseudo-science hurting markets". The Financial Times. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  28. ^ Lundberg, Erik (1969-12-10). "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969: Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  29. ^ Lindbeck, Assar (1970-12-10). "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970: Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  30. ^ Ohlin, Bertil (1971-12-10). "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971: Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Check date values in: |date= (help)
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