تفجيرات بيروت 1983

1983 Beirut barracks bombings
Part of the الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية
1983-Beirut-Barracks.jpg
A smoke cloud rises from the rubble of the bombed barracks at Beirut International Airport (BIA).
المكان

التاريخ October 23, 1983
06:22
نوع الهجوم
Suicide attack, Truck bombs, Mass murder, Terrorism
الوفيات 305 non-combatants (241 U.S. servicemen, 58 French paratroopers, and six civilians)
2 suicide bombers
Total: 307
المصابون
75

هو تفجير بشاحنة مفخخة محملة بـ19 طنا من المتفجرات. وقع في 23 من أكتوبر/تشرين الأول عام 1983 مستهدفاً المقر الرئيسي للقوات الأميركية في بيروت وأودى بحياة 241 من جنود البحرية الأمريكية.

وتقول السلطات الأميركية بأن التفجير كان من تدبير حزب الله اللبناني، وتتهم إيران بدعمه، وهو ما ترفضه طهران نافية أي علاقة لها بالتفجير.

ويعد تفجير بيروت 1983 أسوأ استهداف تعرضت له المصالح الأميركية قبل تفجيرات الحادي عشر من سبتمبر/أيلول 2001. وقدأدى لمقتل 241 أمريكي، و58 فرنسي، و6 مدنيين واثنين مهاجمين بالإضافة إلى 75 جريحاً.

تفجير بيروت، أكتوبر/تشرين أول 1983. أدى لمقتل 241 أمريكي، و58 فرنسي، و6 مدنيين واثنين مهاجمين بالإضافة إلى 75 جريحاً.

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بيروت: يونيو 1982 إلى أكتوبر 1983

Timeline[1]

6 June 1982 -- Israel invaded Lebanon: Operation "Peace for Galilee."
23 August 1982 -- Bachir Gemayel was elected to be Lebanon's president.
25 August 1982 -- A MNF of approximately 400 French, 800 Italian soldiers and 800 Marines of the 32d Marine Amphibious Unit (MAU) were deployed in Beirut as part of a peacekeeping force to oversee the evacuation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) guerrillas.
10 September 1982 -- The PLO retreats from Beirut under MNF protection. Subsequently, the 32d MAU was ordered out of Beirut by the President of the United States.
14 September 1982 -- Lebanon's President, Bachir Gemayel, was assassinated.
16 September to 18 September 1982 -- The Sabra and Shatila massacres.
21 September 1982 -- Bachir Gemayel's brother, Amine Gemayel, was elected to be Lebanon's president.
29 September 1982 -- The 32d MAU was redeployed to Beirut (primarily at the BIA) rejoining 2,200 French and Italian MNF troops already in place.
30 October 1982 -- The 32d MAU was relieved by the 24th MAU.
15 February 1983 -- The 32d MAU, redesignated as the 22d MAU, returned to Lebanon to relieve the 24th MAU.
18 April 1983 -- The U.S. Embassy bombing in Beirut killed 63, of whom 17 were Americans.
17 May 1983 -- May 17 Agreement of 1983
30 May 1983 -- The 24th MAU relieved the 22d MAU.


عمليات الإنقاذ والاستعادة: 23-28 أكتوبر 1983

الأمريكان

Marine Gen. P.X. Kelley (left) and Col. Tim Geraghty (right) take Vice President George H.W. Bush on a tour around the site of the Beirut barracks bombing two days after the explosion.
Marine Barracks in Beirut moments after bombing, October 23, 1983

الفرنسيون

رد الفعل الأمريكي والفرنسي

President Ronald Reagan's keynote speech to the Rev. Jerry Falwell's "Baptist Fundamentalism '84" convention: the marines and their chaplains at the scene of the bombing
Chaplains, U.S. Marines and family members observe a moment of silence during a memorial service


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الأعقاب

البحث عن الفاعلين

انتقام مزعوم


القضية المدنية ضد إيران

نظرية تآمر الموساد

Former Mossad agent Victor Ostrovsky, in his 1990 book By Way of Deception, has accused the Mossad of knowing the specific time and location of the bombing, but only gave general information to the Americans of the attack, information which was worthless. According to Ostrovsky, then Mossad head Nahum Admoni decided against giving the specific details to the Americans on the grounds that the Mossad's responsibility was to protect Israel's interests, not Americans. Admoni denied having any prior knowledge of the attack.[2] Ostrovsky further claimed that among the high level officers of the Mossad there was a view that if the Americans "wanted to stick their nose into this Lebanon thing, let them pay the price."[3] Benny Morris, in his review of Ostrovsky's book, wrote that Ostrovsky was "barely a case officer before he was fired; most of his (brief) time in the agency was spent as a trainee" adding that due to compartmentalization "he did not and could not have had much knowledge of then current Mossad operations, let alone operational history." Benny Morris wrote that the claim regarding the barracks was "odd" and an example of one of Ostrovsky's "wet" stories which were "mostly fabricated."[4]

نصب تذكارية


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انظر أيضاً

للاستزادة

  • Dolphin, Glenn E. (2005). 24 MAU 1983: A Marine Looks Back at the Peacekeeping Mission to Beirut, Lebanon. Publish America. ISBN 978-1-4137-8501-2.
  • Frank, Benis M. (1987). U.S. Marines in Lebanon, 1982–1984. U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  • Petit, Michael (1986). Peacekeepers at War: A Marine's Account of the Beirut Catastrophe. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-12545-6.
  • Patrice Pivetta, Beyrouth 1983, la 3e compagnie du 1er RCP dans l'attentat du Drakkar, Militaria Magazine 342, January 2014, pp. 34–45. (in French)

ملاحظات

الهامش

  1. ^ Frank, Benis M. (1987). "US Marines In Lebanon 1982-1984" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  2. ^ Kahana, Ephraim (2006). Historical dictionary of Israeli intelligence. 3. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8108-5581-6. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  3. ^ Thomas, Gordon (2009). Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. St. Martin's Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-312-53901-6. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  4. ^ "The Far Side of Credibility, Benny Morris". Links.jstor.org. Retrieved September 17, 2011.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Geraghty, Timothy J. (2009). Peacekeepers at War: Beirut 1983 – The Marine Commander Tells His Story. With a foreword by Alfred M. Gray, Jr. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-425-7.
  • Hammel, Eric M. (1985). The Root: The Marines in Beirut, August 1982 – February 1984. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-179006-7.
  • Martin, David C.; Walcott, John (1988). Best Laid Plans: The Inside Story of America's War Against Terrorism. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-015877-8.

وصلات خارجية