الأبجدية السينائية الأولية

Proto-Sinaitic script
Ba`alat.jpg
A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script. The line running from the upper left to lower right may read mt l bʿlt "... to the Lady"
النوع
اللغاتNorthwest Semitic languages
الفترة الزمنيةc. 18th – 15th century BCE
النظم الوالدة
Egyptian hieroglyphs
  • Proto-Sinaitic script
النظم الابنة
Phoenician alphabet, Ancient South Arabian script

الأبجدية السينائية الأولية Proto-Sinaitic script هي على الأرجح الأصل للإثنان والعشرون حرفاً في الأبجديات السامية الشمالية الغربية اللاحقة، ويُعتقد أنها نشأت حولي 1700 ق.م في إطار تطوير ساميي اللغة للكتابة الهيروغليفية المصرية في شبه جزيرة سيناء، وعنها نشأت أولى الأبجديات "الواضحة" وهي الأبجدية الفينيقية التي تطورت عنها الأبجدية الآرامية.

The so-called "Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions" were discovered in the winter of 1904–1905 in Sinai by Hilda and Flinders Petrie. To this may be added a number of short "Proto-Canaanite" inscriptions found in Canaan and dated to between the 17th and 15th centuries, and more recently, the discovery in 1999 of the so-called "Wadi el-Hol inscriptions", found in Middle Egypt by John and Deborah Darnell, suggests a date of development of Proto-Sinaitic writing from the mid-19th to 18th centuries BC.[1][2]

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علاقته بنظم الكتابة الأخرى

الخط الكنعاني الأولي ينحدر من الخط السيناوي الأولي الذي ينحدر من الهيروغليفية، كما أنه سلف الخط الفينيقي الذي يعد سلف كل الأبجديات المستخدمة في العالم اليوم، من عربية ويونانية وعبرية ولاتينية وسيريلية وأمازيغية في الغرب وصولا إلى المغولية وربما حتى أبجدية هانغول الكورية في الشرق، وأبجديات أخرى عديدة مستخدمة وغيرها بائدة.

تعد الأبجدية العبرية أقرب سليلات الأبجدية الكنعانية الأولية إليها إذ لم يتغير فيها سوى شكل رسم، وهو غير مستغرب إذ أن اللغة العبرية هي لغة كنعانية وقد كانت صوتياتها في نطقها الأصلي قبل البعث والإصلاح في العصر الحديث تكاد تطابق صوتيات الكنعانية التي استنبطت هذه الأبجدية لكتابتها.


شكل الحرف

نقوش سرابيط الخادم

The Sinai inscriptions are best known from carved graffiti and votive texts from a mountain in the Sinai called سرابيط الخادم and its temple to the Egyptian goddess حتحور (ḥwt-ḥr). The mountain contained turquoise mines which were visited by repeated expeditions over 800 years. Many of the workers and officials were from the Nile Delta, and included large numbers of Canaanites (i.e. speakers of an early form of Northwest Semitic ancestral to the Canaanite languages of the Late Bronze Age) who had been allowed to settle the eastern Delta.[2]

Most of the forty or so inscriptions have been found among much more numerous hieratic and hieroglyphic inscriptions, scratched on rocks near and in the turquoise mines and along the roads leading to the temple.[3]

The date of the inscriptions is mostly placed in the 17th or 16th century BC.[4]

Four inscriptions have been found in the temple, on two small human statues and on either side of a small stone sphinx. They are crudely done, suggesting that the workers who made them were illiterate apart from this script.

In 1916, Alan Gardiner, using sound values derived from the alphabet hypothesis, translated a collection of signs as לבעלת lbʿlt (to the Lady)[5]

نقوش الكنعانية الأولية

Only a few inscriptions have been found in Canaan itself, dated from c. the 17th century BCE. They are all very short, most consisting of only a couple of letters, and may have been written by Canaanite caravaners or soldiers from Egypt.[2] They sometimes go by the name Proto-Canaanite,[6] although the term "Proto-Canaanite" is also applied to early Phoenician or Hebrew inscriptions.[7]

نقوش وادي الحول

شف الحروف الستة عشر والإثني عشر في نقشين من نقوش وادي الحول. (الصور هنا و هنا)

نقوش وادي الحول منحوتة على الجانبين الصخريين لطريق صحراوي عسكري وتجاري قديم يربط طيبة وأبيدوس، في قلب مصر القديمة المتعلمة. ويقعوا في ثنية قنا بالنيل، تقريباً عند 25°57′N 32°25′E / 25.950°N 32.417°E / 25.950; 32.417، وسط عشرات من النقوش الهيراطية والهيروغليفية.

The inscriptions are graphically very similar to the Serabit inscriptions, but show a greater hieroglyphic influence, such as a glyph for a man that was apparently not read alphabetically:[2] The first of these (h1) is a figure of celebration [Gardiner A28], whereas the second (h2) is either that of a child [Gardiner A17] or of dancing [Gardiner A32]. If the latter, h1 and h2 may be graphic variants (such as two hieroglyphs both used to write the Canaanite word hillul "jubilation") rather than different consonants.

A28A17A32
Hieroglyphs representing celebration, a child, and dancing respectively. The first appears to be the prototype for h1, while the latter two have been suggested as the prototype for h2.

[بحاجة لمصدر]

Some scholars (Darnell et al.) think that the רב rb at the beginning of Inscription 1 is likely rebbe (chief; cognate with rabbi); and that the אל ʾl at the end of Inscription 2 is likely ʾel "(a) god". Brian Colless has published a translation of the text, in which some of the signs are treated as logograms (representing a whole word, not just a single consonant) or rebuses [Antiguo Oriente 8 (2010) 91] [V] "Excellent (r[ʾš]) banquet (mšt) of the celebration (h[illul]) of ʿAnat (ʿnt). ʾEl (ʾl) will provide (ygš) [H] plenty (rb) of wine (wn) and victuals (mn) for the celebration (h[illul]). We will sacrifice (ngṯ) to her (h) an ox (ʾ) and (p) a prime (r[ʾš]) fatling (mX)." This interpretation fits into the pattern in some of the surrounding Egyptian inscriptions, with celebrations for the goddess Hathor involving inebriation.


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التطور إلى الكنعانية الأولية

The Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions were studied by Alan Gardiner, who based on a short bilingual inscription on a stone sphinx identified the inscriptions as Semitic, reading mʾhbʿl as "the beloved of the Lady" (mʾhb "beloved", with the second b and the final t of bʿlt "Lady" missing).

William Albright in the 1950s and 1960s published interpretations of Proto-Sinaitic as the key to show the derivation of the Canaanite alphabet from hieratic,[8] leading to the common acceptation that the language of the inscriptions was Semitic and that the script had a hieratic prototype.

جدول يبين شكل الحرف الكنعاني الأولي مقارنة مع تطوره بالصيغة الفينيقية واسم الحرف بالكنعاني والمقابل العربي الحديث

A comparison of glyphs from western ("Proto-Canaanite", Byblos) and southern scripts along with the reconstructed "Linear Ugaritic" (Lundin 1987) is found in Manfried Dietrich and Oswald Loretz, Die Keilalphabete: die phönizisch-kanaanäischen und altarabischen Alphabete in Ugarit, Ugarit-Verlag, 1988, p. 102, reprinted in Wilfred G. E. Watson, Nicolas Wyatt (eds.), Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (1999), p. 86.</ref>

التناظر المحتمل بين السينائية الأولية والفينيقية
الهيروغليف السينائية الأولية قيمة أص‌د الاسم المعاد إنشاؤه الفينيقية العبرية العتيقة الآرامية اليونانية/اللاتينية
F1
Aleph /ʔ/ ʾalp "ox" Aleph Aleph Aleph.svg Greek Alpha 03.svg Α 𐌀 A
O1
Bet /b/ bet "house" Beth Bet Beth.svg Greek Beta 16.svg Β 𐌁 B
A28
Heh /h/ hll "jubilation" > he "window" He Heh He0.svg Greek Epsilon archaic.svg Ε 𐌄 E
D46
Khof /k/ kaf "palm of hand" Kaph Khof Kaph.svg Greek Kappa normal.svg Κ 𐌊 K
N35
Mem /m/ mayim "water" Mem Mem Mem.svg Greek Mu 04.svg Μ 𐌌 M
I10
Nun /n/ naḥš "snake" > nun "fish" Nun Nun Nun.svg Greek Nu 01.svg Ν 𐌍 N
D4
Ayin /ʕ/ ʿen "eye" Ayin Ayin Ayin.svg Greek Omicron 04.svg Ο 𐌏 O
D1
D19
Resh /r/ roʾš "head" Res Resh Resh.svg Greek Rho pointed.svg Greek Rho 03.svg Ρ 𐌓 R
Aa32
Shin /ʃ/ šimš "sun" > šin "tooth" Sin Shin Shin.svg Greek Sigma normal.svg Greek Sigma 18.svg Σ 𐌔 S
Z9
Tof /t/ tāw "mark" Taw Tof Taw.svg Greek Tau 02.svg Τ 𐌕 T


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انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "The two latest discoveries, those found in the Wadi el-Hol, north of Luxor, in Egypt’s western desert, can be dated with rather more certainty than the others and offer compelling evidence that the early date [1850 BC] is the more likely of the two." (Simons 2011:24).
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث Goldwasser, Orly (Mar–Apr 2010). "How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs". Biblical Archaeology Review. Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society. 36 (1). ISSN 0098-9444. Retrieved 6 Nov 2011.
  3. ^ "The proto-Sinaitic corpus consists of approximately forty inscriptions and fragments, the vast majority of which were found at Serabit el-Khadim" (Simons 2011:16).
  4. ^ Goldwasser (2010): "The alphabet was invented in this way by Canaanites at Serabit in the Middle Bronze Age, in the middle of the 19th century B.C.E., probably during the reign of Amenemhet III of the XIIth Dynasty."
  5. ^ baʿlat (Lady) is a title of Hathor and the feminine of the title baʿal (Lord) given to Semitic deities.
  6. ^ Roger D. Woodard, 2008, The Origins of the West Semitic Alphabet in Egyptian Scripts
  7. ^ "Earliest Known Hebrew Text In Proto-Canaanite Script Discovered In Area Where 'David Slew Goliath'". Science Daily. November 3, 2008.
  8. ^ William F. Albright, The Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions and their Decipherment (1966)

للاستزادة

  • Albright, Wm. F. (1966) The Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions and their Decipherment
  • I. Biggs, M. Dijkstra, Corpus of Proto-sinaitic Inscriptions, Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Neukirchener Verlag, 1990.
  • Butin, Romanus (1928). "The Serabit Inscriptions: II. The Decipherment and Significance of the Inscriptions". Harvard Theological Review. 21 (1): 9–67. doi:10.1017/s0017816000021167.
  • Butin, Romanus (1932). "The Protosinaitic Inscriptions". Harvard Theological Review. 25 (2): 130–203. doi:10.1017/s0017816000001231.
  • Colless, Brian E (1990). "The proto-alphabetic inscriptions of Sinai". Abr-Nahrain / Ancient Near Eastern Studies. 28: 1–52. doi:10.2143/anes.28.0.525711.
  • Colless, Brian E (1991). "The proto-alphabetic inscriptions of Canaan". Abr-Nahrain / Ancient Near Eastern Studies. 29: 18–66. doi:10.2143/anes.29.0.525718.
  • Colless, Brian E., "The Byblos Syllabary and the Proto-alphabet", Abr-Nahrain / Ancient Near Eastern Studies 30 (1992) 15–62.
  • Colless, Brian E (2010). "Proto-alphabetic Inscriptions from the Wadi Arabah". Antiguo Oriente. 8: 75–96.
  • Colless, Brian E., "The Origin of the Alphabet: An Examination of the Goldwasser Hypothesis", Antiguo Oriente 12 (2014) 71-104.
  • Stefan Jakob Wimmer / Samaher Wimmer-Dweikat: The Alphabet from Wadi el-Hôl – A First Try, in: Göttinger Miszellen. Beiträge zur ägyptologischen Diskussion, Heft 180, Göttingen 2001, p. 107–111
  • J. Darnell and C. Dobbs-Allsopp, et al., Two Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from the Wadi el-Hol: New Evidence for the Origin of the Alphabet from the Western Desert of Egypt, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 2005.
  • Hamilton, Gordon J, The origins of the West Semitic alphabet in Egyptian scripts (2006)
  • Fellman, Bruce (2000) "The Birthplace of the ABCs." Yale Alumni Magazine, December 2000.[1]
  • Sacks, David (2004). Letter Perfect: The Marvelous History of Our Alphabet from A to Z. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-1173-3.
  • Goldwasser, Orly, How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs Biblical Archaeology Review 36:02, Mar/Apr 2010.
  • Lake, K.; Blake, R. (1928). "The Serabit Inscriptions: I. The Rediscovery of the Inscriptions". Harvard Theological Review. 21 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1017/s0017816000021155.
  • Millard, A. R. (1986) "The Infancy of the Alphabet" World Archaeology. pp. 390–398.
  • Ray, John D. (1986) "The Emergence of Writing in Egypt" Early Writing Systems; 17/3 pp. 307–316.
  • B. Benjamin Sass (West Semitic Alphabets) – In 1988 a very important doctoral dissertation was completed at Tel Aviv University, *Benjamin Sass, The Genesis of the Alphabet and its Development in the Second Millennium BC, Ägypten Und Altes Testament 13, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1988.
  • Simons, F., "Proto-Sinaitic — Progenitor of the Alphabet" Rosetta 9 (2011), 16–40.

وصلات خارجية

Wadi el-Hol

قالب:Proto-Sinaitic script