اللغة العبرية

(تم التحويل من لغة عبرية)
العبرية
עִבְרִית, Ivrit
Temple Scroll.png
جزء من لفافة معبد، واحدة من أطول مخطوطات البحر الميت المكتشفة في قمران
النطقالحديثة: [ivˈʁit]
الطبرية: [ʕib'rit][1]
موطنهاإسرائيل
المنطقةأرض إسرائيل
العرقالعبرانيون؛ اليهود و السامريون
منقرضةعبرية المشناه انقرضت كلغة محكية بحلول القرن الخامس الميلادي، بقيت كـ liturgical language along with Biblical Hebrew for Judaism[2][3]e19
Revivalأعيد إحياؤها في أواخر القرن 19. 9 مليون متكلم بالعبرية الحديثة منهم 5 مليون كلغة أم (2017)[4]
الصيغ المبكرة
الصيغ الفصحى
الأبجدية العبرية
Hebrew Braille
الأبجدية العبرية العتيقة (Archaic Biblical Hebrew)
Imperial Aramaic script (Late Biblical Hebrew)
Signed Hebrew (oral Hebrew accompanied by sign)[5]
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 إسرائيل (كالعبرية الحديثة)
لغة أقلية
معترف بها في
ينظمهاأكاديمية اللغة العبرية
האקדמיה ללשון העברית (HaAkademia LaLashon HaʿIvrit)
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1he
ISO 639-2heb
ISO 639-3Variously:
heb – العبرية الحديثة
hbo – العبرية الكلاسيكية (liturgical)
smp – العبرية السامرية (liturgical)
obm – Moabite (extinct)
xdm – Edomite (extinct)
Glottologhebr1246[6]
Linguasphere12-AAB-a
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
كلمة "عبري" مكتوبة باللغة العبرية الحديثة (أعلى) وبالأبجدية العبرية العتيقة (أسفل)

العِبْرِيَّة (עברית عـِڤـْريت) لغة سامية كنعانية سُجلت فيها التوراة، كانت لغة اليهود العادية بين عهد داود أو قبله حتى الإمبراطورية البابلية الثانية، ففي عهد الإمبراطورية البابلية أخذوا ينطقون بالآرامية. وأصبحت لغة إسرائيل في القرن العشرين. يعتقد أن مصدر التسمية يعود إلى أحد أجداد اليهود الذيي ورد اسمه في التوراة. والعبرية الحديثة المستعمل في اسرائيل تختلف عن عبرية التوراة في أصواتها وفي مفردات كثيرة.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التاريخ

Hebrew belongs to the Canaanite group of languages. Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of languages.[7]

According to Avraham Ben-Yosef, Hebrew flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah during the period from about 1200 to 586 BCE.[8] Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew was a spoken vernacular in ancient times following the Babylonian exile, when the predominant international language in the region was Old Aramaic.

Hebrew was extinct as a colloquial language by Late Antiquity, but it continued to be used as a literary language and as the liturgical language of Judaism, evolving various dialects of literary Medieval Hebrew, until its revival as a spoken language in the late 19th century.[9][10]


أقدم نقوش عبرية

نقش شبنا، من مقبرة مضيف ملكي، عـُثـِر عليها في Siloam، تعود إلى القرن السابع ق.م..

In July 2008, Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa that he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating from around 3,000 years ago.[11] Hebrew University archaeologist Amihai Mazar said that the inscription was "proto-Canaanite" but cautioned that "The differentiation between the scripts, and between the languages themselves in that period, remains unclear," and suggested that calling the text Hebrew might be going too far.[12]

The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, the traditional time of the reign of David and Solomon. Classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The Gezer calendar (named after the city in whose proximity it was found) is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the Phoenician one that, through the Greeks and Etruscans, later became the Roman script. The Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places in which later Hebrew spelling requires them.

Numerous older tablets have been found in the region with similar scripts written in other Semitic languages, for example, Protosinaitic. It is believed that the original shapes of the script go back to Egyptian hieroglyphs, though the phonetic values are instead inspired by the acrophonic principle. The common ancestor of Hebrew and Phoenician is called Canaanite, and was the first to use a Semitic alphabet distinct from that of Egyptian. One ancient document is the famous Moabite Stone, written in the Moabite dialect; the Siloam Inscription, found near Jerusalem, is an early example of Hebrew. Less ancient samples of Archaic Hebrew include the ostraca found near Lachish, which describe events preceding the final capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian captivity of 586 BCE.

العبرية الكلاسيكية

العبرية التوراتية

In its widest sense, Biblical Hebrew refers to the spoken language of ancient Israel flourishing between the 10th century BCE and the turn of the 4th century CE.[13] It comprises several evolving and overlapping dialects. The phases of Classical Hebrew are often named after important literary works associated with them.

Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
  • Standard Biblical Hebrew around the 8th to 6th centuries BCE, corresponding to the late Monarchic period and the Babylonian Exile. It is represented by the bulk of the Hebrew Bible that attains much of its present form around this time. Also called Biblical Hebrew, Early Biblical Hebrew, Classical Biblical Hebrew or Classical Hebrew (in the narrowest sense).
  • Late Biblical Hebrew, from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BCE, corresponding to the Persian Period and represented by certain texts in the Hebrew Bible, notably the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Basically similar to Classical Biblical Hebrew, apart from a few foreign words adopted for mainly governmental terms, and some syntactical innovations such as the use of the particle she- (alternative of "asher", meaning "that, which, who"). It adopted the Imperial Aramaic script (from which the modern Hebrew script descends).
  • Israelian Hebrew is a proposed northern dialect of biblical Hebrew, believed to have existed in all eras of the language, in some cases competing with late biblical Hebrew as an explanation for non-standard linguistic features of biblical texts.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

عبرية أوائل ما بعد التوراة

  • Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, corresponding to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, and represented by the Qumran Scrolls that form most (but not all) of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Commonly abbreviated as DSS Hebrew, also called Qumran Hebrew. The Imperial Aramaic script of the earlier scrolls in the 3rd century BCE evolved into the Hebrew square script of the later scrolls in the 1st century CE, also known as ketav Ashuri (Assyrian script), still in use today.
  • Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE, corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and Tosefta within the Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba letters and the Copper Scroll. Also called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early Rabbinic Hebrew.

Sometimes the above phases of spoken Classical Hebrew are simplified into "Biblical Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 10th century BCE to 2nd century BCE and extant in certain Dead Sea Scrolls) and "Mishnaic Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE and extant in certain other Dead Sea Scrolls).[14] However, today most Hebrew linguists classify Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew as a set of dialects evolving out of Late Biblical Hebrew and into Mishnaic Hebrew, thus including elements from both but remaining distinct from either.[15]

By the start of the Byzantine Period in the 4th century CE, Classical Hebrew ceased as a regularly spoken language, roughly a century after the publication of the Mishnah, apparently declining since the aftermath of the catastrophic Bar Kokhba War around 135 CE.

Displacement by Aramaic

A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew

In the early 6th century BCE, the Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered the ancient Kingdom of Judah, destroying much of Jerusalem and exiling its population far to the East in Babylon. During the Babylonian captivity, many Israelites learned Aramaic, the closely related Semitic language of their captors. Thus for a significant period, the Jewish elite became influenced by Aramaic.[16]

After Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon, he allowed the Jewish people to return from captivity. As a result, قالب:Synthesis inline a local version of Aramaic came to be spoken in Israel alongside Hebrew. By the beginning of the Common Era, Aramaic was the primary colloquial language of Samarian, Babylonian and Galileean Jews, and western and intellectual Jews spoke Greek,[بحاجة لمصدر] but a form of so-called Rabbinic Hebrew continued to be used as a vernacular in Judea until it was displaced by Aramaic, probably in the 3rd century CE. Certain Sadducee, Pharisee, Scribe, Hermit, Zealot and Priest classes maintained an insistence on Hebrew, and all Jews maintained their identity with Hebrew songs and simple quotations from Hebrew texts.[17][18][19]

While there is no doubt that at a certain point, Hebrew was displaced as the everyday spoken language of most Jews, and that its chief successor in the Middle East was the closely related Aramaic language, then Greek,[18][note 1] scholarly opinions on the exact dating of that shift have changed very much.[20] In the first half of the 20th century, most scholars followed Geiger and Dalman in thinking that Aramaic became a spoken language in the land of Israel as early as the beginning of Israel's Hellenistic Period in the 4th century BCE, and that as a corollary Hebrew ceased to function as a spoken language around the same time. Segal, Klausner and Ben Yehuda are notable exceptions to this view. During the latter half of the 20th century, accumulating archaeological evidence and especially linguistic analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls has disproven that view. The Dead Sea Scrolls, uncovered in 1946–1948 near Qumran revealed ancient Jewish texts overwhelmingly in Hebrew, not Aramaic.

The Qumran scrolls indicate that Hebrew texts were readily understandable to the average Israelite, and that the language had evolved since Biblical times as spoken languages do.[note 2] Recent scholarship recognizes that reports of Jews speaking in Aramaic indicate a multilingual society, not necessarily the primary language spoken. Alongside Aramaic, Hebrew co-existed within Israel as a spoken language.[22] Most scholars now date the demise of Hebrew as a spoken language to the end of the Roman Period, or about 200 CE.[23] It continued on as a literary language down through the Byzantine Period from the 4th century CE.

The exact roles of Aramaic and Hebrew remain hotly debated. A trilingual scenario has been proposed for the land of Israel. Hebrew functioned as the local mother tongue with powerful ties to Israel's history, origins and golden age and as the language of Israel's religion; Aramaic functioned as the international language with the rest of the Middle East; and eventually Greek functioned as another international language with the eastern areas of the Roman Empire.[بحاجة لمصدر] William Schniedewind argues that after waning in the Persian Period, the religious importance of Hebrew grew in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and cites epigraphical evidence that Hebrew survived as a vernacular language — though both its grammar and its writing system had been substantially influenced by Aramaic.[24] According to another summary, Greek was the language of government, Hebrew the language of prayer, study and religious texts, and Aramaic was the language of legal contracts and trade.[25] There was also a geographic pattern: according to Spolsky, by the beginning of the Common Era, "Judeo-Aramaic was mainly used in Galilee in the north, Greek was concentrated in the former colonies and around governmental centers, and Hebrew monolingualism continued mainly in the southern villages of Judea."[18] In other words, "in terms of dialect geography, at the time of the tannaim Palestine could be divided into the Aramaic-speaking regions of Galilee and Samaria and a smaller area, Judaea, in which Rabbinic Hebrew was used among the descendants of returning exiles."[17][19] In addition, it has been surmised that Koine Greek was the primary vehicle of communication in coastal cities and among the upper class of Jerusalem, while Aramaic was prevalent in the lower class of Jerusalem, but not in the surrounding countryside.[25] After the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century CE, Judaeans were forced to disperse. Many relocated to Galilee, so most remaining native speakers of Hebrew at that last stage would have been found in the north.[26]

The Christian New Testament contains some Semitic place names and quotes.[27] The language of such Semitic glosses (and in general the language spoken by Jews in scenes from the New Testament) is often referred to as "Hebrew" in the text,[28] although this term is often re-interpreted as referring to Aramaic instead[note 3][note 4] and is rendered accordingly in recent translations.[30] Nonetheless, these glosses can be interpreted as Hebrew as well.[31] It has been argued that Hebrew, rather than Aramaic or Koine Greek, lay behind the composition of the Gospel of Matthew.[32] (See the Hebrew Gospel hypothesis or Language of Jesus for more details on Hebrew and Aramaic in the gospels.)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المشناه والتلمود

The term "Mishnaic Hebrew" generally refers to the Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, excepting quotations from the Hebrew Bible. The dialects organize into Mishnaic Hebrew (also called Tannaitic Hebrew, Early Rabbinic Hebrew, or Mishnaic Hebrew I), which was a spoken language, and Amoraic Hebrew (also called Late Rabbinic Hebrew or Mishnaic Hebrew II), which was a literary language. The earlier section of the Talmud is the Mishnah that was published around 200 CE, although many of the stories take place much earlier, and was written in the earlier Mishnaic dialect. The dialect is also found in certain Dead Sea Scrolls. Mishnaic Hebrew is considered to be one of the dialects of Classical Hebrew that functioned as a living language in the land of Israel. A transitional form of the language occurs in the other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning with the completion of the Mishnah. These include the halachic Midrashim (Sifra, Sifre, Mechilta etc.) and the expanded collection of Mishnah-related material known as the Tosefta. The Talmud contains excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not attested elsewhere; the generic term for these passages is Baraitot. The dialect of all these works is very similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.

About a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew fell into disuse as a spoken language. The later section of the Talmud, the Gemara, generally comments on the Mishnah and Baraitot in two forms of Aramaic. Nevertheless, Hebrew survived as a liturgical and literary language in the form of later Amoraic Hebrew, which sometimes occurs in the text of the Gemara.

Hebrew was always regarded as the language of Israel's religion, history and national pride, and after it faded as a spoken language, it continued to be used as a lingua franca among scholars and Jews traveling in foreign countries.[33] After the 2nd century CE when the Roman Empire exiled most of the Jewish population of Jerusalem following the Bar Kokhba revolt, they adapted to the societies in which they found themselves, yet letters, contracts, commerce, science, philosophy, medicine, poetry and laws continued to be written mostly in Hebrew, which adapted by borrowing and inventing terms.

عبرية العصور الوسطى

Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.

After the Talmud, various regional literary dialects of Medieval Hebrew evolved. The most important is Tiberian Hebrew or Masoretic Hebrew, a local dialect of Tiberias in Galilee that became the standard for vocalizing the Hebrew Bible and thus still influences all other regional dialects of Hebrew. This Tiberian Hebrew from the 7th to 10th century CE is sometimes called "Biblical Hebrew" because it is used to pronounce the Hebrew Bible; however, properly it should be distinguished from the historical Biblical Hebrew of the 6th century BCE, whose original pronunciation must be reconstructed. Tiberian Hebrew incorporates the remarkable scholarship of the Masoretes (from masoret meaning "tradition"), who added vowel points and grammar points to the Hebrew letters to preserve much earlier features of Hebrew, for use in chanting the Hebrew Bible. The Masoretes inherited a biblical text whose letters were considered too sacred to be altered, so their markings were in the form of pointing in and around the letters. The Syriac alphabet, precursor to the Arabic alphabet, also developed vowel pointing systems around this time. The Aleppo Codex, a Hebrew Bible with the Masoretic pointing, was written in the 10th century, likely in Tiberias, and survives to this day. It is perhaps the most important Hebrew manuscript in existence.

During the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic. Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben David Hayyuj, Jonah ibn Janah, Abraham ibn Ezra[34] and later (in Provence), David Kimhi. A great deal of poetry was written, by poets such as Dunash ben Labrat, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Judah ha-Levi, Moses ibn Ezra and Abraham ibn Ezra, in a "purified" Hebrew based on the work of these grammarians, and in Arabic quantitative or strophic meters. This literary Hebrew was later used by Italian Jewish poets.[35]

The need to express scientific and philosophical concepts from Classical Greek and Medieval Arabic motivated Medieval Hebrew to borrow terminology and grammar from these other languages, or to coin equivalent terms from existing Hebrew roots, giving rise to a distinct style of philosophical Hebrew. This is used in the translations made by the Ibn Tibbon family. (Original Jewish philosophical works were usually written in Arabic.[بحاجة لمصدر]) Another important influence was Maimonides, who developed a simple style based on Mishnaic Hebrew for use in his law code, the Mishneh Torah. Subsequent rabbinic literature is written in a blend between this style and the Aramaized Rabbinic Hebrew of the Talmud.

Hebrew persevered through the ages as the main language for written purposes by all Jewish communities around the world for a large range of uses—not only liturgy, but also poetry, philosophy, science and medicine, commerce, daily correspondence and contracts. There have been many deviations from this generalization such as Bar Kokhba's letters to his lieutenants, which were mostly in Aramaic,[36] and Maimonides' writings, which were mostly in Arabic;[37] but overall, Hebrew did not cease to be used for such purposes. For example, the first Middle East printing press, in Safed (modern Israel), produced a small number of books in Hebrew in 1577, which were then sold to the nearby Jewish world.[38] This meant not only that well-educated Jews in all parts of the world could correspond in a mutually intelligible language, and that books and legal documents published or written in any part of the world could be read by Jews in all other parts, but that an educated Jew could travel and converse with Jews in distant places, just as priests and other educated Christians could converse in Latin. For example, Rabbi Avraham Danzig wrote the Chayei Adam in Hebrew, as opposed to Yiddish, as a guide to Halacha for the "average 17-year-old" (Ibid. Introduction 1). Similarly, the Chofetz Chaim, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan's purpose in writing the Mishna Berurah was to "produce a work that could be studied daily so that Jews might know the proper procedures to follow minute by minute". The work was nevertheless written in Talmudic Hebrew and Aramaic, since, "the ordinary Jew [of Eastern Europe] of a century ago, was fluent enough in this idiom to be able to follow the Mishna Berurah without any trouble."[39]

الإحياء

Hebrew has been revived several times as a literary language, most significantly by the Haskalah (التنوير) movement of early and mid-19th-century Germany. In the early 19th century, a form of spoken Hebrew had emerged in the markets of Jerusalem between Jews of different linguistic backgrounds to communicate for commercial purposes. This Hebrew dialect was to a certain extent a pidgin.[40] Near the end of that century the Jewish activist إليعيزر بن يهودا, owing to the ideology of the national revival (שיבת ציון, Shivat Tziyon, later Zionism), began reviving Hebrew as a modern spoken language. Eventually, as a result of the local movement he created, but more significantly as a result of the new groups of immigrants known under the name of the Second Aliyah, it replaced a score of languages spoken by Jews at that time. Those languages were Jewish dialects of local languages, including Judaeo-Spanish (also called "Judezmo" and "Ladino"), Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic and Bukhori (Tajiki), or local languages spoken in the Jewish diaspora such as Russian, Persian and Arabic.

The major result of the literary work of the Hebrew intellectuals along the 19th century was a lexical modernization of Hebrew. New words and expressions were adapted as neologisms from the large corpus of Hebrew writings since the Hebrew Bible, or borrowed from Arabic (أساساً على يد إليعيزر بن يهودا) and older Aramaic and Latin. Many new words were either borrowed from or coined after European languages, especially English, Russian, German, and French. Modern Hebrew became an official language in British-ruled Palestine in 1921 (along with English and Arabic), and then in 1948 became an official language of the newly declared State of Israel. Hebrew is the most widely spoken language in Israel today.

In the Modern Period, from the 19th century onward, the literary Hebrew tradition revived as the spoken language of modern Israel, called variously Israeli Hebrew, Modern Israeli Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, New Hebrew, Israeli Standard Hebrew, Standard Hebrew and so on. Israeli Hebrew exhibits some features of Sephardic Hebrew from its local Jerusalemite tradition but adapts it with numerous neologisms, borrowed terms (often technical) from European languages and adopted terms (often colloquial) from Arabic.

The literary and narrative use of Hebrew was revived beginning with the Haskalah movement. The first secular periodical in Hebrew, HaMe'assef (The Gatherer), was published by maskilim in Königsberg (today's Kaliningrad) from 1783 onwards.[41] In the mid-19th century, publications of several Eastern European Hebrew-language newspapers (e.g. Hamagid, founded in Ełk in 1856) multiplied. Prominent poets were Hayim Nahman Bialik and Shaul Tchernichovsky; there were also novels written in the language.

The revival of the Hebrew language as a mother tongue was initiated in the late 19th century بجهود إليعيزر بن يهودا. He joined the Jewish national movement and in 1881 immigrated to Palestine, then a part of the Ottoman Empire. Motivated by the surrounding ideals of renovation and rejection of the diaspora "shtetl" lifestyle, Ben-Yehuda set out to develop tools for making the literary and liturgical language into everyday spoken language. However, his brand of Hebrew followed norms that had been replaced in Eastern Europe by different grammar and style, in the writings of people like Ahad Ha'am and others. His organizational efforts and involvement with the establishment of schools and the writing of textbooks pushed the vernacularization activity into a gradually accepted movement. It was not, however, until the 1904–1914 Second Aliyah that Hebrew had caught real momentum in Ottoman Palestine with the more highly organized enterprises set forth by the new group of immigrants. When the British Mandate of Palestine recognized Hebrew as one of the country's three official languages (English, Arabic, and Hebrew, in 1922), its new formal status contributed to its diffusion. A constructed modern language with a truly Semitic vocabulary and written appearance, although often European in phonology, was to take its place among the current languages of the nations.

While many saw his work as fanciful or even blasphemous[42] (because Hebrew was the holy language of the Torah and therefore some thought that it should not be used to discuss everyday matters), many soon understood the need for a common language amongst Jews of the British Mandate who at the turn of the 20th century were arriving in large numbers from diverse countries and speaking different languages. A Committee of the Hebrew Language was established. After the establishment of Israel, it became the Academy of the Hebrew Language. The results of Ben-Yehuda's lexicographical work were published in a dictionary (The Complete Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew). The seeds of Ben-Yehuda's work fell on fertile ground, and by the beginning of the 20th century, Hebrew was well on its way to becoming the main language of the Jewish population of both Ottoman and British Palestine. At the time, members of the Old Yishuv and a very few Hasidic sects, most notably those under the auspices of Satmar, refused to speak Hebrew and spoke only Yiddish.

In the Soviet Union, the use of Hebrew, along with other Jewish cultural and religious activities, was suppressed. Soviet authorities considered the use of Hebrew "reactionary" since it was associated with Zionism, and the teaching of Hebrew at primary and secondary schools was officially banned by the People's Commissariat for Education as early as 1919, as part of an overall agenda aiming to secularize education (the language itself did not cease to be studied at universities for historical and linguistic purposes[43]). The official ordinance stated that Yiddish, being the spoken language of the Russian Jews, should be treated as their only national language, while Hebrew was to be treated as a foreign language.[44] Hebrew books and periodicals ceased to be published and were seized from the libraries, although liturgical texts were still published until the 1930s. Despite numerous protests,[45] a policy of suppression of the teaching of Hebrew operated from the 1930s on. Later in the 1980s in the USSR, Hebrew studies reappeared due to people struggling for permission to go to Israel (refuseniks). Several of the teachers were imprisoned, e.g. Yosef Begun, Ephraim Kholmyansky, Yevgeny Korostyshevsky and others responsible for a Hebrew learning network connecting many cities of the USSR.

العبرية الحديثة

Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard

Standard Hebrew, as developed by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, was based on Mishnaic spelling and Sephardi Hebrew pronunciation. However, the earliest speakers of Modern Hebrew had Yiddish as their native language and often introduced calques from Yiddish and phono-semantic matchings of international words.

Despite using Sephardic Hebrew pronunciation as its primary basis, modern Israeli Hebrew has adapted to Ashkenazi Hebrew phonology in some respects, mainly the following:

  • the elimination of pharyngeal articulation in the letters chet (ח) and ayin ( ע) by most Hebrew speakers.
  • the conversion of (ר) /r/ from an alveolar flap [ɾ] to a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or uvular trill [ʀ], by most of the speakers, like in most varieties of standard German or Yiddish. see Guttural R
  • the pronunciation (by many speakers) of tzere ֵ as [eɪ] in some contexts (sifréj and téjša instead of Sephardic sifré and tésha)
  • the partial elimination of vocal Shva ְ (zmán instead of Sephardic zĕman)[46]
  • in popular speech, penultimate stress in proper names (Dvóra instead of Dĕvorá; Yehúda instead of Yĕhudá) and some other words[47]
  • similarly in popular speech, penultimate stress in verb forms with a second person plural suffix (katávtem "you wrote" instead of kĕtavtém).[note 5]

The vocabulary of Israeli Hebrew is much larger than that of earlier periods. According to Ghil'ad Zuckermann:

قالب:Bq

In Israel, Modern Hebrew is currently taught in institutions called Ulpanim (singular: Ulpan). There are government-owned, as well as private, Ulpanim offering online courses and face-to-face programs.

الوضع الحالي

Modern Hebrew is the primary official language of the State of Israel. اعتبارا من 2013, there are about 9 million Hebrew speakers worldwide,[48] of whom 7 million speak it fluently.[49][50][51]

Currently, 90% of Israeli Jews are proficient in Hebrew, and 70% are highly proficient.[52] Some 60% of Israeli Arabs are also proficient in Hebrew,[52] and 30% report having a higher proficiency in Hebrew than in Arabic.[53] In total, about 53% of the Israeli population speaks Hebrew as a native language,[54] while most of the rest speak it fluently. However, in 2013 Hebrew was the native language of only 49% of Israelis over the age of 20, with Russian, Arabic, French, English, Yiddish and Ladino being the native tongues of most of the rest. Some 26% of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and 12% of Arabs reported speaking Hebrew poorly or not at all.[52][55]

Steps have been taken to keep Hebrew the primary language of use, and to prevent large-scale incorporation of English words into the Hebrew vocabulary. The Academy of the Hebrew Language of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem currently invents about 2,000 new Hebrew words each year for modern words by finding an original Hebrew word that captures the meaning, as an alternative to incorporating more English words into Hebrew vocabulary. The Haifa municipality has banned officials from using English words in official documents, and is fighting to stop businesses from using only English signs to market their services.[56] In 2012, a Knesset bill for the preservation of the Hebrew language was proposed, which includes the stipulation that all signage in Israel must first and foremost be in Hebrew, as with all speeches by Israeli officials abroad. The bill's author, MK Akram Hasson, stated that the bill was proposed as a response to Hebrew "losing its prestige" and children incorporating more English words into their vocabulary.[57]

Hebrew is one of several languages for which the constitution of South Africa calls to be respected in their use for religious purposes.[58] Also, Hebrew is an official national minority language in Poland, since 6 January 2005.[59]

الأصوات

يبلغ عدد حروف اللغة العبرية 22 حرفاً . في العبرية القديمة تغيرت بعض أصوات السامية:

  • غ ← ع (مثلا عَصَبْ = غضب)
  • خ ← ح (مثلا حَلَصْ = خلص)
  • ث ← ش (مثلا شَلٌوشْ = ثلاث)
  • ذ ← ز (مثلا زْرُوعْ = ذراع)
  • ض، ظ ← ص (مثلا صٌهٌرَيِمْ = ظهر)
  • غياب النون الساكن (مثلا أَتَّه = أنت)

ولم يتغير الحروف الصفيرية (سين، شين، وغيرها) في العبرية القديمة، بل تغيروا في العربية. ثم بعد حركة أصبحت الأصوات ت، د، ك، گ، پ، ب ← ث، ذ، خ، غ، ف، ڤ، إلا في حال الشدة (أي بالعبرية "دَگش".)

في العبرية الحديثة تغيرت الأصوات لسهولة النطق عند اليهود الأوربيين (الأشكنازيم)، كالتالي:

  • ث، ذ، غ رجعت ت، د، گ
  • ع ← ء (مثلا عِڤْرِيثْ ← إڤغيت = عبرية)
  • ح ← خ (مثلا حَطَاء ← خَطَا = خطأ أو ذنب)
  • و ← ڤ
  • ق ← ك (مثلا قًڤًرْ ← كًڤًر = قبر)
  • ر ← غ (مثلا زْرٌوعْ ← زًغٌوأَ = ذراع)
  • ص ← تْس (مثلا صًلًمْ ← تْسًلًمْ = صنم)
  • ط ← ت (مثلا مَطَر ← مَتَغ = مطر)
  • و في بداية الكلمات ← ي (مثلا يًلًذ = ولد)
  • غياب الشدة (مثلا بِقًّشْ ← بِكًشْ = بحث)

الصوامت

Proto
Semitic
IPA Hebrew Example
written Biblical Tiberian Modern Word Meaning
*b [b] ב3 /b /b/ /v/, /b/ /v/, /b/ בית house
*d [d] ד3 /d /d/ /ð/, /d/ /d/ דב bear
*g [ɡ] ג3 /g /ɡ/ /ɣ/, /g/ /ɡ/ גמל camel
*p [p] פ3 /p /p/ /f/, /p/ /f/, /p/ פחם coal
*t [t] ת3 /t /t/ /θ/, /t/ /t/ תמר palm
*k [k] כ3 /k /k/ /x/, /k/ /χ/, /k/ כוכב star
*ṭ [] ט /tˤ/ /t/ טבח cook
*q [] ק q q /q/ /k/ קבר tomb
*ḏ [ð] / [d͡ð] ז2 z /ð/ /z/ /z/ זכר male
*z [z] / [d͡z] /z/ זרק threw
*s [s] / [t͡s] ס s /s/ /s/ /s/ סוכר sugar
[ʃ] / [t͡ʃ] שׁ2 š /ʃ/ /ʃ/ /ʃ/ שׁמים sky
*ṯ [θ] / [t͡θ] /θ/ שׁמונה eight
[ɬ] / [t͡ɬ] שׂ1 ś /ɬ/ /s/ /s/ שׂמאל left
*ṱ [θʼ] / [t͡θʼ] צ /sˤ/ /ts/ צל shadow
*ṣ [] / [t͡sʼ] צרח screamed
*ṣ́ [ɬʼ] / [t͡ɬʼ] צחק laughed
[ɣ]~[ʁ] ע ʻ /ʁ/ /ʕ/ /ʔ/, - עורב raven
[ʕ] /ʕ/ עשׂר ten
[ʔ] א ʼ /ʔ/ /ʔ/ /ʔ/, - אב father
*ḫ [x]~[χ] ח2 /χ/ /ħ/ /χ/ חמשׁ five
*ḥ [ħ] /ħ/ חבל rope
*h [h] ה h /h/ /h/ /h/, - הגר emigrated
*m [m] מ m /m/ /m/ /m/ מים water
*n [n] נ n /n/ /n/ /n/ נביא prophet
*r [ɾ] ר r /ɾ/ /ɾ/ /ʁ/ רגל leg
*l [l] ל l /l/ /l/ /l/ לשׁון tongue
*y [j] י y /j/ /j/ /j/ יד hand
*w [w] ו w /w/ /w/ /v/ ורד rose
Proto-Semitic IPA Hebrew Biblical Tiberian Modern Example

Notes:

  1. Proto-Semitic was still pronounced as [ɬ] in Biblical Hebrew, but no letter was available in the Phoenician alphabet, so the letter ש did double duty, representing both /ʃ/ and /ɬ/. Later on, however, /ɬ/ merged with /s/, but the old spelling was largely retained, and the two pronunciations of ש were distinguished graphically in Tiberian Hebrew as שׁ /ʃ/ vs. שׂ /s/ < /ɬ/.
  2. Biblical Hebrew as of the 3rd century BCE apparently still distinguished the phonemes ġ /ʁ/, /χ/, /ð/ and /θ/, based on transcriptions in the Septuagint. As in the case of /ɬ/, no letters were available to represent these sounds, and existing letters did double duty: ח /χ/ /ħ/, ע /ʁ/ /ʕ/, שׁ /θ/ /ʃ/ and ז /ð/ /z/. In all of these cases, however, the sounds represented by the same letter eventually merged, leaving no evidence (other than early transcriptions) of the former distinctions.
  3. Hebrew and Aramaic underwent begadkefat spirantization at a certain point, whereby the stop sounds /b ɡ d k p t/ were softened to the corresponding fricatives [v ɣ ð x f θ] (written ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ) when occurring after a vowel and not geminated. This change probably happened after the original Old Aramaic phonemes /θ, ð/ disappeared in the 7th century BCE,[60] and most likely occurred after the loss of Hebrew /χ, ʁ/ c. 200 BCE.[note 6] It is known to have occurred in Hebrew by the 2nd century.[61] After a certain point this alternation became contrastive in word-medial and final position (though bearing low functional load), but in word-initial position they remained allophonic.[62] In Modern Hebrew, the distinction has a higher functional load due to the loss of gemination, although only the three fricatives /v χ f/ are still preserved (the fricative /x/ is pronounced /χ/ in modern Hebrew). (The others are pronounced like the corresponding stops, apparently under the influence of later non-native speakers whose native European tongues lacked the sounds /ɣ ð θ/ as phonemes.)

الحركات

في القديم لم يكن حركات مكتوبة في العبرية، ولم يبدأ كتابتها إلا بعد ما لم يكن أحد ناطق بها كلغة الأم. لذالك فصلوا بين حركات لا تختلف كثيرا في النطق، وفي العبرية الحديثة حركات أقل، الحركات الخمس a e i o u. من أجل سهولة القراءة سأكتب ـً في مكان e، وفي مكان o ـٌ. أكبر تغيرات الحركات من حركات السامية القديمة:

  • لما كانت تنتهي كلمة بفتحة وحرف بسكون وحرف آخر (مثلا قَبْر) أصبح حركة e بين الحروف الأخيرة (قًڤًرْ).
  • آ و"أَو" أصبحتا اٌو (مثلا شَلٌوشْ = ثلاث، قٌول = قول أو صوت)
  • أَي > اًي (بًين = بين)

وفي العبرية الحديثة أصبحة السكون في أول حرف الكلمة e، مثلا بْرِيثْ > بًغِيتْ = عهد).

إقرأ أيضا

النحو

الإسم

جمع الإسم دائما سليم، بإضافة ـِيمْ للمذكر و ـٌوثْ للمؤنث. وأحيانا يتغير التشكيل أيضا، مثلا مًلًخْ "ملك" > مْلَخِيمْ "ملوك". المثنى بإضافة ـَيِم. التعريف بحرف هَـ بتشديد الحرف بعدها، مثل الـ في العربية.

ليس في العبرية أي إعراب، لكن يتغير صيغة الإسم في حال الإضافة بشكل شبيه إلى العربية، فتصبح ـِيمْ ـًي، و ـَيِمْ ـَيْ. لكن في العبرية الحديثة حال الإضافة نادر جدا، وتستعمل كلمة شًلْ في مكانه، مثلا: "يَدْ شًلْ هَإِشَه" = "يد الإمرأة" وليس "يَذْ هَإشَّه".

الضمير

الضمائر هي التالية:

وحدهمضاف
هوهُو = הוא ـًو
هيهِي = היא ـَه
ممهِم = הם ـهًم
هنهِن = הן ـهًن
أنتَأَتًَّا = אתה ـْخَه
أنتِأَتّ = את ـًخ
أنتمأَتِّم = אתם ـْخًم
أنتنأَتِّن = אתן ـخًن
أناأَنِي = אני ، أَنٌوخِيـِي للإسم، ـًنِي للفعل
نحنأَنَحْنُو = אנחנוـًنُو

لكن الضمائر العبرية لا تضاف إلى الفعل إلا أحيانا، حتى في العبرية القديمة، وفي العبرية الحديثة لا للإسم أيضا. فتستعمل حرف "اًث" (اٌثـ مع إضافة الضمائر) للفعل (مثلا "اٌثْخَه" > اٌتْخَه = "إياك") وللإسم حرف "شًل" (مثلا "هَيًّلًذْ شًلِي" > "هَيًلًد شًلِي" = "ولدي".)

الفعل

الفعل العبري شبيه جدا للفعل العربي، لكن تختلف في بعض الصيغ. نعطي كمثل فعل "قطل" = قتل:

ماضيمستقبلأمر
هوقَطَليِقْطٌل
هيقَطْلَهتِقْطٌل
ممقَطْلُويِقْطْلُو
هنقَطْلُوتِقْطٌلْنَهقْطٌل
أنتَقَطَلْتَتِقْطٌلقِطْلِي
أنتِقَطَلْتْتِقْطْلِيقِطْلُو
أنتمقْطَلْتًمتِقْطْلُوقْطٌلنَه
أنتنقْطَلْتًنتِقْطٌلْنَه
أناقَطَلْتِياًقْطٌل
نحنقَطَلْنُونِقْطٌل

وصيغ أخرى: مثلا "قٌوطًل" = قاتل، "قَطُول" = مقتول، "قَطٌول" = قتل.

في العبرية القديمة، إذا أُضيفت الواو في بداية الفعل، يتحوّل الماضي إلى المستقبل والمستقبل إلى ماضي! لكن ليس هذا الحال في العبرية الحديثة.

الحرف

أهم حروف العبرية هي: مِنْ (أو مِـّ) = من، لْـ = لـ، بْـ = في أو بـ، عَلْ = على، كَـ = كَـ، وْ = وَ، كِي = لأن أو أن، اٌو = أو، لْمَعَن = لكي.


الصرف

عاديا تأتي الفعل في أول جملة، و الخبر إذا كان الخبر صفة. فالصرف لا تختلف كثيرا عن صرف العربية.


هذه بعض الكلمات البسيطة للراغبين بتعلم العبرية


العَرَبِيَّة العِبْرِيَّة النطق بالعربية
أَبي אבא أبا
إبْن בן بِن
أَخ אח آح
أُخت אחות أحوت
أُسبوع שבוע شَفُوَع
إسْمي שמי شمِي
أَكْل אוכל أُخٍل
إلَهي אלוהי إلوهي
أُمّ אם إم
أنَا אני أنِي
أَنْتَ אתה أَتَُّا
إنْتِقام נקמה نِقمَه
برق ברק بَرَك
َبَركَة ברכה بٍرخا
بَصَل בצל بَتْصَل
بَطْن בטן بِطِن
بَنَات בּנות بَنوت
بَيْت בית بَيِت
تَحْت תחת تَخَت
تَرْجَمة תרגום تَرجُم
جِبْنَة גבינה جفينا
جَزَر גזר جِزِرْ
جَمَل גמל جِمِل
جَهَنَّم גהנום جِهِنوم
جُوز אגוז إجوز
حِمار חמור حَمور
حَياة חיים حَيِِيم
دَم דם دَم
ذباب זבוב زِفُوف
رَأس ראש رُوش
رِِِجْل רגל رِجِل
رَحْمَة רחמנות رَحمَنوت
رُوح רוח رُوح
رِيح ריח رِيَح
رِيح רוח رُوح
زَيْتُون זית زيِت
ساعَة שעה شاعة
سَفِينَة ספינה سفينه
سِكّينِ סכין سَكين
سَلام שלום شَلُوم
سَماء שמים شَمايِم
سِن שן شِن
سَنَة שנה شَنَه
سُوق שוק شُوق
شَعْر שער سِعر
شِمال שמאל سمال
شَمْس שמש شِمِش
طَبِيعَة טבע طِبَع
ظِل צל تصِلْ
عاَلَم עולם عُولَم
عَيْن עין عَيْن
قدس קדוש قَدوش
قَرْن קרן قِرِن
قَلْب לב لِبْ
كِتابَة כתיבה كِتيبه
كُل כל كُل
كَلْب כלב كِلِب
كَمْ؟ כמה? كَمَه
لا לא لو
لَهَب להב لَهَب
لَيْل לילה لَيْله
مِسْمار מסמר مَسْمِر
مَطَر מטר مَطَر
مُفْتاح מפתח مَفْتِياح
مَفْتُوح פתוח فَتوح
مُقَدَّس מקודש مِقُداش
مِلْح מלח مِلَح
مَلِك מלך مِلِك
مَوْت מות مُوت
مِياه מים مَيِّم
نحن אנחנו أَنحنُ
نَهَر נהר نَهَر
وَلَد ילד يِلِد
يَمِين ימין يِمين
يَوْم יום يُوم

See also

Notes

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Sáenz-BadillosRH
  2. ^ Fernández & Elwolde: "It is generally believed that the Dead Sea Scrolls, specifically the Copper Scroll and also the Bar Kokhba letters, have furnished clear evidence of the popular character of MH [Mishnaic Hebrew]."[21]
  3. ^ The Cambridge History of Judaism: "Thus in certain sources Aramaic words are termed 'Hebrew,' ... For example: η επιλεγομενη εβραιστι βηθεσδα 'which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda' (John 5.2). This is not a Hebrew name but rather an Aramaic one: בית חסדא, 'the house of Hisda'."[22]
  4. ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A.: "The adverb Ἑβραϊστί (and its related expressions) seems to mean 'in Hebrew', and it has often been argued that it means this and nothing more. As is well known, it is used at times with words and expressions that are clearly Aramaic. Thus in John 19:13, Ἑβραιστὶ δὲ Γαββαθᾶ is given as an explanation of the Lithostrotos, and Γαββαθᾶ is a Grecized form of the Aramaic word gabbětā, 'raised place.'"[29]
  5. ^ These pronunciations may have originated in learners' mistakes formed on the analogy of other suffixed forms (katávta, alénu), rather than being examples of residual Ashkenazi influence.
  6. ^ According to the generally accepted view, it is unlikely that begadkefat spirantization occurred before the merger of /χ, ʁ/ and /ħ, ʕ/, or else [x, χ] and [ɣ, ʁ] would have to be contrastive, which is cross-linguistically rare. However, Blau argues that it is possible that lenited /k/ and /χ/ could coexist even if pronounced identically, since one would be recognized as an alternating allophone (as apparently is the case in Nestorian Syriac). See Blau (2010:56).

References

  1. ^ السفاردية: [ʕivˈɾit]؛ العراقية: [ʕibˈriːθ]؛ اليمنية: [ʕivˈriːθ]؛ Ashkenazi: [iv'ʀis] أو [iv'ris] strict pronunciation [ʔiv'ris] أو [ʔiv'ʀis]
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة ASB
  3. ^ H. S. Nyberg 1952. Hebreisk Grammatik. s. 2. Reprinted in Sweden by Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala 2006.
  4. ^ "Hebrew". Ethnologue.
  5. ^ Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy (2013). A Language in Space: The Story of Israeli Sign Language.
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hebrewic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. ^ Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew, Baker Academic, 2001.
  8. ^ אברהם בן יוסף ,מבוא לתולדות הלשון העברית (Avraham ben-Yosef, Introduction to the History of the Hebrew Language), page 38, אור-עם, Tel-Aviv, 1981.
  9. ^ Share, David L. (2017). "Learning to Read Hebrew". In Verhoeven, Ludo; Perfetti, Charles (eds.). Learning to Read Across Languages and Writing Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN 9781107095885. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  10. ^ Fellman, Jack (1973). The Revival of a Classical Tongue: Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the Modern Hebrew Language. The Hague: Mouton. p. 12. ISBN 9789027924957. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  11. ^ "'Oldest Hebrew script' is found". BBC News. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  12. ^ "Have Israeli Archaeologists Found World's Oldest Hebrew Inscription?". Haaretz. AP. 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  13. ^ William M. Schniedewind, "Prolegomena for the Sociolinguistics of Classical Hebrew", The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures vol. 5 article 6 Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ M. Segal, A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927).
  15. ^ Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Harvard Semitic Studies 29 (Atlanta: Scholars Press 1986).
  16. ^ Nicholas Ostler, Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, Harper Perennial, London, New York, Toronto, Sydney 2006 p80
  17. ^ أ ب Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history of the Hebrew language. P.170-171
  18. ^ أ ب ت Spolsky, Bernard and Elana Goldberg Shohamy. The languages of Israel: policy, ideology and practice. P.9
  19. ^ أ ب Miguel Perez Fernandez, An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew (Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill 1997).
  20. ^ "Hebrew" in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edit. F.L. Cross, first edition (Oxford, 1958), 3rd edition (Oxford 1997). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church which once said, in 1958 in its first edition, that Hebrew "ceased to be a spoken language around the fourth century BCE", now says, in its 1997 (third) edition, that Hebrew "continued to be used as a spoken and written language in the New Testament period".
  21. ^ An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew (Fernández & Elwolde 1999, p.2)
  22. ^ أ ب The Cambridge History of Judaism: The late Roman-Rabbinic period. 2006. P.460
  23. ^ Borrás, Judit Targarona and Ángel Sáenz-Badillos. 1999. Jewish Studies at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. P.3
  24. ^ William M. Schniedewind (2006). "Aramaic, the Death of Written Hebrew, and Language Shift in the Persian Period" in Margins of Writing, Origins of Cultures. Seth L. Sanders: 137–147, University of Chicago. 
  25. ^ أ ب Spolsky, B., "Jewish Multilingualism in the First century: An Essay in Historical Sociolinguistics", Joshua A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in The Sociology of Jewish Languages, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1985, pp. 35–50. Also adopted by Smelik, Willem F. 1996. The Targum of Judges. P.9
  26. ^ Spolsky, B., "Jewish Multilingualism in the First century: An Essay in Historical Sociolinguistics", Joshua A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in The Sociology of Jewish Languages, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1985, p. 40. and passim
  27. ^ Huehnergard, John and Jo Ann Hackett. The Hebrew and Aramaic languages. In The Biblical World (2002), Volume 2 (John Barton, ed.). P.19
  28. ^ E.g. Acts 21:40; 22:2; 26:14: têi hebraḯdi dialéktôi, lit. 'in the Hebrew dialect/language'
  29. ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A. 1979. A Wandering Armenian: Collected Aramaic Essays. P.43
  30. ^ Geoffrey W. Bromley (ed.) The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, W.B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1979, 4 vols. vol.1 sub.'Aramaic' p.233: 'in the Aramaic vernacular of Palestine'
  31. ^ Randall Buth and Chad Pierce "EBRAISTI in Ancient Texts, Does ἑβραιστί ever Mean 'Aramaic'?" in Buth and Notley eds., Language Environment of First Century Judaea, Brill, 2014:66–109. p. 109 "no, Ἑβραιστί does not ever appear to mean Aramaic in attested texts during the Second Temple and Graeco-Roman periods."; p. 107 "John did not mention what either βεθεσδα or γαββαθα meant. They may both have been loanwords from Greek and Latin respectively." p103 "βεθεσδα ... (בית-אסטא(ן ... house of portico ... 3Q15 אסטאן הדרומית southern portico," and Latin gabata (p. 106) "means platter, dish... perhaps a mosaic design in the pavement ... " The Latin loanword is attested as "bowl" in later Christian Palestinian Aramaic and גבתא is (p106) "unattested in other Aramaic dialects" [contra the allegations of many].
  32. ^ J. M. Griatz, "Hebrew in the Days of the Second Temple" QBI, 79 (1960) pp. 32–47
  33. ^ Languages of the World (Hebrew) Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Abraham ibn Ezra, Hebrew Grammar, Venice 1546 (Hebrew)
  35. ^ T. Carmi, Penguin Book of Hebrew Verse.
  36. ^ Safrai, Shmuel, Shemuel Safrai, M. Stern. 1976. The Jewish people in the first century. P.1036
  37. ^ Fox, Marvin. 1995. Interpreting Maimonides. P.326
  38. ^ "1577 The First Printing Press in the Middle East - Safed - Center for Online Judaic Studies". Center for Online Judaic Studies (in الإنجليزية). 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  39. ^ (Ha-Kohen), Israel Meir (1980). Mishnah B'rurah – Israel Meir (ha-Kohen), Aharon Feldman, Aviel Orenstein – Google Books. ISBN 9780873061988. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  40. ^ "This week in history: Revival of the Hebrew language - Jewish World - Jerusalem Post".
  41. ^ Shalom Spiegel, Hebrew Reborn (1930), Meridian Books reprint 1962, New York p. 56.
  42. ^ Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the Resurgence of the Hebrew Language by Libby Kantorwitz
  43. ^ "The Transformation of Jewish Culture in the USSR from 1930 to the Present (in Russian)". Jewish-heritage.org. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  44. ^ Michael Nosonovsky (25 August 1997). "Nosonovski, Michael (in Russian)". Berkovich-zametki.com. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  45. ^ Protest against the suppression of Hebrew in the Soviet Union 1930–1931 signed by Albert Einstein, among others.
  46. ^ Rosen, Rosén (1966). A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 0.161. ISBN 978-0-226-72603-8.
  47. ^ Shisha Halevy, Ariel (1989). The Proper Name: Structural Prolegomena to its Syntax – a Case Study in Coptic. Vienna: VWGÖ. p. 33. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
  48. ^ Klein, Zeev (18 March 2013). "A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew". Israel Hayom. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  49. ^ "The differences between English and Hebrew". Frankfurt International School. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  50. ^ "Hebrew – UCL". University College London. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  51. ^ "Why Learn a Language?". Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  52. ^ أ ب ت "CBS: 27% of Israelis struggle with Hebrew – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  53. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Behadrey-Haredim
  54. ^ The Israeli Conflict System: Analytic Approaches
  55. ^ "Some Arabs Prefer Hebrew – Education – News". Israel National News. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  56. ^ "Keeping Hebrew Israel's living language – Israel Culture, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 2013-01-17. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  57. ^ Danan, Deborah (28 December 2012). "Druse MK wins prize for helping preserve Hebrew | JPost | Israel News". JPost. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  58. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions | South African Government". www.gov.za. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  59. ^ Pisarek, Walery. "The relationship between official and minority languages in Poland" (PDF). European Federation of National Institutions for Language. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  60. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999:72)
  61. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999:73)
  62. ^ Blau (2010:78–81)

مصادر ومراجع

د. سيد فرج راشد، اللغة العبرية قواعد ونصوص , كلية الآداب جامعة الملك سعود - دار المريخ .

روابط خارجية

Government
General information
Tutorials, courses and dictionaries

قالب:Languages of Israel