مروان بن الحكم

Marwan I
مروان بن الحكم
Amir al-Mu'minin
4th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
العهدJune 684 – April/May 685
سبقهMu'awiya II
تبعهAbd al-Malik
وُلِد623 or 626
توفيApril/May 685 (aged 59–63)
Damascus or al-Sinnabra
  • ʿĀʾisha bint Muʿāwiya ibn al-Mughīra
  • Laylā bint Zabbān
  • Qutayya bint Bishr
  • Umm Abān al-Kubra bint ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān
  • Zaynab bint ʿUmar al-Makhzumīyya
  • Umm Hāshim Fākhita
الاسم الكامل
Abū ʿAbd al-Malik Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿAs ibn Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams[1]
الأبAl-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿAs
الأمĀmina bint ʿAlqama al-Kinānīyya

مروان بن الحكم، هو مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية القرشي، أبو عبد الملك ويقال أبو القاسم ويقال أبو الحكم، المدني، (و. 2 أو 4 هـ - ت. 65 هـ)، هو الخليفة الأموي الرابع والبعض يجعله من صغار الصحابة والبعض يجعله من كبار التابعين. وكان فقيهاً ضليعاً، وثقة من رواة الحديث. روى له البخاري وأصحاب السنن الأربعة.

During the reign of his cousin Uthman (r. 644–656), Marwan took part in a military campaign against the Byzantines of the Exarchate of Africa (in central North Africa), where he acquired significant war spoils. He also served as Uthman's governor in Fars (southwestern Iran) before becoming the caliph's katib (secretary or scribe). He was wounded fighting the rebel siege of Uthman's house, in which the caliph was slain. In the ensuing civil war between Ali (r. 656–661) and the largely Qurayshite partisans of A'isha, Marwan sided with the latter at the Battle of the Camel. Marwan later served as governor of Medina under his distant kinsman Caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680), founder of the Umayyad Caliphate. During the reign of Mu'awiya's son and successor Yazid I (r. 680–683), Marwan organized the defense of the Umayyad realm in the Hejaz (western Arabia) against the local opposition. After Yazid died in November 683, the Mecca-based rebel Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr declared himself caliph and expelled Marwan, who took refuge in Syria, the center of Umayyad rule. With the death of the last Sufyanid caliph Mu'awiya II in 684, Marwan, encouraged by the ex-governor of Iraq Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, volunteered his candidacy for the caliphate during a summit of pro-Umayyad tribes in Jabiya. The tribal nobility, led by Ibn Bahdal of the Banu Kalb, elected Marwan and together they defeated the pro-Zubayrid Qays tribes at the Battle of Marj Rahit in August of that year.

In the months that followed, Marwan reasserted Umayyad rule over Egypt, Palestine, and northern Syria, whose governors had defected to Ibn al-Zubayr's cause, while keeping the Qays in check in the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia). He dispatched an expedition led by Ibn Ziyad to reconquer Zubayrid Iraq, but died while it was underway in the spring of 685. Before his death, Marwan firmly established his sons in positions of power: Abd al-Malik was designated his successor, Abd al-Aziz was made governor of Egypt, and Muhammad oversaw military command in Upper Mesopotamia. Although Marwan was stigmatized as an outlaw and a father of tyrants in later anti-Umayyad tradition, the historian Clifford E. Bosworth asserts that the caliph was a shrewd, capable, and decisive military leader and statesman who laid the foundations of continued Umayyad rule for a further sixty-five years.

السنوات المبكرة والعائلة

A schematic diagram of the Umayyad ruling family with caliphs highlighted in blue, green and dark yellow
Family tree of the Umayyad clan and dynasty. Marwan and the line of caliphs descended from him are highlighted in blue, the Sufyanid caliphs in yellow and Caliph Uthman in green

هو بن عبد الملك بن مروان وأمه أم عثمان آمنة بنت علقمة بن صفوان الكنانية. هو أسرته كانوا قد قضوا حياتهم كلها في الحجاز، ولم ينتقلوا إلى الشام إلا في نهاية ربيع الآخر 64 هـ= ديسمبر 683م]، أي قبيل البيعة لمروان بستة أشهر فقط بعد أن طردهم والي عبد الله بن الزبير من المدينة؟

Marwan had at least sixteen children, among them at least twelve sons from five wives and an umm walad (concubine).[2] From his wife A'isha, a daughter of his paternal first cousin Mu'awiya ibn al-Mughira, he had his eldest son Abd al-Malik, Mu'awiya and daughter Umm Amr.[2][3] Umm Amr later married Sa'id ibn Khalid ibn Amr, a great-grandson of Marwan's paternal first cousin Uthman ibn Affan, who became caliph (leader of the Muslim community) in 644.[4] Marwan's wife Layla bint Zabban ibn al-Asbagh of the Banu Kalb tribe bore him Abd al-Aziz and daughter Umm Uthman,[2] who was married to Caliph Uthman's son al-Walid; al-Walid was also married at one point to Marwan's daughter Umm Amr.[3] Another of Marwan's wives, Qutayya bint Bishr of the Banu Kilab, bore him Bishr and Abd al-Rahman, the latter of whom died young.[2][3] One of Marwan's wives, Umm Aban al-Kubra, was a daughter of Caliph Uthman.[2] She was mother to six of his sons, Aban, Uthman, Ubayd Allah, Ayyub, Dawud and Abd Allah, though the last of them died a child.[2][5] Marwan was married to Zaynab bint Umar, a granddaughter of Abu Salama from the Banu Makhzum, who mothered his son Umar.[2][6] Marwan's umm walad was also named Zaynab and gave birth to his son Muhammad.[2] Marwan had ten brothers and was the paternal uncle of ten nephews.[7]

مساعد عثمان

وكان مروان قد سطع نجمه في عهد ابن عمه الخليفة عثمان بن عفان الذي قربه إليه، وجعله مساعدًا ومشيرًا له، وكان كاتبه ومديره،فلما قُتل عثمان كان مروان أول من طالب بدمه، ثم بايع "عليا بن أبي طالب"، فلما حدثت واقعة الجمل اعتزل الحياة السياسية، فلما آلت الخلافة إلى معاوية بن أبي سفيان تولي إمرة المدينة وموسم الحج واستمر كذلك في أوائل عهد يزيد بن معاوية حتى أُخرج من المدينة إلى دمشق بعد أن رفض أهل المدينة مبايعة يزيد. وكان أقوى المرشحين لاعتلاء عرش "بني أمية" بعد وفاة معاوية بن يزيد (معاوية الثاني).

During the reign of Caliph Uthman (r. 644–656), Marwan took part in a military campaign against the Byzantines of the Exarchate of Carthage (in central North Africa), where he acquired significant war spoils.[8][9] These likely formed the basis of Marwan's substantial wealth, part of which he invested in properties in Medina,[8] the capital of the Caliphate. At an undetermined point, he served as Uthman's governor in Fars (southwestern Iran) before becoming the caliph's katib (secretary or scribe) and possibly the overseer of Medina's treasury.[8][10] According to the historian Clifford E. Bosworth, in this capacity Marwan "doubtless helped" in the revision "of what became the canonical text of the Qur'an" in Uthman's reign.[8]

The historian Hugh N. Kennedy asserts that Marwan was the caliph's "right-hand man".[11] According to the traditional Muslim reports, many of Uthman's erstwhile backers among the Quraysh gradually withdrew their support as a result of Marwan's pervasive influence, which they blamed for the caliph's controversial decisions.[10][12][13] The historian Fred Donner questions the veracity of these reports, citing the unlikelihood that Uthman would be highly influenced by a younger relative such as Marwan and the rarity of specific charges against the latter, and describes them as a possible "attempt by later Islamic tradition to salvage Uthman's reputation as one of the so-called 'rightly-guided' (rāshidūn) caliphs by making Marwan ... the fall guy for the unhappy events at the end of Uthman's twelve-year reign."[10]

Discontent over Uthman's nepotistic policies and confiscation of the former Sasanian crown lands in Iraq[أ] drove the Quraysh and the dispossessed elites of Kufa and Egypt to oppose the caliph.[15] In early 656, rebels from Egypt and Kufa entered Medina to press Uthman to reverse his policies.[16] Marwan recommended a violent response against them.[17] Instead, Uthman entered into a settlement with the Egyptians, the largest and most outspoken group among the mutineers.[18] On their return to Egypt, the rebels intercepted a letter in Uthman's name to Egypt's governor, Ibn Abi Sarh, instructing him to take action against the rebels.[18] In reaction, the Egyptians marched back to Medina and besieged Uthman in his home in June 656.[18] Uthman claimed to have been unaware of the letter, and it may have been authored by Marwan without Uthman's knowledge.[18] Despite orders to the contrary,[19] Marwan actively defended Uthman's house and was badly wounded in the neck when he challenged the rebels assembled at its entrance.[8][10][20] According to tradition, he was saved by the intervention of his wet nurse, Fatima bint Aws, and was transported to the safety of her home by his mawla (freedman or client), Abu Hafs al-Yamani.[20] Shortly after, Uthman was assassinated by the rebels,[18] which became one of the major contributing factors to the First Muslim Civil War.[21] After the assassination, Marwan and other Umayyads fled to Mecca.[22] Calls for avenging Uthman's death were led by the Umayyads, one of Muhammad's wives, A'isha, and two of his prominent companions, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam. Punishing Uthman's murderers became a rallying cry of the opposition to his successor, Ali ibn Abi Talib, a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.[23]

دوره في الفتنة الأولى

In the ensuing hostilities between Ali and the largely Qurayshite partisans of A'isha, Marwan sided with the latter.[8] He fought alongside A'isha's forces at the Battle of the Camel near Basra in December 656.[8] The historian Leone Caetani presumed that Marwan was the organizer of A'isha's strategy there.[24] The modern historian Laura Veccia Vaglieri notes that while Caetani's "theory is attractive", there is no information in the traditional sources to confirm it and should Marwan have been A'isha's war adviser "he operated so discreetly that the sources hardly speak of his actions."[24]

According to one version in the Islamic tradition, Marwan used the occasion of the battle to kill a partisan of A'isha, Talha, whom he held especially responsible for instigating Uthman's death.[8] Marwan had fired an arrow at Talha, which struck the sciatic vein below his knee, as their troops fell back in a hand-to-hand fight with Ali's soldiers.[25] The historian Wilferd Madelung notes that Marwan "evidently" waited to kill Talha when A'isha appeared close to defeat and thus in a weak position to call Marwan to account for his action.[25] Another version in the tradition attributes Talha's death to Ali's supporters during Talha's retreat from the field,[26] and Caetani dismisses Marwan's culpability as a fabrication by the generally anti-Umayyad sources.[27] Madelung holds that Marwan's slaying of Talha is corroborated by Umayyad propaganda in the 680s heralding him as the first person to take revenge for Uthman's death by killing Talha.[27]

After the battle ended with Ali's victory, Marwan pledged him allegiance.[8] Ali pardoned him and Marwan left for Syria, where his distant cousin Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, who refused allegiance to Ali, was governor.[28] Marwan was present alongside Mu'awiya at the Battle of Siffin near Raqqa in 657,[29] which ended in a stalemate with Ali's army and abortive arbitration talks to settle the civil war.[30]

حاكم المدينة

Black-and-white photograph of a city in the desert showing a basaltic ridge on the right and a skyline with numerous buildings among which is a domed mosque with two minarets
A general view of Medina (pictured in 1913), where Marwan spent much of his career, first as a top aide of Caliph Uthman and later as governor for Caliph Mu'awiya I and leader of the Umayyad clan

Ali was assassinated by a member of the Kharijites, a sect opposed to both Ali and Mu'awiya, in January 661.[31] His son and successor Hasan ibn Ali abdicated in a peace treaty with Mu'awiya, who entered Hasan's and formerly Ali's capital at Kufa and gained recognition as caliph there in July or September, marking the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate.[31][32] Marwan served as Mu'awiya's governor in Bahrayn (eastern Arabia) before serving two stints as governor of Medina in 661–668 and 674–677.[8] In between those two terms, Marwan's Umayyad kinsmen Sa'id ibn al-As and al-Walid ibn Utba ibn Abi Sufyan held the post.[8] Medina had lost its status as the political center of the Caliphate in the aftermath of Uthman's assassination, and under Mu'awiya the capital shifted to Damascus.[33] Although it was reduced to a provincial governorship, Medina remained a hub of Arab culture and Islamic scholarship and home of the traditional Islamic aristocracy.[34] The old elites in Medina, including most of the Umayyad family, resented their loss of power to Mu'awiya; in the summation of the historian Julius Wellhausen, "of what consequence was Marwan, formerly the all-powerful imperial chancellor of Uthman, now as Emir of Medina! No wonder he cast envious looks at his cousin of Damascus who had so far outstripped him."[35]

During his first term, Marwan acquired from Mu'awiya a large estate in the Fadak oasis in northwestern Arabia, which he then bestowed on his sons Abd al-Malik and Abd al-Aziz.[8] Marwan's first dismissal from the governorship caused him to travel to Mu'awiya's court for an explanation from the caliph, who listed three reasons: Marwan's refusal to confiscate for Mu'awiya the properties of their relative Abd Allah ibn Amir after the latter's dismissal from the governorship of Basra; Marwan's criticism of the caliph's adoption of the fatherless Ziyad ibn Abihi, Ibn Amir's successor in Basra, as the son of his father Abu Sufyan, which the Umayyad family disputed; and Marwan's refusal to assist the caliph's daughter Ramla in a domestic dispute with her husband, Amr ibn Uthman ibn Affan.[36] In 670, Marwan led Umayyad opposition to the attempted burial of Hasan ibn Ali beside the grave of Muhammad, compelling Hasan's brother, Husayn, and his clan, the Banu Hashim, to abandon their original funeral arrangement and bury Hasan in the Baqi cemetery instead.[37] Afterward, Marwan participated in the funeral and eulogized Hasan as one "whose forbearance weighed mountains".[38]

According to Bosworth, Mu'awiya may have been suspicious of the ambitions of Marwan and the Abu al-As line of the Banu Umayya in general, which was significantly more numerous than the Abu Sufyan (Sufyanid) line to which Mu'awiya belonged.[7] Marwan was among the eldest and most prestigious Umayyads at a time when there were few experienced Sufyanids of mature age.[7] Bosworth speculates that it "may have been fears of the family of Abu'l-ʿĀs that impelled Muʿāwiya to his adoption of his putative half-brother Ziyād b. Sumayya [Ziyad ibn Abihi] and to the unusual step of naming his own son Yazīd as heir to the caliphate during his own lifetime".[7][ب] Marwan had earlier pressed Uthman's son Amr to claim the caliphate based on the legitimacy of his father, a member of the Abu al-As branch, but Amr was uninterested.[41] Marwan reluctantly accepted Mu'awiya's nomination of Yazid in 676, but quietly encouraged another son of Uthman, Sa'id, to contest the succession.[42] Sa'id's ambitions were neutralized when the caliph gave him military command in Khurasan, the easternmost region of the Caliphate.[43]


A color photochrom cityscape of 19th-century Damascus, showing a tower rising over an arcade in the forefront, old buildings in the background and gardens and hills on the horizon
Marwan was elected by the Syrian tribal nobility to succeed his Umayyad kinsmen as caliph in Damascus (pictured in 1895)

بويع له بالخلافة من قبل بني أمية بعد موت معاوية بن يزيد. على إثر اجتماع تاريخي لكبار بني أمية وأعيانهم، عقد في "الجابية" في [3 من ذي القعدة64 هـ= 22 من يونيو 684م] قرروا فيه البيعة لمروان بن الحكم، وكان شيخًا كبيرًا قد تجاوز الستين، يتمتع بقسط وافر من الحكمة والذكاء وسداد الرأي، وكان شجاعًا فصيحًا يجيد قراءة القرآن، ويروي كثيرًا من الحديث عن كبار الصحابة، وبخاصة عمر بن الخطاب، ويعد هو رأس "بني أمية" بالشام.ووضع المجتمعون اتفاقًا تاريخيًا لتجنب أسباب الفتنة والشقاق، واشترطوا أن تكون ولاية الحكم لـ "خالد بن يزيد" من بعد "مروان"، ثم "عمرو بن سعيد بن العاص"وكان نفوذ الأمويين قد ضعف حيث بايعت أغلب الاقاليم الخليفة عبد الله بن الزبير. حتى الشام، معقل نفوذ الأمويين كانت قد انقسمت بين مبايعين لمروان بن الحكم ومبايعيين لعبد الله بن الزبير وعلى رأسهم الضحاك بن قيس الذي سيطر على دمشق. هاجم مروان جيش الضحاك فواقعه بمرج راهط وهزمه في [المحرم 65 هـ= أغسطس 684م]. بعد السيطرة على الشام، خرج مروان بجيشة إلى مصر التي كانت قد بايعت عبد الله بن الزبير ودخلها وولى ابنه عبد العزيز بن مروان عليها. بسقوط مصر التي كانت تمد عبد الله بن الزبير بالغلال في مكة أصبح وضعة ضعيفاً.

بعث مروان بجيشين إحداهم إلى الحجاز لمحاربة عبد الله بن الزبير والثاني لمحاربة مصعب بن الزبير شقيق عبد الله وواليه للقضاء على الشيعة في الكوفة ب العراق. هُزم الجيش الأول بينما لم يحقق الجيش الثاني أهدافه.

A color photochrom cityscape of 19th-century Damascus, showing a tower rising over an arcade in the forefront, old buildings in the background and gardens and hills on the horizon
Marwan was elected by the Syrian tribal nobility to succeed his Umayyad kinsmen as caliph in Damascus (pictured in 1895)


قرر مروان أن يجعل الخلافة لابنه "عبد الملك" من بعده بدلا من خالد بن يزيد، كما نصت اتفاقية "الجابية" التاريخية، فتزوج أم خالد (أرملة يزيد)، وأصبح دائم التحقير من شأن خالد، يكثر من سبه ويعيّره بأمه، فلما أخبر خالد أمه بذلك نقمت على مروان الذي أسفر عن حقيقة نواياه باغتصاب الخلافة من ابنها، فتحينت الفرصة للانتقام منه، وفي إحدى الليالي، بينما كان مروان مستغرقًا في نومه، وضعت أم خالد وسادة على وجهه، فلم ترفعها حتى مات. وقيل بأنها سقته لبنًا دست فيه السم، كما قيل بأنها أغرت به جواريها فخنقوه، فلما علم ابنه عبد الملك بذلك أراد قتلها، ولكن قومه نصحوه ألا يفعل حتى لا يُعيّر بأن أباه قتلته امرأة. فمات مروان وقد نجح في اخضاع الشام ومصر للأمويين بينما فشل في السيطرة على الحجاز والعراق.

تولى ابنه عبد الملك بن مروان الخلافة من بعده ونجح في القضاء على عبد الله بن الزبير وبسط سيطرته على كافة الدولة الإسلامية وفتح المغرب العربي.

كانت وفاة مروان في [3 من رمضان 65 هـ= 24 من نوفمبر 683م]، عن عمر بلغ نحو خمسة وستين عامًا، وهو لم يكمل العام الأول من خلافته، وبرغم ذلك فقد استطاع أن يؤسس دولة قوية للأمويين في الشام، وتعد خلافته هي البداية الحقيقية للعهد الثاني من الحكم الأموي، وقد تميز عهده –على قصره- بالعديد من الإصلاحات والإنجازات العسكرية والسياسية والاقتصادية.

فمن الناحية العسكرية استطاع أن ينتزع مصر من قبضة ابن الزبير، كما استطاع أن يحقق انتصارًا عسكريًا وسياسيًا آخر بانتصاره على "الضحاك" في موقعة مرج راهط، كذلك استطاع مروان أن ينقل الخلافة من البيت السفياني إلى البيت المرواني في عملية سياسية، ربما تعد أول انقلاب سلمي في التاريخ الإسلامي.

كما عُني مروان بالإصلاح الاقتصادي، وإليه يرجع الفضل في ضبط المكاييل والأوزان، وهو ما ضبط عملية البيع والشراء حتى لا يقع فيها الغبن أو الغش.


مروان وآل البيت

أخرج الإمام ابن عساكر عن التابعي الجليل جويرية بن أسماء قال: لما مات الحسن بكى مروان في جنازته، فقال له الحسين : أتبكيه وقد كنت تجرعه ما تجرعه ؟! فقال مروان: إني كنت أفعل ذلك إلى أحلم من هذا وأشار بيده إلى الجبل. إشارة إلى عِظَمِ حِلم الحسن بن علي.

روى الإمام قال الأصمعي: لم يكن للـحسين بن علي عقبٌ إلا من ابنه علي بن الحسين، ولم يكن لعلي ولد إلا من أم عبد الله بنت الحسن وهي ابنة عمه، فقال له مروان بن الحكم: أرى نسل أبيك قد انقطع، فلو اتخذت السراري لعل الله أن يرزقك منهن. فقال علي بن الحسين: ما عندي ما أشترى به السراري. قال : فأنا أقرضك. فأقرضه مئة ألف درهم، فاتخذ السراري، وولد له: زيد وعلي والحسين وعمر الأشرف.

الروايات الشيعية

يرى شيعة أهل البيت كفر مروان بن الحكم وارتداده عن الإسلام الصحيح هو وسائر بني أمية. فقد جاء في نهج البلاغة أنه: أخذ مروان بن الحكم أسيرا يوم الجمل، فاستشفع الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السّلام فكلماه فيه، فخلى سبيله، فقالا له: يبايعك يا أمير المؤمنين؟ فقال عليه السّلام: أولم يبايعنى بعد قتل عثمان؟ لا حاجة لى في بيعته إنّها كفّ يهوديّة لو بايعنى بكفّه لغدر بسبته أما إنّ له إمرة كلعقة الكلب أنفه، وهو أبو الأكبش الأربعة، وستلقى الأمّة منه ومن ولده يوما أحمراً (نهج البلاغة، الخطبة 70)


تزوج مروان بن الحكم من:

  • عائشة بنت معاوية بن المغيرة
  • ليلى بنت زبان بن الأصبغ
  • قطية بنت بشر بن عامر
  • أم أبان بنت عثمان بن عفان
  • زينب بنت أبي سلمة بن عبد الأسد
  • أم هاشم حية فاختة بنت أبي هاشم بن عتبة

قالوا عنه

قال عنه القاضي أبو بكر بن العربي: مروان رجل عَدْلٌ من كبار الأمة عند الصحابة والتابعين وفقهاء المسلمين، أما الصحابة فإن سهل بن سعد الساعدي روى عنه، وأما التابعون فأصحابه في السنن، وإن كان جازهم باسم الصحبة في أحد القولين، وأما فقهاء الأمصار فكلهم على تعظيمه، واعتبار خلافته، والتَّلَفُّت إلى فتواه، والانقياد إلى روايته، وأما السفهاء من المؤرخين والأدباء فيقولون على أقدارهم, الخليفة مروان بن الحكم من حكماء بني امية.

انظر أيضاً



  1. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 397.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د Donner 2014, p. 110.
  3. ^ أ ب ت Ahmed 2010, p. 111.
  4. ^ Ahmed 2010, pp. 119–120.
  5. ^ Ahmed 2010, p. 114.
  6. ^ Ahmed 2010, p. 90.
  7. ^ أ ب ت ث Bosworth 1991, p. 622.
  8. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س Bosworth 1991, p. 621.
  9. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 81.
  10. ^ أ ب ت ث Donner 2014, p. 106.
  11. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 91.
  12. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 92.
  13. ^ Della Vida & Khoury 2000, p. 947.
  14. ^ Kennedy 2004, pp. 68, 73.
  15. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 86–89.
  16. ^ Hinds 1972, pp. 457–459.
  17. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 127, 135.
  18. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Hinds 1972, p. 457.
  19. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 136.
  20. ^ أ ب Madelung 1997, p. 137.
  21. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 50–51.
  22. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 112.
  23. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 52–53, 55–56.
  24. ^ أ ب Vaglieri 1965, p. 416.
  25. ^ أ ب Madelung 1997, p. 171.
  26. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998, pp. 27–28, note 126.
  27. ^ أ ب Madelung 2000, p. 162.
  28. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 181, 190, 192 note 232, 196.
  29. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 235–236.
  30. ^ Kennedy 2004, pp. 77–80.
  31. ^ أ ب Hinds 1993, p. 265.
  32. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 104, 111.
  33. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 59–60, 161.
  34. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 136, 161.
  35. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 136.
  36. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 343–345.
  37. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 332.
  38. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 333.
  39. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 88.
  40. ^ Hawting 2000, pp. 13–14, 43.
  41. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 341–342.
  42. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 342–343.
  43. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 343.
  44. ^ السيوطي, جلال الدين. تاريخ الخلفاء. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)


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