قائمة الدول المعترف بها على نطاق محدود

  غير معترف بها من أي دولة
  معترف بها فقط من دول غير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة
  غير عضو في الأمم المتحدة، معترف بها من عضو واحد على الأقل
  دول أعضاء بالأمم المتحدة، غير معترف بها من قبل عضو واحد آخر على الأقل

بعض الكيانات الجيوسياسية التي تريد أن يُعترف بها بحكم القانون كدول سيادية يعوقها إفتقاد الإعتراف الدبلوماسي. في الماضن كيانات مشابهة كانت موجودة، وهي الآن كيانات تطالب بالاستقلال، عادة بحكم الأمر الواقع تسيطر على أراضيها، بإعتراف يتراوح بين جميع الدول الأخرى أو عدم إعتراف من أي دولة.

هناك نوعان من المذاهب التقليدية التي تقدم تفسيرات عندما يجب أن تكون الدولة السيادية بحكم القانون مُعترف بها كعضو في المجتمع الدولي. النظرية "التعريفية، تعرفها على أنها هي دولة قائمة بمقتضى القانون الدولي إذا ما توافرت فيه المعايير التالية: 1) أراضي محددة؛ 2) سكان دائمون؛ 3) حكومة و4) قدرة على الدخول في علاقات مع دول أخرى. حسب النظرية التعريفية، دولة الكيان هي استقلالها عن الإعتراف بها من قبل دول أخرى. على النقيض، "النظرية التأسيسية" تعرف الدول على أنها قائمة بمقتضى القانون الدولي إذا ما أعترف بها كدولة، من قبل دولة أخرى هي بالفعل عضوة في المجتمع الدولي.[1]

كيانات مختلفة أشارت إلى أحد أو كلا المرجعين لإضفاء الشرعية على مطالبهم بإعلان الدولة. وهما، على سبيل المثال، كيانات تتطابق مع المعايير التأسيسية (بحكم الأمر الواقع تسيطر كلياً أو جزئياً على الأراضي التي تطالب بها، حكومة وسكان دائمون)، لكن دولتهم لم يعترف بها من قبل دولة أو أكثر. عدم الاعتراف عادة ما يكون نتيجة لنزاعات مع بلدان أخرى تطالب بهذه الكيانات كمناطق داخل حدود أراضيها. في حالات أخرى، كيانان أو أكثر من المتعرف بهم جزئياً قد يطالبان بنفس الأراضي، وكل منهم بحكم الأمر الواقع تسيطر على جزء منها (كما في حالة تايوان والصين، وكوريا الشمالية والجنوبية). هذه الكيانات معترف بها من قبل عدد قليل من دول العالم وعادة ما يشيرون إلى المذهب التأسيسي لإضفاء الشرعية على مطالبهم.

في الكثير من الحالات، عدم الاعتراف الدولي يكون متأثراً بوجود قوة عسكرية أجنبية في الأراضي الإفتراضية، إعلان الكيان الاستقلال الذاتي، مما يخلق إشكالية وصف وضع البلد بحكم الأمر الواقع. قد للمجمتع الدولي الحكم على هذا الوجود العسكري بأنه تدخلي للغاية، مما يخفض من وضع هذا الكيان إلى دولة عميلة حيث تكون السيادة الفعلية للقوى الأجنبية. هناك حالات تاريخية في هذا السياق ظهرت في مانچوكو التي كانت دولة عميلة لليابان وسلوڤاكيا وكرواتيا قبل وأثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية. في قضية لوازيدو ضد تركيا عام 1996، المحكمة الأورپية لحقوق الإنسان حكمت على تركيا بسبب تدخلها في أراضي قبرص الشمالية.

هناك أيضاً كيانات لا تملك السيطرة على أي أراضي أو لا تتوافر فيها المعايير التأسيسية لإعلان دولة لكنها حصلت على إعتراف بوجودها بحكم القانون ككيانات سيادية من قبل دولة أخرى واحدة على الأقل. تاريخياً حدث هذا في حالة الكرسي الرسولي (1870–1929)، إستونيا، لاتڤيا ولتوانيا، وحالات أخرى.

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مسوغات الضم

مسوغات الضم تعني الكيان السياسي الذي يجب عليه المطالبة بدولة، يفتقد الإعتراف من عضو واحد على الأقل في الأمم المتحدة، أو:


خلفية

بعض الدول لم تؤسس علاقات مع البلدان الجديدة بسرعة ومن ثم لم تعترف بهم بالرغم من عدم وجود نزاع وفي بعض الأحياء تكون العلاقات إيجابية. هذه البلدان متثناة من القائمة. بعض البلدان تكون مستوفية المعايير التأسيسية، وهي معترف بها من قبل أغلبية كبيرة من بلدان أخرى وهم أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة، لكنهم ضمن القائمة لوجود بلد أو أكثر لم يعترف بهم كدولة، بسبب نزاعات على أراضي أو نزاعات أخرى. هناك 193 عضو في الأمم المتحدة. الكرسي الرسولي ودولة فلسطين في وضع مراقب في الأمم المتحدة.[2]

بعض الدول تقيم علاقات غير سمية (رسمياً غير دبلوماسية) مع دول لم تعترف بها رسمياً. تايوان هي واحدة من هذه الدول، حيث تقيم علاقات غير رسمية مع الكثير من الدول الأخرى عن طريق مكاتبها الاقتصادية والثقافية، مما يسمح بوجود خدمات قنصلية اعتيادية. يمكن هذا تايوان من إقامة علاقات اقتصادية حتى مع الدول التي لم تعترف بها رسمياً. إجمالي 56 دولة، منهم ألمانيا،[3] إيطاليا،[4] الولايات المتحدة،[5] والمملكة المتحدة،[6] تحافظ على وجود نوع من المهمات الغير رسمية في كوسوڤو،[7] جمهورية ناگورنو قرةباخ،[8] قبرص الشمالية،[9] أبخازيا،[10] ترانسنيستريا،[10] الجمهورية الصحراوية،[11] أرض الصومال،[12] وفلسطين[13] كذلك تستضيف مهمات دبلوماسية غير رسمية، و/أو تحرص على وجود تمثيل خاص أو مهمات غير رسمية أخرى بالخارج.

الكيانات الجيوسياسية الحالية حسب مستوى الاعتراف

دول غير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة ولا تعترف بها أي دولة

الاسم الوضع المطالبون الآخرون معلومات إضافية المصادر
 Republic of Somaliland كانت المملكة المتحدة قد منحت لأرض الصومال الاستقلال عام 1960 بعد جلائها عن أرض الصومال البريطاني ودمجها مع أرض الصومال الإيطالي بعد أيام قليلة لتشكيل الصومال. أعلنت استقلالها وإنسحب من الصومال عام 1991.  الصومال تطالب بأرض الصومال كجزء من أراضيها السيادية. العلاقات الخارجية، البعثات (أرض الصومال، الموجودة بها) [14][15]

دول غير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة يعترف بها فقط غير الأعضاء في الأمم المتحدة

الاسم الوضع المطالبون الآخرون معلومات إضافية المصادر
 جمهورية قرة باخ الجبلية ناگورنو قرةباخ أعلنت استقلالها عام 1992. وهي معترف بها من قبل ثلاث دول غير أعضاء بالأمم المتحدة: أبخازيا، اوستيا الجنوبية وترانسنيستريا.[16]  أذربيجان تطالب بناگورنو قرةباخ كجزء من أراضيها السيادية. العلاقات الخارجية، البعثات الدبلوماسية (لها وبها)
الوضع السياسي
[14][17][18][19][20]
 ترانس‌نيستريا جمهورية پريدنيستروڤيه المولدوڤية (وتعرف أيضاً بترانسنيستريا) أعلنت استقلالها عام 1990. وهي معترف بها من قبل ثلاث دول غير أعضاء بالأمم المتحدة: أبخازيا، ناگورنو قرةباخ واوستيا الجنوبية.[20]  مولدوڤا تطالب بتراننيستريا كجزء من أراضيها السيادية. العلاقات الخارجية، البعثات الدبلوماسية (لها، وبها)
العلاقات الدولية، الوضع السياسي
[14][21]

دول غير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة يعترف بها على الأقل عضو واحد بالأمم المتحدة

الاسم الوضع المطالبون الآخرون معلومات إضافية المصادر
 أبخازيا أبخازيا أعلنت استقلالها عام 1999.[22] وهي معترف بها 6 من قبل دول أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة (روسيا، نيكاراگوا، ڤنزويلا، ناورو واعتراف من توڤالو وڤانوتو[23][24][25][26][27] لكنهم في النهاية سحبوا اعترافهم[28][29][30])، وثلاث دول غير أعضاء بالأمم المتحدة (اوستيا الجنوبية، ترانسنيستريا، وقرة باغ).[16][31][32]  جورجيا تطالب بأبخازيا كجزء من أراضيها السيادية. العلاقات الخارجية، البعثات الدبلوماسية لها، بها)
الاعتراف الدولي
[33][34][35][36]
 تايوان تايوان، تأسست عام 1912، معترف بها كحكومة دولة تايوان من قبل الكرسي الرسولي. جميع الدول الأعضاء في الأمم المتحدة لم يعترفو بها رسمياً كدولة؛ بعضهم يعتبرها أراضي مدارة بحكم القانون كجزء من الصين بينما يستخدم آخرين اللغة الدبلوماسية بحرص لتجنب الحديث عن موقفهم إذا ما كانوا يعتبرون تايوان جزء من الصين.[Note 1] Throughout the years, the ROC has adopted differing positions towards simultaneous recognition of the ROC and the PRC by other countries.[38]  الصين claims to be the successor of the former Republic of China and claims all of the territory under ROC jurisdiction as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Political status
[39]
 كوسوڤو Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is recognised by 85 UN members and the Republic of China (Taiwan). The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.  صربيا claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
[40][41]
 قبرص الشمالية Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983. It is recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization have granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid,[42] though the International Court of Justice's opinion on Kosovo's independence in 2010 found that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence".[43]  قبرص claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Cyprus dispute
[44]
 دولة فلسطين The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) declared the State of Palestine in Algiers in 1988. At the time the PLO had no control over any part of the proclaimed territory.[45] It is recognised by 127 UN member states,[46] as well as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.[47] Today the PLO executes certain administrative tasks of self-government in most parts of the territories through the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) established in 1994 according to the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.[48] Palestine participates in the United Nations as an observer state,[49] and has membership in the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and UNESCO.[50]  إسرائيل does not recognise the state of Palestine and controls the areas claimed by Palestine.[48] Since 1992, many Israeli governments have agreed to the creation of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Since 2006, every Israeli government has agreed to the state's creation, with mutually agreed land swaps. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status, Proposals for a Palestinian state
[64][65][66][67][68][69][70]
 الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية‎ Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. The SADR, which declared its independence in 1976, has been recognised by 84 UN member states and is a member state of the African Union. 84 states, however, have since retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination.[71][72] Western Sahara is not recognised as part of Morocco by any states, but some states support the Moroccan autonomy plan. Moroccan "territorial integrity" is favoured by the Arab League. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people.[73] Western Sahara is listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.  المغرب claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
[74]
 اوستيا الجنوبية South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It has been recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru, with Tuvalu recognizing but subsequently withdrawing their recognition[75][76]), and three UN non-member states (Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria).[16][31][77]  جورجيا claims South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[34][35][78]

دول أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة غير معترف بها جزئياً

الاسم الوضع Other claimants Further information References
 أرمنيا Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, as Pakistan has a position of supporting Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. None Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [79][80]
 الصين The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of "China", the other being the Republic of China (ROC). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (21 UN members and the Holy See as of 2013). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognising the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru).[81][82] Some states which currently recognise only the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu).[83][84][85] According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[Note 1]  تايوان is considered the sole legal government over all of China under the Constitution of the Republic of China. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
[86]
 قبرص Cyprus, independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one UN non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.  قبرص الشمالية claims part of the island of Cyprus. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [87][88][89][90]
 إسرائيل Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 32 UN members (see Arab-Israeli conflict). It is recognised by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which was recognised by Israel in 1993 as the sole, legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.[91]  دولة فلسطين, represented by the PLO, which has agreed with Israel in principle that a Palestinian state should be established within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank that are under Israeli control.[48] Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[92][93][94][95][96]
 كوريا الشمالية North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[97]  كوريا الجنوبية claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [97][98][99]
 كوريا الجنوبية South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  كوريا الشمالية claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [100][101]

كيانات مستبعدة

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ أ ب Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area controlled by the PRC and the area controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while recognising only the PRC as a state. Some states recognise only the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC.[37]
  2. ^ Micronations are not included even if they are recognised by another micronation.
  3. ^ It is far from certain that micronations, which are generally of minuscule size, have sovereign control over their claimed territories, contrasted with the mere disregard and indifference toward micronations’ assertions by the states from which they allege to have seceded. By not deeming such declarations (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way, these states generally consider micronations to be private property and their claims as unofficial private announcements of individuals, who remain subject to the laws of the states in which their properties are located.

الهامش

  1. ^ Thomas D. Grant, The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999), chapter 1.
  2. ^ "Non-member State". Un.org. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  3. ^ "Germany - Countries A to Z". Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
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  5. ^ U.S. Department of State Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions Retrieved 2011-02-03
  6. ^ "Find an Embassy". Fco.gov.uk. 2008-03-14. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  7. ^ "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  8. ^ "Permanent Representations". Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  9. ^ "Representative Offices Abroad". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Public Information Office. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  10. ^ أ ب "Embassies & Representatives of Abkhazia". Government of Abkhazia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  11. ^ Embassies and representative offices
  12. ^ "Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the world". Government of Somaliland. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  13. ^ "Embassies, Missions, General and Special Delegations of Palestine abroad". WebGaza.net. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  14. ^ أ ب ت Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland. 
  15. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Somaliland. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  16. ^ أ ب ت (بالروسية) Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он." English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  17. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  18. ^ (بالروسية) Transnistria wants to join Russia (translated title), September 2008.
  19. ^ (بالروسية) Moldova, September 2008.
  20. ^ أ ب "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie.net. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  21. ^ "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
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  23. ^ Government of Vanuatu (17 June 2011). "Vanuatu’s recognition to the Republic of Abkhazia". Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  24. ^ Vanuatu's initial recognition was invalidated after the Kilman government was annulled by the Supreme Court. Kilman was subsequently re-elected and its recognition was re-confirmed by its Foreign Minister in July 2011: Natapei withdraws recognition of Abkhazia, Vanuatu Daily Post, June 19, 2011
  25. ^ "Vanuatu official denies Abkhazia recognition". Solomon Star. 6 June 2011. 
  26. ^ Transparency International Vanuatu press release on recognition of Abkhazia, 08 August 2011
  27. ^ "Vanuatu annuls recognition of Abkhazia - report". Radio New Zealand International. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  28. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-20/georgia-says-vanuatu-has-withdrawn-recognition-of-abkhazia.html
  29. ^ "Tuvalu takes back recognition of independence of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia". 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-31. 
  30. ^ http://mfa.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG&sec_id=59&info_id=17401
  31. ^ أ ب "South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia" The Tiraspol Times
  32. ^ Government of Tuvalu (20 September 2011). "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  33. ^ Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". Conciliation Resources. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  34. ^ أ ب Russia recognises Georgian rebels - BBC, 2008-08-26 [1]
  35. ^ أ ب "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  36. ^ John Pike. "Georgia mocks Nauru's recognition of Abkhazia". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  37. ^ Taiwan cuts ties with Costa Rica over recognition for China
  38. ^ Bush III, Richard C. "The Role of the United States in Taiwan-PRC Relations", Taiwan: Beyond the Economic Miracle M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 0-87332-879-5 p. 358 Online version available at Google Books
  39. ^ Global Investment and Business Center, Inc. Staff Taiwan Foreign Policy and National Security Yearbook 2011 Second Edition International Business Publications, USA ISBN 0-7397-3660-4 Online version available at Google Books
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  41. ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  42. ^ "Security Council resolution 220 (1966) on Cyprus". Un.int. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  43. ^ [2], International Court of Justice, 2010-07-22
  44. ^ Hadar, Leon (2005-11-16). "In Praise of 'Virtual States'". AntiWar. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  45. ^ أ ب Staff writers (20 February 2008). "Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2011-01-22. :"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
  46. ^ Bannoura, Saed (28 August 2011). "124 Out Of 193 Countries Recognize Palestinian Independence". IMEMC News. International Middle East Media Center. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  47. ^ Shelley, Toby (1988). "Spotlight on Morocco". West Africa. London: West Africa Publishing Company Ltd (3712–3723: December 5–31): 2282.  "...the SADR was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine."
  48. ^ أ ب ت Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air,[51] sea beyond internal waters,[51][52] land[53]) in the Gaza strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), maximum in "Area C" and varying degrees of interference elsewhere.[54][55][56][57][58] See also Israeli-occupied territories.
    [45][59][60][61][62][63]
  49. ^ "Palestinians win upgraded UN status by wide margin". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  50. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  51. ^ أ ب Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip
  52. ^ Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones"
  53. ^ Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  54. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  55. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  56. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  57. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  58. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  59. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  60. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  61. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  62. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  63. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  64. ^ Official website of the Palestinian National Authority at the Internet Archive. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
  65. ^ Venezuela Pledges Support for Palestinian Statehood during Abbas Visit, November 2009.
  66. ^ "Costa Rica Recognizes 'Palestine'", The Journal of Turkish Weekly 26 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-07
  67. ^ "South African Representative Office to the Palestinian National Authority". Sarep.org. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  68. ^ "Embassy of the State of Palestine to the Republic of Uzbekistan, Central Asia and Azerbaijan". Palestineuzbek.com. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  69. ^ "Embassies of Palestine". Webgaza.net. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  70. ^ "Embassy of the State of Palestine in Bratislava". Palestine.sk. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  71. ^ "Here the states which recognize the SADR. It is a non official list, with dates of recognition and cancelation:". ARSO. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  72. ^ "About Western Sahara". Australia Western Sahara Association. November 2006. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  73. ^ Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its 34th session, United Nations.
  74. ^ Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (1976-02-27). "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Western Sahara Online. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  75. ^ "Tuvalu takes back recognition of independence of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia". 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-31. 
  76. ^ http://mfa.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG&sec_id=59&info_id=17401
  77. ^ (بالروسية) "Республика Науру признала независимость Южной Осетии" 16 December 2009 Retrieved 2011-02-03 "Republic of Nauru recognizes the independence of South Ossetia" English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  78. ^ Stojanovic, Srdjan (2003-09-23). "OCHA Situation Report". Center for International Disaster Information. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  79. ^ Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  80. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  81. ^ Lee, Meifang "Minister announces resumption of diplomatic ties with Nauru" Taiwan Today 2005-05-20 Retrieved 2011-04-29
  82. ^ "Kiribati president upbeat on conference, Taiwan" Radio Australia 21 June 2010 Retrieved 2011-04-29
  83. ^ Crocombe, Ron Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West University of the South Pacific. Institute of Pacific Studies 2007 p. 258 Online version available at Google Books
  84. ^ "Looking East: China-Africa Engagements Liberia Case Study" African Center for Economic Transformation, Monrovia December 2009
  85. ^ Chiu, Hungdah "The International Legal Status of the Republic of China (Revised Version)" Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary Asian Studies Number 5 - 1992 (112), School of Law, University of Maryland ISBN 0-925153-23-0
  86. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". International Human Rights Treaties and Documents Database. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  87. ^ European Parliament Directorate-General External Policies Policy Department "Turkey and the problem of the recognition of Cyprus" 20 January 2005 Retrieved 2011-02-03
  88. ^ CIA World Factbook (2008-02-28). "Cyprus". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  89. ^ "Cyprus exists without Turkey's recognition: president". XINHUA. 2005-10-01. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  90. ^ European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs "The influence of Turkish military forces on political agenda-setting in Turkey, analysed on the basis of the Cyprus question" 18 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-03
  91. ^ Kim Murphy. "Israel and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition," Los Angeles Times, 10 September 1993
  92. ^ Government of Israel (1948-05-14). "Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Yale University. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  93. ^ United States Congress (5 June 2008). "H. RES. 1249" (PDF). 
  94. ^ "'Reply' Online Book Chapter 1". Mythsandfacts.org. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  95. ^ "Khartoum Resolution". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  96. ^ Government of Israel. "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  97. ^ أ ب "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  98. ^ "Declaration of Independence". TIME. 1966-08-19. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  99. ^ Scofield, David (2005-01-04). "Seoul's double-talk on reunification". Asia Times. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  100. ^ US Library of Congress (2000-10-07). "World War II and Korea". Country Studies. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  101. ^ Sterngold, James (1994-09-03). "China, Backing North Korea, Quits Armistice Commission". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  102. ^ "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica"English language translation "The Order of Malta, within the limits that are compatible with its actual position as a subject deprived of territory, is in the international community, a sovereign entity on par with the States, and the Prince Grand Master is comparable, from the point of view of international law, to the Heads of State."
  103. ^ Permanent Observer Mission of the Order of Malta to the United Nations in New York "The admission of Order of Malta to the United Nations also further solidified its legally recognized sovereignty ..."
  104. ^ Shaw, Malcolm Nathan International Law Fifth Edition Cambridge University Press 2003 ISBN 0-521-82473-7 p. 218 Searchable text, available via Amazon.com, "The Italian Court of Cassation in 1935 recognised the international personality of the Order, noting that ‘the modern theory of the subjects of international law recognises a number of collective units whose composition is independent of the nationality of their constituent members and whose scope transcends by virtue of their universal character the territorial confines of any single state.’ (Nanni v. Pace and the Sovereign Order of Malta 8 AD, p. 2. See also …)"
  105. ^ "Reconócese a la Soberana Orden Militar de Malta como Entidad Internacionál Independiente". Boletín Oficiál de la República Argentina, Año LIX, Número 16.92. Buenos Aires. 19 June 1951. p. 1.  "The Senate and Chamber of Deputies of Argentina, in Congress assembled, enact as LAW: Article 1 – The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is hereby recognized as an international independent entity."
  106. ^ "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica"English language translation "[T]he clear territorial separation of sovereign areas that exists between the Italian State and the State of Vatican City does not exist between the Order of Malta and the Italian State, but neither can it be said that the treatment given to the headquarters of the Order (Aventine, Via Condotti) is, simply, that reserved for the headquarters of diplomatic missions accredited to the Italian State. In fact, the headquarters of the Order have diplomatic extraterritoriality (authoritarian acts of any kind – executive, acts of inspection, judicial – cannot take place inside), but in addition, the Italian State recognizes the exercise, in the headquarters, of the prerogatives of sovereignty. This means that Italian sovereignty and Maltese sovereignty coexist without overlapping, because the Order exercises sovereign functions in a wider area than occurs in the diplomatic missions of the States for, although [those diplomatic missions] enjoy extraterritoriality, the guarantees deriving from the privilege of immunity are constrained to a purely administrative area; the Order, instead, makes use of extraterritoriality to meet the very acts of sovereign self-determination that are the same as the States (legislative, judicial, administrative, financial acts)."
  107. ^ Paul, Chevalier (pseudonym). "An Essay on the Order of St. John (S.M.O.M.)". Retrieved 8 October 2012 "Minuscule as it is, the Order does also possess sovereign territory. This consists of the land in Rome on which stands the Grand Magistracy in the Via Condotti and the Villa Malta".  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  108. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintains embassies around the world and receives accreditations from foreign ambassadors.
  109. ^ The French Republic does not recognise the SMOM as a subject of international law; see a statement by the spokesman of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 February 1997
  110. ^ SMOM Bilateral relations with countries
  111. ^ Council of the European Union - Schengen Visa Working Party - Table of travel documents