ڤيروس ورمي

(تم التحويل من فيروس ورمي)

الفيروس الورمي هو فيروس يمكن أن يسبب السرطان . هذا المصطلح نشأ من دراسات التحول الحاد للفيروسات القهقرية في سنوات 1950-60. وتشير التسمية اٍلى أي فيروس بجينوم دنا أو رنا يسبب السرطان ولها مرادفات 'فيروس الورم' أو 'فيروس السرطان'. الغالبية العظمى من فيروسات الاٍنسان و الحيوان لا تسبب السرطان، ربما بسبب طول أمد النمو المتزامن بين الفيروس و مضيفه. With the letters "rna" removed, it now refers to any virus with a DNA or RNA genome causing cancer and is synonymous with "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. Oncoviruses have been important not only in epidemiology, but also in investigations of cell cycle control mechanisms such as the retinoblastoma protein.

The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of human cancers, with 11.9% caused by one of seven viruses.[1] These cancers might be easily prevented through vaccination (e.g., papillomavirus vaccines), diagnosed with simple blood tests, and treated with less-toxic antiviral compounds.


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التبويب

ڤيروسات الدنا

ڤيروسات الرنا

Not all oncoviruses are DNA viruses. Some RNA viruses have also been associated such as the hepatitis C virus as well as certain retroviruses, e.g., human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV).

جدول للاستعراض

الڤيروس Percent of cancers[1] Associated cancer types
Hepatitis B (HBV) Hepatocarcinoma[6][7][8]
Hepatitis C (HCV) HCV is a known carcinogen, causing hepatocarcinoma[6]
Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 0.03 Adult T-cell leukemia[9]
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 5.2 The types 16 and 18 are associated with cancers of cervix,[10] anus,[10] penis,[10] vulva/vagina,[1] and oropharyngeal cancer.[1] According to statistics in the United States, females are more impacted by HPV-associated cancers (83%) than males (74%).[11]
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) 0.9 Kaposi’s sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) NA Merkel cell carcinoma
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) NA Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.[12]

Estimated percent of new cancers attributable to the virus worldwide in 2002.[1] NA indicates not available. The association of other viruses with human cancer is continually under research.

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Parkin DM (June 2006). "The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002". Int. J. Cancer. 118 (12): 3030–44. doi:10.1002/ijc.21731. PMID 16404738.
  2. ^ Scheffner M, Werness BA, Huibregtse JM, Levine AJ, Howley PM (December 1990). "The E6 oncoprotein encoded by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 promotes the degradation of p53". Cell. 63 (6): 1129–36. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90409-8. PMID 2175676.
  3. ^ Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, et al. (December 1994). "Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma". Science. 266 (5192): 1865–9. Bibcode:1994Sci...266.1865C. doi:10.1126/science.7997879. PMID 7997879.
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Fe
  5. ^ Melnick M, Sedghizadeh PP, Allen CM, Jaskoll T (February 2012). "Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship". Exp. Mol. Pathol. 92 (1): 118–25. doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2011.10.011. PMID 22101257.
  6. ^ أ ب NTP (National Toxicology Program) (2016). Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth ed.). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  7. ^ Koike K (June 2007). "Hepatitis C virus contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating metabolic and intracellular signaling pathways". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 22 Suppl 1: S108–11. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04669.x. PMID 17567457.
  8. ^ Hu J, Ludgate L (2007). HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV coinfection and liver cancer development. Cancer Treatment and Research. 133. pp. 241–52. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-46816-7_9. ISBN 978-0-387-46804-4. PMID 17672044.
  9. ^ Bellon M, Nicot C (2007). "Telomerase: a crucial player in HTLV-I-induced human T-cell leukemia". Cancer Genomics & Proteomics. 4 (1): 21–5. PMID 17726237.
  10. ^ أ ب ت Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S (September 2007). "Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer". Lancet. 370 (9590): 890–907. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61416-0. PMID 17826171.
  11. ^ How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year? CDC.gov
  12. ^ Klein E, Kis LL, Klein G (February 2007). "Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans: from harmless to life endangering virus-lymphocyte interactions". Oncogene. 26 (9): 1297–305. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210240. PMID 17322915.


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وصلات خارجية