تاريخ مصر الفارسية

تاريخ مصر الفارسية ينقسم إلى ثلاث فترات:


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مصر الإخمينية

بعد تولي قمبيز الثاني العرش في عام 530 ق.م.، عمل على تثبيت دعائم حكمه وتأمين حدوده التي قامت فيها بعض القلاقل، وبعد أربعة سنوات بدأ في التفكير لاحتلال مصر وضمها إلى الإمبراطورية الفارسية. طلب قورش يد ابنة أحمس الثاني ولكنه رفض وقرر أن يرسل له ابنة الملك أبريس بدلا منها مما أصاب قورش بالغضب الشديد وعجل لاحتلاله مصر.

كانت مصر متمتعة في عهد أحمس بتقدم واستقرار كبير طوال مدة حكمه وبالرغم من ذلك كانت هناك بعض أوجه الضعف التي بدا أنها تشكل خطرا منها أن الجيش المصري كان عماده الأساسى كثير من العناصر الأجنبية المرتزقة مما يجعل ولاءهم محل شك، وأيضا المنح التي كان يخصهم بها أحمس جعلتهم محل حسد وحقد من المصريين، وكان من نتيجة تلك الأمور أن فر أحد القادة في الجيش ويدعى فانيس إلى صفوف جيش قمبيز ووشى له بخطط الجيش المصري ومواقعه كما دله على مسالك الصحراء.

حاول أحمس الأستعداد للهجوم المتوقع من قبل قمبيز بمحاولة عقد حلف مع بلاد قبرص والطاغية بوليكرات من ساموس الذى كان يملك أسطولا كبيرا حتى تكون له السيادة البحرية ولكنه فشل حيث خزله وانضم إلى الفرس .

استطاع قمبيز تأمين الماء لجيشه من زعماء الأقاليم التي سوف سيمر عليها جيشه في الصحراء الجنوبية ، وفى هذه الأثناء توفى أحمس الأول قبل أن يبدء قمبيز حملته ويصل إلى مصر وتولى ابنه بسماتيك الثالث الحكم خلفا لوالده وواجه جيش قمبيز بعد عبوره الصحراء العربية ووصله إلى القلعة الأمامية على حدود پلوزيوم قرب بورسعيد، وقد هزم بسماتيك في تللك المعركة وانسحب إلى منف ، واستمر قمبيز في تقدمه فوصل إلى عين شمس ثم إلى منف حيث واجهه بسماتيك مرة أخرى ولكنه هزم وأسر في هذه المعركة واستولى قمبيز على العاصمة ، وأصبحت مصر ولاية فارسية في عام 525 ق.م..


الساتراپي المصرية الأولى

الإمبراطورية الأخمينية في أقصى إتساعها

Cambyses II became the Pharaoh of Egypt after his successful subsumption of Egypt into the Persian Empire. In doing so, Cambyses II was given the Pharaoh name of Mesuti Ra,[1] beginning the 27th dynasty (the first Egyptian Satrapy) which lasted from 525 to 404 BCE. A Pharaoh name was a significant tradition for Egyptian royalty as it highlighted the perception of the pharaoh as being a vessel for the gods, and therefore, a divine being in their own right. Though, following the conquest, Cambyses did try to maintain respect for Egyptian culture and traditions, sources suggest that he was unpopular, particularly amongst Egyptian priests,[2] as the subsumption of Egypt into the Persian empire meant the erasure of Egyptian culture as the mainstream. This tension manifested itself by way of the introduction of Persian traditions and norms into Egyptian life and law. One of these norms was that Cambyses did not believe that citizens should be taxed to support the temples, as was Egyptian tradition, which further alienated him from the support of Egyptian priests. Throughout Egyptian history, the temples, and by extension, the priests, were given immense support and a celebrated status. Therefore, by posing a threat to the economic support structure of the religious aspect of Egyptian life, Cambyses fundamentally altered a core aspect of Egyptian culture and life. Additionally, the conquered Egyptian people were considered secondary, which further disenchanted Cambyses to his newly conquered people. In 523 BCE, Psammetichus III organized a revolt against the new Persian rule, demonstrating the displeasure amongst the Egyptian people at the commencement of the Achaemenid Empire. Supposedly, the revolt was overpowered by the Persian forces and Cambyses consequently saw to the destruction of numerous significant temples as a form of punishment and a demonstration of power, though the veracity of this sequence of events is unconfirmed.

Following Cambyses’ rule the Persian pharaohs were as follows: داريوش Darius ruled from the year 522 to 486 BCE.[3] The main legacy of this ruler can be seen in the building projects he commissioned (or, in some cases, the unfinished building projects that were completed under his leadership). In these architectural pursuits Persian influence can be seen,[4] for example, through the introduction of Persian water systems.[5] The water systems were superior to those that were standard in Egypt at the time, as the Persian empire was well known for their technological developments. Architecture is one of the most significant sources for providing understanding about ancient societies and their changing dynamics and periods, particularly those, like Egyptian society, for which there are minimal written sources to be studied. In this case, the archeological evidence provides greater insight into the influence of Persian occupation on architecture.[6] Additionally, the architectural evidence can also provide insight into attempts at the preservation of Egyptian culture, as these Temples honoured Egyptian gods. Neither Darius, nor the other Persian Pharaohs, desired to completely erase the culture of the nations they conquered, they just implemented Persian customs alongside them. Darius’ rule also saw a number of revolts against Persian occupation, though none of these attempts at the re-establishment of sovereign Egyptian rule were successful.[3]

خشايارشا الأول Xerxes I ruled from 486 to 465 BCE.[3] His reign was mainly characterised by his intent and attempt to expand Persian rule to include Greece a venture in which, ultimately, he was not successful. Xerxes’ reign ended when he and his eldest son were assassinated by members of the court.

أردشير الأول Artaxerxes was another of Xerxes’ sons whom the succession fell to after the deaths of his father and older brothers. Artaxerxes ruled, following the death of his father from 465 to 424 BCE. Artaxerxes I's reign saw the beginning of the decline of the 27th dynasty, due to rising tensions and threats to total Persian control. The most significant threat being the successful uprising orchestrated by an Egyptian rival ruler, Inaros, who consequently took control of part of Egypt. However, Persian rule remained in place in Memphis, meaning that Egypt was temporarily divided. However, the Egyptians were ultimately defeated and full reign was granted back to the Persian leadership.[3]

خشايارشا الثاني Artaxerxes I was followed by Xerxes II who ruled for only one year between 424 and 423 BCE. However, there is insufficient information on his reign as pharaoh, likely because it was too short for him to establish a significant legacy or enact meaningful change.

داريوش الثاني Darius II ruled from 423 to 404 BCE and was the last Pharaoh of the 27th dynasty. His reign included him initiating conflict with Athens, and subsequently entering into an alliance with Sparta to support them in the war. This endeavour led to the Persian conquest of part of Ionia. Darius II's reign ended when a rebellion led by Egyptian Amyrtaeous, expelled him from Egypt and reinstated Egyptian rule. Though his successor, Artaxerxes II, did make attempts to restore Persian occupation, he faced numerous rebellions and uprisings and in the end, he was unsuccessful. Thus, there is debate over which Pharaoh, Darius II or Artaxerxes II, was the final ruler of the first period of Persian Egyptian rule. However, it was the ending of the reigns of those two rulers that marked the end of the first period of Persian Egypt.

الساتراپي المصرية الثانية

Persian occupation of Egypt was reestablished within a century, beginning the Second Egyptian Satrapy. The second period of Persian occupation, between 358 and 330 BCE, was, overall, a shorter and more tumultuous period in which Persian dominance in Egypt was far from certain. Its end came about with Alexander the Great’s conquering of the Persian Empire, though the strength of the Persian rulers during this time in Egypt was fairly weak regardless, having only just re-established rule and facing consistent difficulties of succession conflicts and disloyalty within the court.

أردشير الثالث الأخميني The first Pharaoh of this second period of Persian rule of Egypt was Artaxerxes III who ruled from 358 to 338 BCE.[7] Artaxerxes III subjugated Egypt during his reign as Persian ruler, going to war with the Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II, and in doing so caused significant destruction in Egypt. Artaxerxes III's reign also saw a lot of building activity as well as military success.[8] Military and architectural achievements were the two main contributing factors to the legacies of Egyptian rulers, as they were both, in their own ways, considered demonstrations of the strength and prosperity of the dynasty. In 338 BCE Artaxerxes died, ending his reign, however, the circumstances surrounding his death remain unclear, with some sources citing it as natural causes and others detailing an assassination plot by a military official, Bagoas, who then elevated Artaxerxes’ youngest son, Arses, to the throne.[9]

Arses Arses ruled for only 3 years, from 338 to 336 BCE. The circumstances of his death, once again, are not entirely clear, though the same aforementioned sources that suggest Bagoas killed Artaxerxes III say that Arses was also assassinated by him.[9]

داريوش الثالث Finally, Arses was succeeded by Darius III, a second cousin of Arses, who ruled from 336 to 330 BCE. The succession difficulties that marred this period of Persian rule of Egypt ultimately lead to an inconsistent grasp of power, and potentially contributed to the failure of the rulers to prevent external forces from imposing upon them. During Darius III's reign, Alexander the Great led the Macedonian army to victory in conquering the Persian Empire, as such, this ended Darius III's reign. Given that the Persian empire had been officially conquered, there was no Persian leader to become Darius III's successor, and thus ended the Achaemenid period of Egypt.

مصر الساسانية

The Sassanid Empire after Khosrow II conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Byzantines.

Egypt was conquered in 618 by the prominent Sasanian military leader Shahrbaraz, who governed the province briefly until he appointed Shahralanyozan as the new governor. Sahralanyozan held the title of karframan-idar ("steward of the court") and was the most powerful Iranian in Egypt. Besides being governor of Egypt, he was also the tax-collector of the province, and most likely resided in Faiyum.[10] In Middle Persian texts, the country is known as Agiptus and is described as follows: agiptus būm kē misr-iz xwānēnd 'the land of Agiptus which is also called Misr'.a[›] The Nile is termed as rōd ī nīl. Several cities of the country are mentioned, such as Touphis, Kynon, Babylon, including some others, which displays the subjugation of the Sasanians in the area.[11]

Although Egypt suffered much damage during its invasion by the Sasanians, after the conquest was complete, peace, toleration and rehabilitation followed. Furthermore, the Sasanians retained the same administrative structure as the Byzantine Empire.[12] The Sasanians did not try to force the population of Egypt to renounce their religion and practise Zoroastrianism. They did, however, persecute the Byzantine Church whilst supporting the Monophysite Church. The Copts took advantage of the circumstances and obtained control over many of the Orthodox churches.[13] There were numerous Sasanian stations in the country, which included Elephantine, Herakleia, Oxyrhynchus, Kynon, Theodosiopolis, Hermopolis, Antinopolis, Kosson, Lykos, Diospolis, and Maximianopolis. The assignment of those stations was to collect taxes and get supplies for the military. Several papyrus papers mentions the collection of taxes by the Sasanians, which shows that they used the same method of the Byzantines for collecting taxes.[14] Another papyrus mentions an Iranian and his sister, which indicates that some families had settled in Egypt along with the soldiers.[15]

In 626, Shahrbaraz quarrelled with the Sasanian king Khosrow II (r. 590–628) and mutinied against him. It is not known whom Sahralanzoyan supported, since he is not mentioned in any source thereafter and Shahrbaraz is described as the ruler of the province.[16] Following the end of the Byzantine–Sasanian war in 628, by 630/1, Egypt had returned to Byzantine hands.[17][16] Although Sasanian rule in Egypt wasn't long compared to that of the Byzantines, some marks of their influences is still present today; the Coptic New Year celebration called Nayrouz, where martyrs and confessors are honoured, stems from the Iranian New Year celebration Nowruz.[18] Another commemoration which is related to the Sasanians is the Holy Cross Day, that celebrates the discovery of the cross that Jesus was crucified on and its homecoming to Jerusalem in 628. Furthermore, Sasanian influence on Coptic art is also apparent.[19]

قائمة الحكام

التاريخ الحاكم
618-621 شهربراز
621-626(?) Sahralanyozan
626(?)-628 شهربراز

انظر أيضاً


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المصادر

  1. ^ Livius.org. (2020). Cambyses II. Livius.org. Retrieved April 2022 from <https://www.livius.org/articles/person/cambyses-ii/>
  2. ^ Wente, E., Baines, J., & Dorman, P. (2003). ancient Egypt - Egypt under Achaemenid rule. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/place/ancient-Egypt/Egypt-under-Achaemenid-rule
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث University College London. (2000). 27th Dynasty. Ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved April 2022 from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/dynasty27.html
  4. ^ Colburn, H. (2014). The Archaeology of Achaemenid Rule in Egypt. University of Michigan
  5. ^ UNESCO. (2015). Kharga Oasis and the Small Southern Oases - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved April 2022, from https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/6067/
  6. ^ Colburn, H. (2014). The Archaeology of Achaemenid Rule in Egypt. University of Michigan
  7. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2004). The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.). Metmuseum.org. Retrieved April 2022, from https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm
  8. ^ Waters, M. (2014a). Maintaining Empire: Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III. In Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE (pp. 176-196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511841880.011
  9. ^ أ ب Waters, M. (2014b). Twilight of the Achaemenids. In Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE (pp. 197-216). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511841880.012
  10. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 10.
  11. ^ Daryaee, p. 3.
  12. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 13.
  13. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 7.
  14. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 8.
  15. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 9.
  16. ^ أ ب Howard-Johnston 2006, p. 124.
  17. ^ Jalalipour 2014, p. 12.
  18. ^ Daryaee, p. 1.
  19. ^ Daryaee, p. 2.