الشرعوية (فلسفة صينية)

(تم التحويل من Legalism (Chinese philosophy))
Legalism
Shangyang.jpg
Statue of pivotal reformer Shang Yang
بالصينية 法家
المعني الحرفي The two basic meanings of Fa are "method" and "standard". Jia can mean "school of thought", but also "specialist" or "expert", this being the usage that has survived in modern Chinese.[1][2][3]

Fǎ-Jiā (法家) or Legalism is one of the six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy that developed during the Warring States period. Grouping thinkers with an overriding concern for political reform, the Fa-Jia were crucial in laying the "intellectual and ideological foundations of the traditional Chinese bureaucratic empire",[4] and remain highly influential in administration, policy and legal practice in China today.[5] Largely ignoring morality or questions on how a society ideally should function, they examined contemporary government, emphasizing secretive administration[6] and a realistic consolidation of the wealth and power of autocrat and state, with the goal of achieving increased order, security and stability.[7]


الشرعوية (Legalism) هي الاتباع الحرفي للقانون أو للبيروقراطية دون أدنى تفكير أو منطق (عن الجمعية الدولية للمترجمين العرب).

الشيء الوحيد الذي عكر صفو هذه الإصلاحات هو الطريقة الاستبدادية والشمولية التي نشرت بها الدولة فلسفتها الرسمية الشرعوية. ففي عام 213 ق.م. تم حرق كل كتب المدارس الفلسفية الأخرى، فقط الكتب التي كانت تضمها المكتبة الإمبراطورية استبقي عليها، تم دفن الآلاف من رجال العلم وهم أحياء بسبب آرائهم، وأجبر البعض الآخر على الأعمال الشاقة، كان "شي هوانگ دي" بحاجة إلى كل اليد العاملة المتوفرة حتى يبنى السور العظيم، ويحمي الحدود الشمالية لإمبراطوريته.

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خلفية تاريخية

الجيش الجصي


الشأن العام

"To subvert the ordinances in order to protect one's own family is called having principles. To pass out favors and gain a mass following is called winning the people."[8] Han Fei


تركيز اداري

The key figure in the bureaucracy that ran China was the district magistrate. A combination of mayor, chief of police, and judge, he obtained the position by first doing well in the examination for the civil service and then performing well in administrative positions at a lower level. He was assisted in his duties by a staff of lower level officials, some his own employees who moved with him from place to place, some permanently located in the district.
Any penalty a magistrate imposed more serious than bambooing had to be approved at the provincial level, any decision not based on statute, including a decision by analogy, required approval from Peking.[9]
Drawing by William Alexander, draughtsman of the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793.


تصحيح الأسماء

Between Mozi's background as an engineer and his pacifist leanings, the Mohists became experts at building fortifications and sieges
Small seal scripts were standardized by the First Emperor of China after he gained control of the country, and evolved from the larger seal scripts of previous dynasties.

The 12 characters on this slab of floor brick affirm that it is an auspicious moment for the First Emperor to ascend the throne, as the country is united and no men will be dying along the road.


شو أو "التكنيك"

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وو وِيْ

Zhaoming Mirror frame, Western Han dynasty
(People) go along with whatever has the backing of the authorities and adjust their words and actions according to whichever way the wind is blowing. They think that they will thus avoid mistakes. Deng Xiaoping[10]

If the ruler's intelligence is display, men will prepare against it; If his lack of intelligence is displayed, they will delude him. If his wisdom is displayed, men will gloss over (their faults); if his lack of wisdom is displayed, they will hide from him. If his lack of desires is displayed, men will spy out his true desires; if his desires are displayed, they will tempt him. Therefore (the intelligent ruler) says 'I cannot know them; it is only by means of non-action that I control them.


شينگ-مينگ، أو الأداء والمنصب

"The Way of Listening is to be giddy as though soused. Be dumber and dumber. Let others deploy themselves, and accordingly I shall know them."
Right and wrong whirl around him like spokes on a wheel, but the sovereign does not complot. Emptiness, stillness, non-action—these are the characteristics of the Way. By checking and comparing how it accords with reality, [one ascertains] the “performance” of an enterprise.[11]
Han Fei
Detail of The Spinning Wheel, by Chinese artist Wang Juzheng, Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279)[12]


هان فـِيْ

المقبضان

Mythical White Tiger Qin Shi Huang was called the "Tiger of Qin"
Supposing the tiger cast aside its claws and fangs and let the dog use them, the tiger would in turn be subjected by the dog. Han Fei Zi
A modern statue of the First Emperor and his attendants on horseback
The two August Lords of high antiquity grasped the handles of the Way and so were established in the center. Their spirits mysteriously roamed together with all transformations and thereby pacified the four directions. Huainanzi


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الحكم المطلق المستنير

الصين الامبراطورية

چين و هان

A modern marble statue of the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang


في العصر الحديث

The Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty was said by a Qing document "Teng Ssu-yu" to "hsun ming tse she(romanization)", or "demand performance in accordance with title", a near-verbatim usage of the Han Feizi.[13]


A poster from 1974 by Zhang Yan (张延). It reads "Criticize Lin, criticize Confucius - it is the most important matter for the whole party, the whole army and the people of the whole country."

The Communists would use the Fa-Jia in their criticism of Confucianism, describing the conflict between the two as class struggle.[14] Appeals to the Fa-Jia for solutions became common after the Great Leap Forward. [15] Fazhi, another historical term for "Legalism", would be used to refer to both socialist legality and Western rule of law. Still contrasted with renzhi (or rule of persons), most Chinese wanted to see it implemented in China.[16] Rule of law again gained prominent attention in the 1970s after the Cultural Revolution, in Deng Xiaoping's platform for modernization.


الهامش

  1. ^ Paul R. Goldin, Persistent Misconceptions about Chinese Legalism. p. 4 http://www.academia.edu/24999390/Persistent_Misconceptions_about_Chinese_Legalism_
  2. ^ Pines, Yuri, "Legalism in Chinese Philosophy", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Introduction. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/chinese-legalism/
  3. ^ Jay L. Garfield, William Edelglass 2011, p.59 The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy https://books.google.com/books?id=I0iMBtaSlHYC&pg=PA59
  4. ^ Herrlee G. Creel, 1974 p.120. Shen Pu-Hai: A Secular Philosopher of Administration, Journal of Chinese Philosophy Volume 1.
    • Zhengyuan Fu, 1996 China's Legalists p.7
  5. ^ Jacques Gernet 1982 p.92. A History of Chinese Civilization. https://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA92
  6. ^ Pines, Yuri, "Legalism in Chinese Philosophy", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), 1. Defining Legalism http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/chinese-legalism/
  7. ^ Pines, Yuri, "Legalism in Chinese Philosophy", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), 2. Philosophical Foundations. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-legalism/
  8. ^ Ross Terril 2003 p.69. The New Chinese Empire. https://books.google.com/books?id=TKowRrrz5BIC&pg=PA69
  9. ^ http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Academic/Course_Pages/legal_systems_very_different_12/Book_Draft/Systems/ChineseLaw.html
  10. ^ Deng Xiaoping, EMANCIPATE THE MIND http://en.people.cn/dengxp/vol2/text/b1260.html
  11. ^ Paul R. Goldin 2013. p.10. Introduction: Han Fei and the Han Feizi. https://www.sas.upenn.edu/ealc/system/files/bio/%5Buser-raw%5D/papers/Introduction.pdf
    • Chen Qiyou 2000: 2.8.156
  12. ^ Deng, Yingke and Pingxing Wang. (2005). Ancient Chinese Inventions. 五洲传播出版社. ISBN 7-5085-0837-8. Page 48.
  13. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 89
  14. ^ Zhongying Cheng 1991 p.311. New Dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=zIFXyPMI51AC&pg=PA311
  15. ^ Zhiyu Shi 1993 p.51. China's Just World: The Morality of Chinese Foreign Policy. https://books.google.com/books?id=JNdT5hLPWuIC&pg=PA51
  16. ^ Karen G. Turner p.1,24. The Limits of the Rule of Law in China. https://books.google.com/books?id=h_kUCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA24

المصادر

  • Barbieri-Low, Anthony, trans. The Standard Measure of Shang Yang (344 B.C.) (2006)
  • Creel, Herrlee G. (1953), Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao Tsê-tung, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-12030-0. 
  • Duyvendak, J.J.L., trans. The Book of Lord Shang: A Classic of the Chinese School of Law. London: Probsthain, 1928.
  • Fu, Zhengyuan (1996), China's Legalists: The Earliest Totalitarians and Their Art of Ruling, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 978-1-56324-779-8. 
  • Goldin, Paul R. (2011), "Persistent misconceptions about Chinese 'Legalism'", Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (1): 88–104, doi:10.1111/j.1540-6253.2010.01629.x.  (preprint) See also
  • Graham, A.C., Disputers of the TAO: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court 1993). ISBN 0-8126-9087-7
  • Lai, Karyn L. (2008), An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-139-47171-8. 
  • Pu-hai, Shen. "Appendix C: The Shen Pu-hai Fragments." Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C. Translated by Herrlee G. Creel. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1974.
  • Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Qin Dynasty. Translated by Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Schwartz, Benjamin I. (1985), The World of Thought in Ancient China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-96191-3. 
  • Watson, Burton, trans. Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.
  • Xinzhong,Yao, Introduction to Confucianism (2000). ISBN 978-0-521-64312-2
  • Potter, Pittman, From Leninist Discipline to Socialist Legalism : Peng Zhen on Law and Political Authority in the PRC2 (2003). ISBN 978-0-8047-4500-0

وصلات خارجية