كلوج-ناپوكا

(تم التحويل من Cluj-Napoca)

Coordinates: 46°46′N 23°35′E / 46.767°N 23.583°E / 46.767; 23.583

Cluj-Napoca
City
Skyline of Cluj-Napoca
Nickname(s): 
Treasure City
(بالرومانية: orașul comoară;[1] بالمجرية: kincses város)[2]
Location of Cluj-Napoca
Location of Cluj-Napoca
الإحداثيات: 46°46′N 23°35′E / 46.767°N 23.583°E / 46.767; 23.583
CountryFlag of Romania.svg رومانيا
Countyقالب:RO-CJ
Metropolitan areaCluj-Napoca metropolitan area
StatusCounty capital
Founded1213 (first official record as Clus)
الحكم
 • MayorEmil Boc (PDL)
 • Deputy MayorGheorghe Șurubaru (PDL)
 • Deputy MayorAnna Horváth (UDMR)
المساحة
 • City179٫5 كم² (69٫3 ميل²)
 • العمران1٬537٫5 كم² (593٫6 ميل²)
التعداد(2011 census[4][3])
 • City324٬576
 • الكثافة1٬808/km2 (4٬680/sq mi)
 • العمرانية411٬379[3]
منطقة التوقيتEET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+2)
 • الصيفيEEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code400xyz1
مفتاح الهاتف+40 x642
Car PlatesCJ-N3
الموقع الإلكترونيprimariaclujnapoca.ro
1x, y, and z are digits that indicate the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address
2x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks
3used just on the plates of vehicles that operate only within the city limits (such as trolley buses, trams, utility vehicles, ATVs, etc.)

كلوج-ناپوكا (النطق بالرومانية: [ˈkluʒ naˈpoka] ( استمع); بالألمانية: Klausenburg; بالمجرية: Kolozsvár, النطق في المجرية: [ˈkoloʒvaːr] ( استمع); Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; باليديشية: קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg) تقع شمال-غرب رومانيا وهي عاصمة محافظة كلوج في إقليم ترانسيلفانيا وتعتبر من أهم عواصم التاريخية لهذا الإقليم. تعتبر مركز إقتصادي وثقافي هام, بالإضافة كونها عقدة مواصلات مهمة في رومانيا.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التسمية

كانت تسمى بالرومانية كلوج فقط حتى عام 1970 حيث أضيفت تسمية نابوكا .


عدد السكان

في 2008 كان عدد سكانها 309,300 نسمة حيث هي في المرتبة الثالثة بعد بوخارست و تيميشوارا, يذكر أن حوالي 60.000 من الهنغار يعيشون في هذه المدينة.

History

Roman Empire

Napoca on the Roman Dacia fragment of the 1st–4th century AD Tabula Peutingeriana (upper center)[5]

Middle Ages

"Claudiopolis, Coloswar vulgo Clausenburg, Transilvaniæ civitas primaria". Gravure[a] of medieval Cluj by Georg Houfnagel (1617)
Cluj-Napoca in the Grand Duchy of Transylvania maps, 1769–1773. Josephinische Landesaufnahme


20th century

The New York Palace
Central Cluj-Napoca in 1930
King Ferdinand Street


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Geography

Old casino in the Central Park
The banks of the Someșul Mic River
Main greenhouse within the local botanical garden


Surroundings

Turda Gorges (south-east of Cluj) seen from the west end
Bánffy Castle (north-east of Cluj) is currently being restored.
Typical rural houses in Mănăstireni, west of Cluj.


المناخ

بيانات مناخ Cluj-Napoca
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 14.0
(57.2)
19.3
(66.7)
26.6
(79.9)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
36.0
(96.8)
37.0
(98.6)
38.0
(100.4)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
26.0
(78.8)
18.7
(65.7)
38٫0
(100٫4)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 0.3
(32.5)
3.2
(37.8)
9.9
(49.8)
15.0
(59)
20.3
(68.5)
22.6
(72.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
14.6
(58.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.8
(35.2)
13٫6
(56٫5)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -3.4
(25.9)
-1.2
(29.8)
4.1
(39.4)
9.0
(48.2)
14.2
(57.6)
16.6
(61.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64)
14.1
(57.4)
8.5
(47.3)
2.4
(36.3)
-1.5
(29.3)
8٫2
(46٫8)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -6.5
(20.3)
-4.7
(23.5)
-0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39)
8.6
(47.5)
11.3
(52.3)
12.7
(54.9)
12.2
(54)
8.9
(48)
3.8
(38.8)
-0.7
(30.7)
-4.2
(24.4)
3٫7
(38٫7)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -34.2
(-29.6)
-32.5
(-26.5)
-22.0
(-7.6)
-8.4
(16.9)
-3.5
(25.7)
0.4
(32.7)
5.2
(41.4)
3.5
(38.3)
-3.0
(26.6)
-8.8
(16.2)
-22.3
(-8.1)
-27.9
(-18.2)
-34٫2
(-29٫6)
هطول mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
20
(0.79)
22
(0.87)
48
(1.89)
69
(2.72)
95
(3.74)
81
(3.19)
60
(2.36)
36
(1.42)
31
(1.22)
30
(1.18)
32
(1.26)
548
(21٫57)
سقوط الثلج cm (inches) 6.0
(2.36)
11.5
(4.53)
5.8
(2.28)
1.3
(0.51)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
2.6
(1.02)
5.8
(2.28)
33٫5
(13٫19)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 5 5 9 11 11 10 8 6 6 7 7 91
Sunshine hours 70.9 98.8 165.2 174.7 230.8 238.6 273.8 261.6 204.8 166.2 74.9 54.7 2٬015٫0
Source #1: NOAA[6]
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000)[7]


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Law and government

Administration

Map of Cluj-Napoca's districts (2007)
    Party Seats Current Council
  Social Liberal Union 12                        
  Democratic Liberal Party 10                        
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 4                        
  People's Party – Dan Diaconescu 1                        

Demographics

Historical population of Cluj-Napoca
Year Population Romanians Hungarians
1453 est. 6,000[8] n/a n/a
1703 7,500[9] 25% n/a n/a
1714 5,000[10] −33.3% n/a n/a
1770 10,500[11] 110% n/a n/a
1785 9,703[9][12] −7.6% n/a n/a
1787 10,476[9][12] 7.9% n/a n/a
1835 14,000[9][13] 33.6% n/a n/a
1850 19,612 40% 21.0% 62.8%
1880 32,831 67.4% 17.1% 72.1%
1890 37,184 13.2% 15.2% 79.1%
1900 50,908 36.9% 14.1% 81.1%
1910 census[b] 62,733 23.2% 14.2% 81.6%
1920 85,509 36.3% 34.7% 49.3%
1930 census 100,844[14] 17.9% 34.6% 47.3%
1941[c][d] 114,984 14% 9.8% 85.7%
1948 census 117,915 2.5% 40% 57%
1956 census[e] 154,723 31.2% 47.8% 47.9%
1966 census 185,663 20% 56.5% 41.4%
1977 census 262,858 41.5% 65.8% 32.8%
1992 census 328,602 25% 76.6% 22.7%
2002 census 317,953[15] −3.2% 79.4% 19.0%
2011 census[f] 324,576[4][3][16] 2.1% 81.5% 16.4%

Source (if not otherwise specified):
Varga E. Árpád[17]


St. Michael's Church, the city's largest Gothic-style church


الجالية المجرية

Matthias Corvinus Alley, facing the birthplace of the eponymous King of Hungary

Economy

Eroilor Avenue, the largest and most expensive commercial street
The Ursus Brewery, where a popular Romanian beer is produced
Promenade area in Unirii Square, where scalpers once plied their trade
Regele Ferdinand Avenue, another large commercial street


Arts and culture

View of central Cluj-Napoca from the Victor Babeș Street in the Hașdeu area


Visual arts


Performing arts


Contemporary architecture

The "Biscuit Building"

الإعلام والثقافة الشعبية

A newspaper kiosk in the central area
Hungarian- and Romanian-language newspapers published in Cluj-Napoca

Education

The main building of Babeș-Bolyai University

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Cluj-Napoca is twinned with:[18]

Footnotes

a.^  The engraving, dating back to 1617, was executed by Georg Houfnagel after the painting of Egidius van der Rye (the original was done in the workshop of Braun and Hagenberg).

b.^  After Transylvania united with Romania in 1918–1920, an exodus of Hungarian inhabitants occurred. Also, the city grew and many people moved in from the surrounding area and Cluj County as a whole, populated largely by Romanians.

c.^  In August 1940, as the second Vienna Award transferred the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary, an exile of Romanian inhabitants began.

d.^  The 1941 Hungarian census is considered unreliable by most historians. In 1941, Cluj had 16,763 Jews. They were forced into ghettos in 1944 by the Hungarian authorities and deported to Auschwitz in May–June 1944.

e.^  In the 1960s a determined policy of industrialisation was initiated. Many people from the surrounding rural areas (largely Romanian) moved into the city, giving Cluj a Romanian majority.

f.^  Data refer to those for whom ethnicity is available, and do not include the 23,165 individuals (7.1% of the city's population) for whom such data are unavailable.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Portretul unui oraș" (in Romanian). Clujeanul. 21 September 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  2. ^ "A kincses város" (in Hungarian). UFI. December 2004. Retrieved 9 October 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  3. ^ أ ب ت "Rezultate definitive ale Recensământului Populației și Locuințelor – 2011 – analiza". Cluj County Regional Statistics Directorate. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  4. ^ أ ب "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele finale ale Recensământului Populației și Locuințelor – 2011". Cluj County Regional Statistics Directorate. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  5. ^ Bunbury 1879, p. 516.
  6. ^ "Cluj Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  7. ^ "Air Temperature (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  8. ^ Pascu 1974, p.102
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث Pascu 1974, pp.222–3
  10. ^ Pascu et al. 1957, p.60
  11. ^ Trócsányi, Zsolt. "History of Transylvania". Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  12. ^ أ ب Jakab Elek, Kolozsvar Tortenete, II, Okleveltar, Budapesta, 1888, p.750
  13. ^ Katona Lajos, Kolozsvar terulete es nepessege, in "Kolozsvari Szemle", 1943, no.4, p.294
  14. ^ Brubaker, Rogers (24 September 2008). "Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town" (PDF). National Program Excellent University. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  15. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة population-2002
  16. ^ "Populația stabilă după etnie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune". National Institute of Statistics. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  17. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة varga-arpad
  18. ^ "Orașe infrățite". Cluj-Napoca City Hall. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  19. ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471". Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2013. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  20. ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (البرتغالية)
  21. ^ Marius Mureșan (13 January 2009). "Municipiul Cluj-Napoca s-a înfrățit cu orașul Valdivia, din Chile" (in Romanian). Napoca News. Retrieved 28 June 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

References

  • Gh. Lazarovici, D. Alicu, C. Pop, I. Hica, P. Iambor, Șt. Matei, E. Glodaru, I. Ciupea, Gh. Bodea (1997). Cluj-Napoca – Inima Transilvaniei. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Studia. ISBN 973-97555-0-X.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Gheorghe Bodea (2002). Clujul vechi și nou. Cluj-Napoca: ProfImage. ISBN 973-0-02539-8.
  • Rogers Brubaker, Margit Feischmidt, Jon Fox & Liana Grancea (2006). "Introduction" (PDF). Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12834-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1879). A History of Ancient Geography among the Greeks and Romans. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Lukács József (2005). Povestea orașului-comoară. Scurtă istorie a Clujului și monumentelor sale. Cluj-Napoca: Apostrof. ISBN 973-9279-74-0.
  • Raoul Șorban (2003). Invazie de stafii. Însemnări și mărturisiri despre o altă parte a vieții. Bucharest: Meridiane. ISBN 973-33-0477-8.
  • Dorin Alicu (2003). Județul Cluj – trecut și prezent. Cluj-Napoca: ProfImage. ISBN 973-555-090-3.
  • Dorin Alicu, Ion Ciupea, Mihai Cojocneanu, Eugenia Glodariu, Ioana Hica, Petre Iambor, Gheorghe Lazărov (1995). Cluj-Napoca, de la începuturi până azi. Cluj-Napoca: Clusium. ISBN 973-7924-05-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Cluj-Napoca=Claudiopolis. Bucharest: Noi Media Print. 2004.
  • Cluj-Napoca – Ghid. Sedona. 2002.
  • Ștefan Pascu, Iosif Pataki, Vasile Popa (1957). Clujul.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ștefan Pascu, Viorica Marica (1969). Clujul medieval. Bucharest: Meridiane.
  • Ștefan Pascu (1974). Istoria Clujului. Bucharest.
  • Aurel Anton, Iuliua Cosma, Vasile Popa, Gheorghe Voișanu (1973). Cluj. Ghid turistic al județului. Bucharest: Editura pentru Turism.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Simon András, Gáll Enikõ, Tonk Sandor, Laszlo Tamas, Maxim Aurelian, Jancsik Peter, Coroiu Teodora (2003). Atlasul localităților județului Cluj. Cluj-Napoca: Suncart.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • "Cluj-Napoca, orașul comoară al Transilvaniei, România". CLUJonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  • "O istorie inedită a Clujului". ReMARK ltd. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  • "Anuarul Institutului de Istorie "George Bariț" din Cluj-Napoca". "George Bariț" History Institute, Cluj-Napoca / Romanian Academy. Retrieved 11 March 2007.

وصلات خارجية

Official websites

City guides

Photos

Panorama over western districts, taken from "Tăietura Turcului"

قالب:Cities in Cluj county قالب:PlacesCluj قالب:Companies in Cluj-Napoca