كلوج-ناپوكا

كلوج-ناپوكا

Cluj-Napoca
Romania-2382 - View from Hotel (7794313314).jpg
Opera romana si teatrul national cluj-napoca - 2019iunie -2.jpg
Cluj City Walls, Tailors Bastion 2012-016.JPG
Biserica romano-catolică "Sfântul Mihail".jpg
Cluj Arena night.jpg
From top and left: Cluj-Napoca panorama • Romanian National OperaTailors' BastionSt. Michael's ChurchCluj Arena
درع كلوج-ناپوكا
Coat of arms
الكنية: 
Treasure City
(بالرومانية: orașul comoară;[1] بالمجرية: kincses város)[2]
Location in Cluj County
Location in Cluj County
كلوج-ناپوكا is located in رومانيا
كلوج-ناپوكا
كلوج-ناپوكا
Location within Romania
الإحداثيات: 46°46′N 23°35′E / 46.767°N 23.583°E / 46.767; 23.583
CountryFlag of Romania.svg رومانيا
Regionترانسلڤانيا
المقاطعة Cluj County
Founded1213 (first official record as Clus)
الحكومة
 • العمدة (2020–2024)Emil Boc[3] (PNL)
 • Deputy MayorDan Tarcea (PNL)
 • Deputy MayorEmese Oláh (UDMR)
 • City ManagerGheorghe Șurubaru (PNL)
المساحة
 • مدينة ومقر مقاطعة179٫5 كم² (69٫3 ميل²)
 • العمران
1٬537٫5 كم² (593٫6 ميل²)
المنسوب
340 m (1٬120 ft)
التعداد
 • مدينة ومقر مقاطعة324٬576
 • Estimate 
(2016)[6]
321٬687
 • الكثافة1٬808/km2 (4٬680/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
411٬379[4]
منطقة التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
400xyz1
مفتاح الهاتف+40 x642
Car PlatesCJ-N3
الموقع الإلكترونيprimariaclujnapoca.ro
1x, y, and z are digits that indicate the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address
2x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks
3used just on the plates of vehicles that operate only within the city limits (such as trolley buses, trams, utility vehicles, ATVs, etc.)

كلوج-ناپوكا (النطق بالرومانية: [ˈkluʒ naˈpoka] ( استمع); بالألمانية: Klausenburg; بالمجرية: Kolozsvár, النطق في المجرية: [ˈkoloʒvaːr] ( استمع); اللاتينية القروسطية: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; باليديشية: קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg) تقع شمال-غرب رومانيا وهي عاصمة محافظة كلوج في إقليم ترانسلڤانيا وتعتبر من أهم عواصم التاريخية لهذا الإقليم. تعتبر مركز إقتصادي وثقافي هام, بالإضافة كونها عقدة مواصلات مهمة في رومانيا. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest (445 kiloمترs (1,459,974 قدم)), Budapest (461 kم (1,512,467 قدم)) and Belgrade (483 kم (1,584,646 قدم)). Located in the Someșul Mic river valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.

اعتبارا من 2011, 324,576 inhabitants lived within the city limits (making it the country's second most populous at the time, after the national capital Bucharest), marking a slight increase from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.[5][7] The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 411,379 people,[4][8] while the population of the peri-urban area (Romanian: zona periurbană) exceeds 420,000 residents.[4][9] The new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca became operational in December 2008.[10] According to a 2007 estimate provided by the County Population Register Service, the city hosts a visible population of students and other non-residents—an average of over 20,000 people each year during 2004–2007.[11] The city spreads out from St. Michael's Church in Unirii Square, built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael, the patron saint of Cluj-Napoca.[12] The boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 179.52 kiloمتر مربعs (69.31 ميل2).

Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor at the time, Gheorghe Funar.[13] Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the country's largest university, Babeș-Bolyai University, with its botanical garden; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank.[14][15] Cluj-Napoca held the titles of European Youth Capital in 2015,[16] and European City of Sport in 2018.[17]

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التسمية

Romanian inscription of a religious book: "Tiperit en Klus en Anul Domnului 1703" (Translation: "Printed in Klus in the year of our Lord 1703").

كانت تسمى بالرومانية كلوج فقط حتى عام 1970 حيث أضيفت تسمية نابوكا .


عدد السكان

في 2008 كان عدد سكانها 309,300 نسمة حيث هي في المرتبة الثالثة بعد بوخارست و تيميشوارا, يذكر أن حوالي 60.000 من الهنغار يعيشون في هذه المدينة.

التاريخ

الامبراطورية الرومانية

Napoca on the Roman Dacia fragment of the 1st–4th century AD Tabula Peutingeriana (upper center)[18]

العصور الوسطى

الانتماءات التاريخية
مملكة المجر 1213–1526
Coa Hungary Country History John I of Hungary (Szapolyai) (1526-1540).svg المملكة المجرية الشرقية 1526–1570
Arms of Transylvania in Cod. icon. 391.svg إمارة ترانسلڤانيا 1570–1804
 الإمبراطورية النمساوية 1804–1867
 النمسا-المجر 1867–1918 (المجر الشرعية حتى 1920)
 مملكة رومانيا 1920–1940 (de facto منذ 1918 إلى 1940)
مملكة المجر (1920–1946) مملكة المجر 1940–1945
 مملكة رومانيا 1945–1947
 رومانيا 1947–1965
 رومانيا 1965–1989
 رومانيا 1989–present
"Claudiopolis, Coloswar vulgo Clausenburg, Transilvaniæ civitas primaria". Gravure[a] of Cluj by Georg Houfnagel (1617)
كلوج-ناپوكا في خرائط گراندوقية ترانسلڤانيا، 1769–1773. Josephinische Landesaufnahme

القرن العشرون

The New York Palace
Central Cluj-Napoca in 1930
King Ferdinand Street


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الجغرافيا

Old casino in the Central Park
The banks of the Someșul Mic River
Main greenhouse within the local botanical garden


Surroundings

Turda Gorges (south-east of Cluj) seen from the west end
Bánffy Castle (north-east of Cluj) is currently being restored.
Typical rural houses in Mănăstireni, west of Cluj.


المناخ

بيانات مناخ كلوج-ناپوكا
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 14.0
(57.2)
19.3
(66.7)
26.6
(79.9)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
36.0
(96.8)
37.0
(98.6)
38.0
(100.4)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
26.0
(78.8)
18.7
(65.7)
38٫0
(100٫4)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 0.3
(32.5)
3.2
(37.8)
9.9
(49.8)
15.0
(59)
20.3
(68.5)
22.6
(72.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
14.6
(58.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.8
(35.2)
13٫6
(56٫5)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -3.4
(25.9)
-1.2
(29.8)
4.1
(39.4)
9.0
(48.2)
14.2
(57.6)
16.6
(61.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64)
14.1
(57.4)
8.5
(47.3)
2.4
(36.3)
-1.5
(29.3)
8٫2
(46٫8)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -6.5
(20.3)
-4.7
(23.5)
-0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39)
8.6
(47.5)
11.3
(52.3)
12.7
(54.9)
12.2
(54)
8.9
(48)
3.8
(38.8)
-0.7
(30.7)
-4.2
(24.4)
3٫7
(38٫7)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -34.2
(-29.6)
-32.5
(-26.5)
-22.0
(-7.6)
-8.4
(16.9)
-3.5
(25.7)
0.4
(32.7)
5.2
(41.4)
3.5
(38.3)
-3.0
(26.6)
-8.8
(16.2)
-22.3
(-8.1)
-27.9
(-18.2)
−34٫2
(−29٫6)
هطول mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
20
(0.79)
22
(0.87)
48
(1.89)
69
(2.72)
95
(3.74)
81
(3.19)
60
(2.36)
36
(1.42)
31
(1.22)
30
(1.18)
32
(1.26)
548
(21٫57)
سقوط الثلج cm (inches) 6.0
(2.36)
11.5
(4.53)
5.8
(2.28)
1.3
(0.51)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
2.6
(1.02)
5.8
(2.28)
33٫5
(13٫19)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 5 5 9 11 11 10 8 6 6 7 7 91
Sunshine hours 70.9 98.8 165.2 174.7 230.8 238.6 273.8 261.6 204.8 166.2 74.9 54.7 2٬015٫0
Source #1: NOAA[19]
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000)[20]


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القانون والحكم

الادارة

Map of Cluj-Napoca's districts (2007)
    Party Seats Current Council
  Social Liberal Union 12                        
  Democratic Liberal Party 10                        
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 4                        
  People's Party – Dan Diaconescu 1                        

Demographics

Historical population of Cluj-Napoca
Year Population Romanians Hungarians
1453 est. 6,000[21] n/a n/a
1703 7,500[22] 25% n/a n/a
1714 5,000[23] −33.3% n/a n/a
1770 10,500[24] 110% n/a n/a
1785 9,703[22][25] −7.6% n/a n/a
1787 10,476[22][25] 7.9% n/a n/a
1835 14,000[22][26] 33.6% n/a n/a
1850 19,612 40% 21.0% 62.8%
1880 32,831 67.4% 17.1% 72.1%
1890 37,184 13.2% 15.2% 79.1%
1900 50,908 36.9% 14.1% 81.1%
1910 census[b] 62,733 23.2% 14.2% 81.6%
1920 85,509 36.3% 34.7% 49.3%
1930 census 100,844[27] 17.9% 34.6% 47.3%
1941[c][d] 114,984 14% 9.8% 85.7%
1948 census 117,915 2.5% 40% 57%
1956 census[e] 154,723 31.2% 47.8% 47.9%
1966 census 185,663 20% 56.5% 41.4%
1977 census 262,858 41.5% 65.8% 32.8%
1992 census 328,602 25% 76.6% 22.7%
2002 census 317,953[7] −3.2% 79.4% 19.0%
2011 census[f] 324,576[5][4][28] 2.1% 81.5% 16.4%

Source (if not otherwise specified):
Varga E. Árpád[29]


St. Michael's Church, the city's largest Gothic-style church


الجالية المجرية

Matthias Corvinus Alley, facing the birthplace of the eponymous King of Hungary

Economy

Eroilor Avenue, the largest and most expensive commercial street
The Ursus Brewery, where a popular Romanian beer is produced
Promenade area in Unirii Square, where scalpers once plied their trade
Regele Ferdinand Avenue, another large commercial street


الفنون والثقافة

View of central Cluj-Napoca from the Victor Babeș Street in the Hașdeu area


الفنون البصرية


الفنون الأدائية


العمارة المعاصرة

The "Biscuit Building"

الإعلام والثقافة الشعبية

A newspaper kiosk in the central area
Hungarian- and Romanian-language newspapers published in Cluj-Napoca

التعليم

The main building of Babeș-Bolyai University

العلاقات الدولية

البلدات التوأم – المدن الشقيقة

Cluj-Napoca is twinned with:[30]

Footnotes

a.^  The engraving, dating back to 1617, was executed by Georg Houfnagel after the painting of Egidius van der Rye (the original was done in the workshop of Braun and Hagenberg).

b.^  After Transylvania united with Romania in 1918–1920, an exodus of Hungarian inhabitants occurred. Also, the city grew and many people moved in from the surrounding area and Cluj County as a whole, populated largely by Romanians.

c.^  In August 1940, as the second Vienna Award transferred the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary, an exile of Romanian inhabitants began.

d.^  The 1941 Hungarian census is considered unreliable by most historians. In 1941, Cluj had 16,763 Jews. They were forced into ghettos in 1944 by the Hungarian authorities and deported to Auschwitz in May–June 1944.

e.^  In the 1960s a determined policy of industrialisation was initiated. Many people from the surrounding rural areas (largely Romanian) moved into the city, giving Cluj a Romanian majority.

f.^  Data refer to those for whom ethnicity is available, and do not include the 23,165 individuals (7.1% of the city's population) for whom such data are unavailable.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "Portretul unui oraș" (in الرومانية). Clujeanul. 21 September 2007. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  2. ^ "A kincses város" (in الهنغارية). UFI. December 2004. Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  3. ^ "Results of the 2020 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث "Rezultate definitive ale Recensământului Populației și Locuințelor – 2011 – analiza". Cluj County Regional Statistics Directorate. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-05.[dead link] خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "INSSE-Cluj-2011-analiza" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  5. ^ أ ب ت "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele finale ale Recensământului Populației și Locuințelor – 2011". Cluj County Regional Statistics Directorate. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-05.[dead link] خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "INSSE-Cluj-2011" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  6. ^ "Populaţia României pe localitati la 1 ianuarie 2016" (in الرومانية). INSSE. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  7. ^ أ ب "Municipiul Cluj-Napoca (data based on the 2002 census)" (in الرومانية). Fundația Jakabffy Elemér. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  8. ^ "Zona Metropolitana Urbana" (in الرومانية). CJ Cluj. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  9. ^ "Zona Metropolitană Urbană și Strategii de Dezvoltare a Zonei Metropolitane Cluj-Napoca" (in الرومانية). Cluj County Council. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  10. ^ "Asociația Metropolitană e "la cheie". Mai trebuie banii" (in الرومانية). Ziua de Cluj. 9 January 2009. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
  11. ^ "Wanted: clujeanul verde" (in الرومانية). Foaia Transilvană. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
  12. ^ "Catedrala "Sf. Mihail"" (in الرومانية). Clujonline.com. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  13. ^ "Cluj: Buzz grips university town". Financial Times. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  14. ^ "Five alive – New regions – Five territories to watch". Monocle. Vol. 1 no. 9. December 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  15. ^ Alexandra Groza (8 January 2008). "Presa britanică: "Clujul, campion mondial la dezvoltare"" (in الرومانية). Clujeanul. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  16. ^ "cluj2015.eu". www.cluj2015.eu.
  17. ^ Raluca Sas (6 December 2017). "Cluj-Napoca a câștigat titlul de "Oraș European al Sportului 2018"". monitorulcj.ro (in الرومانية).
  18. ^ Bunbury 1879, p. 516.
  19. ^ "Cluj Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  20. ^ "Air Temperature (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  21. ^ Pascu 1974, p.102
  22. ^ أ ب ت ث Pascu 1974, pp.222–3
  23. ^ Pascu et al. 1957, p.60
  24. ^ Trócsányi, Zsolt. "History of Transylvania". Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  25. ^ أ ب Jakab Elek, Kolozsvar Tortenete, II, Okleveltar, Budapesta, 1888, p.750
  26. ^ Katona Lajos, Kolozsvar terulete es nepessege, in "Kolozsvari Szemle", 1943, no.4, p.294
  27. ^ Brubaker, Rogers (24 September 2008). "Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town" (PDF). National Program Excellent University. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  28. ^ "Populația stabilă după etnie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune". National Institute of Statistics. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
  29. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة varga-arpad
  30. ^ "Orașe infrățite". Cluj-Napoca City Hall. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
  31. ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471". Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-23. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  32. ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (البرتغالية)
  33. ^ Marius Mureșan (13 January 2009). "Municipiul Cluj-Napoca s-a înfrățit cu orașul Valdivia, din Chile" (in Romanian). Napoca News. Retrieved 2012-06-28.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

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  • "Cluj-Napoca, orașul comoară al Transilvaniei, România". CLUJonline.com. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
  • "O istorie inedită a Clujului". ReMARK ltd. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
  • "Anuarul Institutului de Istorie "George Bariț" din Cluj-Napoca". "George Bariț" History Institute, Cluj-Napoca / Romanian Academy. Retrieved 2007-03-11.

وصلات خارجية

Official websites

City guides

Photos

Panorama over western districts, taken from "Tăietura Turcului"

قالب:Cities in Cluj county قالب:PlacesCluj قالب:Companies in Cluj-Napoca

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