اليمين البديل

(تم التحويل من Alt-right)
A man holds up a sign saying "DEPLORABLES AND ALT-RIGHT UNITE" with a cartoon frog in the corner.
An alt-right Trump supporter at the March 4 Trump in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

The alt-right, or alternative right, is a loosely defined group of people with far-right ideologies who reject mainstream conservatism in favor of white nationalism, principally in the United States, but also to a lesser degree in Canada and Europe.[1][2][3][4] Paul Gottfried is the first person to use the term "alternative right", when referring specifically to developments within American right-wing politics, in 2008.[5] The term has since gained wide currency with the rise of the so-called "alt-right". White supremacist[6] Richard Spencer coined the term in 2010 in reference to a movement centered on white nationalism, and did so according to the Associated Press to disguise overt racism, white supremacism, and neo-Nazism.[1][7][8] The term drew considerable media attention and controversy during and after the 2016 US presidential election.[9]

Alt-right beliefs have been described as isolationist, protectionist, antisemitic, and white supremacist,[10][11][12] frequently overlapping with Neo-Nazism,[13][14][15] nativism and Islamophobia,[16][17][18][19][20] antifeminism and homophobia,[13][21][22][23] right-wing populism,[24][25] and the neoreactionary movement.[10][26] The concept has further been associated with multiple groups from American nationalists, neo-monarchists, men's rights advocates, and the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump.[16][25][26][27][28]

The alt-right has its roots on Internet websites such as 4chan and 8chan, where anonymous members create and use Internet memes to express their ideologies.[10][15][29] It is difficult to tell how much of what people write in these venues is serious and how much is intended to provoke outrage.[24][30] Members of the alt-right use websites like Alternative Right, Twitter, Breitbart, and Reddit to convey their message.[31][32] Alt-right postings generally support Donald Trump[33][34][35][36] and oppose immigration, multiculturalism and political correctness.[14][21][37]

The alt-right has also had a significant influence on conservative thought in the United States, such as the Sailer Strategy for winning political support, along with having close ties to the Trump Administration. It has been listed as a key reason for Trump's win in the 2016 election.[38][39] The Trump administration includes several figures who are associated with the alt-right, such as White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon.[40] In 2016, Bannon described Breitbart as "the platform for the alt-right", with the goal of promoting the ideology.[41]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

أصل الاسم

Richard Spencer is considered a leader of the alt-right.


التاريخ

Jared Taylor, a prominent white nationalist, is a figure in the alt-right community.


ردود الأفعال

Although some conservatives have welcomed the alt-right,[42] others on the mainstream right and left have criticized it as racist or hateful,[42][43] particularly given its hostility towards mainstream liberalism and conservatism.[44][45]

David A. French, writing for National Review, called alt-right proponents "wanna-be fascists" and bemoaned their entry into the national political conversation.[46] Benjamin Welton, writing for The Weekly Standard, described the alt-right as a "highly heterogeneous force" that "turns the left's moralism on its head and makes it a badge of honor to be called 'racist,' 'homophobic,' and 'sexist.'"[47]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

انظر أيضاً


الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Daniszewski, John (November 26, 2016). "Writing about the 'alt-right'". Associated Press.
  2. ^ "Part of Canada's so-called alt-right is endorsing Conservative candidate Kellie Leitch". Vice News. December 5, 2016.
  3. ^ Astier, Henri (April 5, 2017). "French election: Young alt-right making waves". BBC News (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  4. ^ writer, Jamie PalmerJamie Palmer is a; film-maker (June 1, 2017). "Paranoid Paleoconservatives". Quillette. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  5. ^ "Meet the Jewish 'Paleoconservative' Who Coined The Term 'Alternative Right'". The Forward. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة RichardSpencerWhiteSupremacist
  7. ^ "AP Definitive Source | How to describe extremists who rallied in Charlottesville". blog.ap.org. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  8. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة TakisMag-AltRight-2008
  9. ^ O'Grady, Jeremy (October 1, 2016). "The rise of the alt-right". The Week. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  10. ^ أ ب ت Matthews, Dylan (April 18, 2016). "The alt-right is more than warmed-over white supremacy. It's that, but way way weirder". VOX. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  11. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (June 3, 2016). "Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme". The Washington Post.
  12. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (August 25, 2016). "5 Things to Know About the 'Alt-Right'". NBC News. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  13. ^ أ ب McAfee, Tierney (August 25, 2016). "What Is the Alt-Right Anyway? A User's Guide". People. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  14. ^ أ ب Krieg, Gregory (August 25, 2016). "Clinton is attacking the 'Alt-Right' – What is it?". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  15. ^ أ ب Hess, Amanda (June 10, 2016). "For the Alt-Right, the Message Is in the Punctuation". The New York Times.
  16. ^ أ ب Becker, Amanda. "Clinton to accuse Trump of embracing nativist political movement". Reuters.
  17. ^ Walsh, Joan (July 20, 2016). "Islamophobes, White Supremacists, and Gays for Trump–the Alt-Right Arrives at the RNC". The Nation. Retrieved October 1, 2016. At the self-described “most fab party at the RNC” Tuesday night, Islamophobe provocateur Pamela Geller, not renowned as a stand-up comedian, opened with a joke... Before Geller and Yiannopolous spoke, the crowd welcomed the notorious Dutch politician Geert Wilders, who runs the anti-immigrant Dutch Party for Freedom. Wilders, a Trump admirer, was banned from entering Britain in 2009 for his Islamophobia (the decision was reversed in 2010) but was welcome here in Cleveland. An exhilarated Richard Spencer, a leading white nationalist who coined the term “alt-right,” introduced himself to me just as Milo began to speak. 'This is the alt-right convention!...'  At this first “alt-right convention,” most of the influentials weren’t known to the public. They’re hoping that will change, under President Donald J. Trump.
  18. ^ "The rise of the alt-right". The Week. October 1, 2016.
  19. ^ Hassan, Adeel (September 23, 2016). "Candy, Hashtags and Hate". The New York Times.
  20. ^ Lynch, Conor (June 14, 2016). "With their Orlando response, Trump and the alt-right are playing directly into the hands of ISIS". Salon.
  21. ^ أ ب "What You Need To Know About The Alt-Right Movement". NPR.org. August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  22. ^ Main, Thomas J. (August 25, 2016). "What's the Alt-Right?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  23. ^ Signorile, Michelangelo (September 21, 2016). "Donald Trump's Hate-Fueled, Alt-Right Army Hates 'Faggots' Too". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  24. ^ أ ب Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (May 5, 2016). "Is the Alt-Right for real?". The New Yorker.
  25. ^ أ ب Wilson, Jason (August 23, 2016). "'A sense that white identity is under attack': making sense of the alt-right". The Guardian. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  26. ^ أ ب Brodeur, Michael. "What's 'alt-' about the alt-right?". The Boston Globe.
  27. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة MensRights
  28. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة NYer-Marantz
  29. ^ Kivanç, Jake (June 15, 2016). "Nero, Nazis, and the New Far Right: The Phenomena of the Professional Troll". Vice. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  30. ^ Gourarie, Chava (August 30, 2016). "How the 'alt-right' checkmated the media". Columbia Journalism Review.
  31. ^ Hunt, Elle (July 20, 2016). "Milo Yiannopoulos, rightwing writer, permanently banned from Twitter". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  32. ^ Hafner, Josh (August 26, 2016). "For the Record: For Trump, everything's going to be alt-right". USA Today. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  33. ^ Roy, Jessica (November 21, 2016). "Neo-Nazi 'alt-right' crowd cheers the president-elect with 'Hail Trump'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 19, 2017. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |dead-url= (help)
  34. ^ Posner, Sarah (October 18, 2016). "Meet the Alt-Right 'Spokesman' Who's Thrilled With Trump's Rise". RollingStone. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  35. ^ Sullivan, Kevin (November 10, 2016). "The alt-right supported Trump. Now its members want him to satisfy their demands". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2017. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |dead-url= (help)
  36. ^ Rosen, Armin (April 1, 2016). "Who Are Trump's Alt-Right Supporters?". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved April 19, 2017. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |dead-url= (help)
  37. ^ Sevastopulo, Demetri. "'Alt-right' movement makes mark on US presidential election". Financial Times.(يتطلب اشتراك.)
  38. ^ Willick, Park MacDougald, Jason. "The Man Who Invented Identity Politics for the New Right". Daily Intelligencer (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  39. ^ Sabisky, Andrew (November 10, 2016). "I predicted Trump could win back in January 2015". International Business Times UK. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  40. ^ "The alt-right Leninist". www.newstatesman.com (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  41. ^ Posner, Sarah (August 22, 2016). "How Donald Trump's New Campaign Chief Created an Online Haven for White Nationalists". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  42. ^ أ ب Young, Cathy (January 25, 2016). "Donald Trump's rant against political correctness is comfort food to racists". Newsday. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  43. ^ Tracinski, Robert. "Yes, The Alt-Right Are Just a Bunch of Racists". The Federalist. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  44. ^ "An Open Letter to Mitt Romney". The Weekly Standard.
  45. ^ Shapiro, Ben. "The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America: Then and Now". National Review.
  46. ^ French, David (January 26, 2016). "Donald Trump & Alt-Right's Rise – Not Conservatives Fault". National Review. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  47. ^ Welton, Benjamin (February 1, 2016). "What, Exactly, is the 'Alternative Right?'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved February 5, 2016.

خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "washingtonpost" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "MSNBC" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Haaretz" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "MY1" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "CY150414" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "NYMag" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "BusinessInsiderHillary" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Hawley2016" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "tuttle" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "splcbreitbart" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "SlateHillary" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "Mic" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "unz" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "takimag" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "trumpshock" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "abcnews" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "buzzfeed1" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "BusinessInsiderWhatIs" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "csmonitor-jonsson" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "federalist" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "NotEasyBeingMeme" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "WaPoPepe" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.
خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "GuardianPepe" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.

خطأ استشهاد: الوسم <ref> ذو الاسم "AltPepe" المُعرّف في <references> غير مستخدم في النص السابق.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:White nationalism