جامعة ستانفورد

Stanford University
Leland Stanford Junior University
Seal of Leland Stanford Junior University.svg
الشعارDie Luft der Freiheit weht (German)[1]
الشعار بالعربية"The wind of freedom blows"[1]
النوعPrivate research university
تأسست1891; 133 years ago (1891[2][3]
المؤسسLeland and Jane Stanford
الارتباط الأكاديمي
الوقف$36.3 billion (2022)[4]
الميزانية$8.2 billion (2022–23)[5]
الرئيسMarc Tessier-Lavigne
ProvostPersis Drell
الطاقم الأكاديمي2,279[6]
الطاقم الاداري15,314[7]
الطلبة17,246 (Fall 2021)[8]
طلاب نحو البكالوريوس7,858 (Fall 2021)[8]
دارسون بعد التخرج9,388 (Fall 2021)[8]
الموقعStanford، California، United States
37°25′42″N 122°10′08″W / 37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W / 37.4282293; -122.1688576[9]Coordinates: 37°25′42″N 122°10′08″W / 37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W / 37.4282293; -122.1688576[9]
الحرمLarge suburban,[10] 8,180 acres (33.1 km2)[6]
Other campuses
NewspaperThe Stanford Daily
الألوانCardinal red & White[11]
         
الكنيةCardinal
جالب الحظStanford Tree (unofficial – no official university mascot)[12]
Sporting affiliations
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.stanford.edu Edit this at Wikidata
Stanford wordmark (2012).svg

جامعة ستانفورد، أو رسمياً جامعة ليلاند ستانفورد الابن،[13][14] هي جامعة أبحاث خاصة أمريكية في ستانفورد، كاليفورنيا. افتتحت في 1 أكتوبر1891، جامعة خاصة تقع في جنوب شرق سان فرانسيسكو بحوالي 37 ميلاً وشمال غرب سان خوسيه بحوالي 20 ميلاً في ولاية كاليفورنيا بالقرب من مدينة بالو ألتو. الحرم يفترش 8,180 فدان، وهو ما يضعه بين أكبر الجامعات في الولايات المتحدة، وينتظم فيها 17,000 طالب.[15] Stanford is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in the world.[أ]

Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year.[2] Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The university admitted its first students on October 1, 1891,[2][3] as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[16] Following World War II, provost of Stanford Frederick Terman inspired and supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build a self-sufficient local industry, which would later be known as Silicon Valley.[17]

The university is organized around seven schools on the same campus: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. The university also houses the public policy think tank, the Hoover Institution. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. As of May 26, 2022, Stanford has won 131 NCAA team championships,[18] more than any other university, and was awarded the NACDA Directors' Cup for 25 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995.[19] In addition, by 2021, Stanford students and alumni had won at least 296 Olympic medals including 150 gold and 79 silver medals.[20]

As of April 2021, 85 Nobel laureates, 29 Turing Award laureates,[note 1] and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff.[41] In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.[42][43][44][45][46] Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011, roughly equivalent to the seventh largest economy in the world (اعتبارا من 2020).[47][48][49] Stanford is the alma mater of U.S. President Herbert Hoover, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts.[50] In academia, its alumni include the current president of Yale and the provosts of Harvard and Princeton. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.[51]

من أفضل الجامعات بالعالم ـ توازي شهرتها جامعات معهد ماساتشوستس للتقنية و جامعة كمبريدج و جامعة هارفارد. وقد بدأ وادي السليكون منها بالستينات. ويسجل بالجامعة حوالي 6,700 طالب لدارسي البكالوريوس و 8,000 طالب للدراسات العليا كل سنة من الولايات المتحدة وجميع أنحاء العالم وهي جامعة كبرى بها أقسام متميزة بالفيزياء والأحياء والهندسة والطب والقانون والسياسة وعلم النفس.

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التاريخ

Statue of the Stanford family on the Stanford University campus
Center of the campus in 1891.[52]
Ichthyologist and founding president of Stanford, David Starr Jordan.

Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to the memory of Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm.

Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Stanford was referred to as the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to a majority of its faculty being former Cornell affiliates (professors, alumni, or both), including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to make higher education accessible, non-sectarian, and open to women as well as men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt that radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.[53]

From an architectural point of view, the Stanfords, particularly Jane, wanted their university to look different from the eastern ones, which had often sought to emulate the style of English university buildings. They specified in the founding grant[54] that the buildings should "be like the old adobe houses of the early Spanish days; they will be one-storied; they will have deep window seats and open fireplaces, and the roofs will be covered with the familiar dark red tiles". This guides the campus buildings to this day. The Stanfords also hired renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who previously designed the Cornell campus, to design the Stanford campus.

When Leland Stanford died in 1893, the continued existence of the university was in jeopardy due to a federal lawsuit against his estate, but Jane Stanford insisted the university remain in operation throughout the financial crisis.[55][56] The university suffered major damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; most of the damage was repaired, but a new library and gymnasium were demolished, and some original features of Memorial Church and the Quad were never restored.[57]

During the early 20th century, the university added four professional graduate schools. Stanford University School of Medicine was established in 1908 when the university acquired Cooper Medical College in San Francisco;[58] it moved to the Stanford campus in 1959.[59] The university's law department, established as an undergraduate curriculum in 1893, was transitioned into a professional law school starting in 1908 and received accreditation from the American Bar Association in 1923.[60] The Stanford Graduate School of Education grew out of the Department of the History and Art of Education, one of the original 21 departments at Stanford, and became a professional graduate school in 1917.[61] The Stanford Graduate School of Business was founded in 1925 at the urging of then-trustee Herbert Hoover.[62] In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.[63]

William Shockley, Stanford professor, Nobel laureate in physics, "Father of Silicon Valley"

In the 1940s and 1950s, an engineering professor and later provost Frederick Terman encouraged Stanford engineering graduates to invent products and start their own companies.[64] During the 1950s, he established Stanford Industrial Park, a high-tech commercial campus on university land.[65] Also in the 1950s William Shockley, co-inventor of the silicon transistor, recipient of the 1956 Nobel Prize for Physics, and later professor of physics at Stanford, moved to the Palo Alto area and founded a company, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. The next year eight of his employees resigned and formed a competing company, Fairchild Semiconductor. The presence of so many high-tech and semiconductor firms helped to establish Stanford and the mid-Peninsula as a hotbed of innovation, eventually named Silicon Valley after the key ingredient in transistors.[66] Shockley and Terman are often described, separately or jointly, as the "fathers of Silicon Valley".[67][68]

Stanford limited Jewish student admissions during the 1950s.[69]

Stanford in the 1960s rose from a regional university to one of the most prestigious in the United States, "when it appeared on lists of the "top ten" universities in America... This swift rise to performance [was] understood at the time as related directly to the university's defense contracts..."[70] Before the 1950s many regarded Stanford as being "a college for the children of wealthy parents".[71]

In the following decades, however, controversies would damage the reputation of the school. The 1971 Stanford prison experiment was criticized as unethical,[72] and the misuse of government funds from 1981 resulted in severe penalties to the school's research funding[73][74] and the resignation of Stanford President Donald Kennedy in 1992.[75]


الأرض

صورة جوية لمركز حرم جامعة ستانفورد في 2008.

الحرم المركزي

The central academic campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Blvd, and Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P.O. box mail. It lies within area code 650.

View of the main quadrangle of Stanford with Memorial Church in the center background from across the grass-covered Oval.

الحرم غير المركزي

Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

On the founding grant:

  • Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. Researchers and students are involved in biological research. Professors can teach the importance of biological research to the biological community. The primary goal is to understand the system of the natural Earth.[76]
  • SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles (3.2 km) on 426 acres (172 ha) of land.[77]

Off the founding grant:

  • Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892. Based on US Pacific Coast, it is one of the oldest marine laboratories. It includes 10 research laboratories and is also used for archaeological exploration purposes.[78] A graduate student of the anthropology department discover some broken elements, which leads to proof that 100 years before it was home to a Chinese American fishing village.[79]
  • Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a "mini-Stanford."[80]
  • Redwood City campus for many of the university's administrative offices in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession.[81][82] In 2015 the university announced a development plan[83] and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.[84]
  • The Bass Center in Washington, D.C. provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates.[85] It includes a small art gallery open to the public.[86]
  • China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Peking University.[87][88]
Lake Lagunita in winter; the Dish, a large radio telescope, and local landmark, is visible in the Stanford-owned foothills behind the lake and is the high point of a popular campus jogging and walking trail.

المعالم

Contemporary campus landmarks include the Main Quad and Memorial Church, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts and the Bing Concert Hall, the Stanford Mausoleum with the nearby Angel of Grief, Hoover Tower, the Rodin Sculpture Garden, the Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden, the Arizona Cactus Garden, the Stanford University Arboretum, Green Library and the Dish. Frank Lloyd Wright's 1937 Hanna–Honeycomb House and the 1919 Lou Henry Hoover House are both listed on the National Register of Historic Places. White Memorial Fountain (also known as "The Claw") between the Stanford Bookstore and the Old Union is a popular place to meet and to engage in the Stanford custom of "fountain hopping"; it was installed in 1964 and designed by Aristides Demetrios after a national competition as a memorial for two brothers in the class of 1949, William N. White and John B. White II, one of whom died before graduating and one shortly after in 1952.[89][90][91][92]


الإدارة والتنظيم

Marc Tessier-Lavigne is the president of Stanford University.

Stanford is a private, non-profit university administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38.[93][note 2] Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually.[96] A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot.[94] The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital).[97]

أمور أكاديمية

السمعة والترتيب

ترتيب الجامعة
على المستوى الوطني
ARWU[98] 2
Forbes[99] 2
THE/WSJ[100] 2
U.S. News & World Report[101] 3
Washington Monthly[102] 1
على مستوى العالم
ARWU[103] 2
QS[104] 3
التايمز[105] 3

Slate in 2014 dubbed Stanford as "the Harvard of the 21st century".[107] In the same year The New York Times dubbed Harvard as the "Stanford of the East". In that article titled To Young Minds of Today, Harvard Is the Stanford of the East The New York Times concluded that "Stanford University has become America's 'it' school, by measures that Harvard once dominated."[108] In 2019, Stanford University took 1st place on Reuters' list of the World's Most Innovative Universities for the fifth consecutive year.[109] In 2022, Washington Monthly ranked Stanford at 1st position in their annual list of top universities in the United States.[110] In a 2022 survey by The Princeton Review, Stanford was ranked 1st among the top ten "dream colleges" of America, and was considered to be the ultimate "dream college" of both students and parents.[111][112] Stanford Graduate School of Business was ranked 1st in the list of America's best business schools by Bloomberg for 2022–23.[113][114] From polls of college applicants done by The Princeton Review, every year from 2013 to 2020 the most commonly named "dream college" for students was Stanford; separately, parents, too, most frequently named Stanford their ultimate "dream college."[115][116]

Globally Stanford is also ranked among the top universities in the world. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Stanford second in the world (after Harvard) most years from 2003 to 2020.[117] Times Higher Education recognizes Stanford as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, and Oxford.[118][119]


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الاكتشافات والإبداعات

العلوم الطبيعية

Felix Bloch, physics professor, 1952 Nobel laureate for his work at Stanford

الحاسب والعلوم التطبيقية

Vint Cerf (BS 1965), co-leader of the Stanford team that designed the architecture of the internet

الأعمال وريادتها

Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer.[42][43] Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.[44]

Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.[48]

William Hewlett 1993.jpg David-Packard-DepSecDef.jpg
Co-founders of Hewlett-Packard, Bill Hewlett (BS 1934), left, and David Packard (BA 1934), right

Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

أشهر خريجيها

People

As of late 2016, Stanford had 2,153 tenure-line faculty, senior fellows, center fellows, and medical center faculty.[134]

Award laureates and scholars

Stanford's current community of scholars includes:

Stanford's faculty and former faculty includes 46 Nobel laureates,[134] 5 Fields Medalists, as well as 16 winners of the Turing Award, the so-called "Nobel Prize in computer science", comprising one third of the awards given in its 44-year history. The university has 27 ACM fellows. It is also affiliated with 4 Gödel Prize winners, 4 Knuth Prize recipients, 10 IJCAI Computers and Thought Award winners, and about 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award winners for their work in the foundations of computer science. Stanford alumni have started many companies and, according to Forbes, has produced the second highest number of billionaires of all universities.[139][140][141]

13 Stanford alumni have won the Nobel Prize.[142][143][144][145][146] As of 2019, 122 Stanford students or alumni have been named Rhodes Scholars.[147]


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انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Undergraduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Vint Cerf: BS Math Stanford 1965; MS CS UCLA 1970; PhD CS UCLA 1972.[21]
    2. Allen Newell: BS Physics Stanford 1949; PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1957.[22]
    Graduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Martin Hellman: BE New York University 1966, MS Stanford University 1967, Ph.D. Stanford University 1969, all in electrical engineering. Professor at Stanford 1971–1996.[23]
    2. John Hopcroft: BS Seattle University; MS EE Stanford 1962, Phd EE Stanford 1964.[24]
    3. Barbara Liskov: BSc Berkeley 1961; PhD Stanford.[25]
    4. Raj Reddy: BS from Guindy College of Engineering (Madras, India) 1958; M Tech, University of New South Wales 1960; Ph.D. Stanford 1966.[26]
    5. Ronald Rivest: BA Yale 1969; PhD Stanford 1974.[27]
    6. Robert Tarjan: BS Caltech 1969; MS Stanford 1971, PhD 1972.[28]
    Non-alumni former and current faculty, staff, and researchers who received the Turing Award:
    1. Whitfield Diffie: BS Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1965. Visiting scholar at Stanford from 2009–2010 and an affiliate from 2010–2012; currently, a consulting professor at CISAC (The Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University).[29]
    2. Doug Engelbart: BS EE Oregon State University 1948; MS EE Berkeley 1953; PhD Berkeley 1955. Researcher/Director at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) 1957–1977; Director (Bootstrap Project) at Stanford University 1989–1990.[30]
    3. Edward Feigenbaum: BS Carnegie Institute of Technology 1956, Ph.D. Carnegie Institute of Technology 1960. Associate Professor at Stanford 1965–1968; Professor at Stanford 1969–2000; Professor Emeritus at Stanford (2000–present).[31]
    4. Robert W. Floyd: BA 1953, BSc Physics, both from the University of Chicago. Professor at Stanford (1968–1994).[32]
    5. Sir Antony Hoare: Undergraduate at Oxford University. Visiting Professor at Stanford 1973.[33]
    6. Alan Kay: BA/BS from the University of Colorado at Boulder, Ph.D. 1969 from the University of Utah. Researcher at Stanford 1969–1971.[34]
    7. John McCarthy: BS Math, Caltech; PhD Princeton. Assistant Professor at Stanford 1953–1955; Professor at Stanford 1962–2011.[35]
    8. Robin Milner: BSc 1956 from Cambridge University. Researcher at Stanford University 1971–1972.[36]
    9. Amir Pnueli: BSc Math from Technion 1962, PhD Weizmann Institute of Science 1967. Instructor at Stanford 1967; Visitor at Stanford 1970[37]
    10. Dana Scott: BA Berkeley 1954, Ph.D. Princeton 1958. Associate Professor at Stanford 1963–1967.[38]
    11. Niklaus Wirth: BS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 1959, MSC Universite Laval, Canada, 1960; Ph.D. Berkeley 1963. Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1963–1967.[39]
    12. Andrew Yao: BS physics National University of Taiwan 1967; AM Physics Harvard 1969; Ph.D. Physics, Harvard 1972; Ph.D. CS University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign 1975 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1976–1981; Professor at Stanford University 1982–1986.[40]
  2. ^ The rules governing the board have changed over time. The original 24 trustees were appointed for life in 1885 by the Stanfords as were some of the subsequent replacements. In 1899 Jane Stanford changed the maximum number of trustees from 24 to 15 and set the term of office to 10 years. On June 1, 1903, she resigned her powers as founder and the board took on its full powers. In the 1950s, the board decided that its fifteen members were not sufficient to do all the work needed and in March 1954 petitioned the courts to raise the maximum number to 23, of whom 20 would be regular trustees serving 10-year terms and 3 would be alumni trustees serving 5-year terms. In 1970 another petition was successfully made to have the number raised to a maximum of 35 (with a minimum of 25), that all trustees would be regular trustees, and that the university president would be a trustee ex officio.[94] The last original trustee, Timothy Hopkins, died in 1936; the last life trustee, Joseph D. Grant (appointed in 1891), died in 1942.[95]
  1. ^
    1. "Rebecca S. Lowen. Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1997. Pp. xii, 316". The American Historical Review. 1998. doi:10.1086/ahr/103.5.1721. ISSN 1937-5239.
    2. Binder, Amy J.; Abel, Andrea R. (2019). "Symbolically Maintained Inequality: How Harvard and Stanford Students Construct Boundaries among Elite Universities". Sociology of Education (in الإنجليزية). 92 (1): 41–58. doi:10.1177/0038040718821073. ISSN 0038-0407. S2CID 150327748.

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  12. ^ The Stanford Tree is the mascot of the band but not the university.
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  21. ^ "Vinton Cerf – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  22. ^ "Allen Newell". acm.org.
  23. ^ "Martin Hellman". acm.org.
  24. ^ "John E Hopcroft". acm.org.
  25. ^ "Barbara Liskov". acm.org.
  26. ^ "Raj Reddy – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  27. ^ "Ronald L Rivest – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  28. ^ "Robert E Tarjan – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  29. ^ "Whitfield Diffie". acm.org.
  30. ^ "Douglas Engelbart". acm.org.
  31. ^ "Edward A Feigenbaum – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  32. ^ "Robert W. Floyd – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
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  35. ^ "John McCarthy". acm.org.
  36. ^ "A J Milner – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  37. ^ "Amir Pnueli". acm.org.
  38. ^ "Dana S Scott – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  39. ^ "Niklaus E. Wirth". acm.org.
  40. ^ "Andrew C Yao – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
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