ڤادوتس

ڤادوتس
ڤادوتس
ڤادوتس
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Flag
Coat of arms of {{{official_name}}}
Coat of arms
Vaduz and its exclaves in Liechtenstein
Vaduz and its exclaves in Liechtenstein
Country Liechtenstein
الحكم
 • النوع Monarchy
المساحة
 • الإجمالية 17٫3 كم² (6٫7 ميل²)
الارتفاع 445 m (1٬460 ft)
التعداد(31.12.2005)
 • الإجمالي 5٬109
 • الكثافة 295/km2 (760/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيت CET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
 • Summer (التوقيت الصيفي) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 9490
مفتاح الهاتف 7001
الموقع الإلكتروني www.vaduz.li

ڤادوتس (النطق الألماني: [faˈduːts] or [faˈdʊts])، هي عاصمة إمارة ليختنشتاين and the seat of the national parliament. The town, located along the Rhine, has about 5,100 inhabitants (اعتبارا من 2009),[1] most of whom are Roman Catholic. Its cathedral is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop.

While Vaduz is better known internationally, it is actually not the largest town in the principality: neighbouring Schaan has a greater population.

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التاريخ

مبنى حكومي في ليشتنشتاين

Vaduz is said to be mentioned in historic 12th century manuscripts as Farduzes. It is however commonly believed to have been founded in the thirteenth century by the Counts of Werdenberg. In 1322 a mention of the castle is made, which was sacked by the Swiss in 1499.

In the 17th century the Liechtenstein family was seeking a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag. However, since they did not hold any territory that was directly under the Imperial throne, they were unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify.

The family yearned for the added power a seat in the Imperial government would bring, and therefore sought to acquire lands that would be Reichsunmittelbar, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land. After some time, the family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and countship of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz possessed exactly the political status required; no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor.

Thereby, on January 23, 1719, after purchase had been duly made, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were united, and raised to the dignity of Fürstentum (principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". It is on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire. As a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases, the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for over 120 years.


المعالم الرئيسية

Vaduz Castle overlooking the city

The most prominent landmark of Vaduz is the Vaduz Castle, the home of the reigning prince of Liechtenstein and the Liechtenstein princely family. The castle is visible from almost any location in Vaduz, being perched atop a steep hill in the middle of the city. The Cathedral of St. Florin, Government House and City Hall are also well-known landmarks, displaying the various styles and periods of architecture that the city is known for.

الإقتصاد ووسائل النقل

Vaduz has a lively tourist industry, despite being one of the very few capital cities in the world without an airport or railway station.

The closest railway station is Schaan–Vaduz located around 2 km from the city centre in the town of Schaan. However, very few trains stop here except for a local service between Buchs in Switzerland and Feldkirch in Austria. There are extremely frequent bus connections between nearby mainline railway stations including Buchs, Sargans, and Feldkirch, operated by Liechtenstein Bus.

الثقافة والرياضة

City centre (here with Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein)

The National Art Gallery as well as the National Museum are located in Vaduz. The art gallery (Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein) is a museum of modern and contemporary art. The building is an architectural landmark built by the Swiss architects Morger, Degelo and Kerez. It was completed in November 2000 and forms a “black box” of tinted concrete and black basalt stone. The museum collection is also the national art collection of Liechtenstein. The Liechtenstein National Museum is showing a permanent exhibition on the cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein as well as special exhibitions. There are also the Postage Stamp Museum and a Ski Museum.

Vaduz also has a local professional football (soccer) club, FC Vaduz which, as the other clubs in Liechtenstein, plays in the Swiss Football League. Starting in the 2008-2009 season, FC Vaduz became the first Liechtenstein club to play in the Swiss Super League, Switzerland's top flight.

المناخ

متوسطات الطقس لVaduz
شهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر السنة
متوسط العظمى °م (°ف) 3.6 (38) 5.6 (42) 10.1 (50) 13.8 (57) 18.4 (65) 20.9 (70) 23 (73) 22.3 (72) 19.5 (67) 14.7 (58) 8.5 (47) 4.4 (40) 13٫7 (57)
متوسط الصغرى °م (°ف) -3.5 (26) -2 (28) 1.2 (34) 4 (39) 8 (46) 10.9 (52) 12.7 (55) 12.6 (55) 10 (50) 5.7 (42) 1 (34) -2.6 (27) 4٫8 (41)
هطول الأمطار mm (بوصة) 45 (1.8) 44 (1.7) 46 (1.8) 58 (2.3) 84 (3.3) 112 (4.4) 124 (4.9) 127 (5) 87 (3.4) 55 (2.2) 58 (2.3) 51 (2) 891 (35٫1)
المصدر: MeteoSchweiz [2] 8 May 2009

مراجع

  1. ^ Estimate from World Gazetteer accessed 18 May 2009
  2. ^ "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961–90" (in German, French, and Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009. 


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روابط خارجية

قالب:Municipalities Liechtenstein