نهر ميزوري

Missouri River
Pekitanoui, River of the West, Yellow River[1]
Missouribismarck.jpeg
Part of the Missouri River in North Dakota
Name origin: The Missouria tribe, whose name in turn meant “people with wooden canoes”[1]
البلد  الولايات المتحدة
States Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri
الروافد
 - يسار Jefferson, Sun, Marias, Milk, James, Big Sioux, Grand, Chariton
 - يمين Madison, Gallatin, Yellowstone, Little Missouri, Cheyenne, White, Niobrara, Platte, Kansas, Osage, Gasconade
المدن Great Falls, MT, Bismarck, ND, Pierre, SD, Sioux City, IA, Omaha, NE, Kansas City, KS, Kansas City, MO, St. Louis, MO
المنبع الرئيسي Jefferson River
 - الموقع Centennial Mountains, مونتانا
 - elevation 9,030 ق (2,752 م)
 - coordinates 44°33′01″N 111°28′20″W / 44.55028°N 111.47222°W / 44.55028; -111.47222 [2]
منبع ثانوي Madison River
 - الموقع Near Madison Junction, Teton County, وايومنگ
 - المنسوب 8,215 ق (2,504 م)
 - الاحداثيات 44°20′37″N 110°52′43″W / 44.34361°N 110.87861°W / 44.34361; -110.87861
إلتقاء المنابع Jefferson and Madison Rivers
 - الموقع Three Forks, مونتانا
 - elevation 4,042 ق (1,232 م)
 - الاحداثيات 45°55′39″N 111°20′39″W / 45.92750°N 111.34417°W / 45.92750; -111.34417 [1]
المصب Mississippi River
 - الموقع Spanish Lake, near St. Louis, Missouri
 - الارتفاع 404 ق (123 م) [1]
 - الاحداثيات 38°48′49″N 90°07′11″W / 38.81361°N 90.11972°W / 38.81361; -90.11972 [1]
الطول 2,341 ميل (3,767 كم) [3]
الحوض 529,350 ميل² (1,371,010 كم²) [4]
التدفق for Hermann, MO; RM 97.9 (RKM 157.6)
 - المتوسط 86,340 ق³/ث (2,445 م³/ث) [5]
 - الأقصى 712,200 ق³/ث (20,167 م³/ث) [6]
 - الأدنى 602 ق³/ث (17 م³/ث)
Missouririvermap.jpg
Map of the Missouri River and its tributaries in North America

نهر ميزوري (Missouri River) هو نهر في الولايات المتحدة الغربية. وهو رافد من نهر الميسيسيبي، وأطول منه. يعد في الحقيقة النهر الأطول في أمريكا الشمالية. يتدفق ميزوري في أغلب مساراته عبر السهول الكبرى، وهي واحدة من أجف الأجزاء في أمريكا الشمالية.

المسار

مصدر نهر ميزوري في جبال الروكي، في ولاية مونتانا. يتدفق ميزوري شرقا، عبر مونتانا، إلى جنوب الحدود مع كندا. يدخل ولاية داكوتا الشمالية وبعد ذلك يتجه جنوبا، ويتدفق عبر داكوتا الجنوبية. ثم يجري على طول آيوا، ونبراسكا، وميزوري، وكانزاس.

بالقرب من كانزاس سيتي، يتجه النهر شرقا إلى ولاية ميزوري. يتدفق شرقا عبر الولاية، ثم ينضم إلى ميسيسيبي شمال مدينة سانت لويس، ميزوري. ميزوري كان مهماً جداً بالنسبة للأمريكيين الأصليين الذين عاشوا في السهول الكبرى، كما كان مهما جدا أيضا في تاريخ الولايات المتحدة. استعمل ميزوري كطريق لبعثة لويس وكلارك بين عامي 1804 و 1806.

المفيض

There is only one river with a personality, a sense of humor, and a woman's caprice; a river that goes traveling sidewise, that interferes in politics, rearranges geography, and dabbles in real estate; a river that plays hide and seek with you today and tomorrow follows you around like a pet dog with a dynamite cracker tied to his tail. That river is the Missouri.
-George Fitch, circa 1840[7]

With a drainage basin spanning 529,350 square miles (1,371,000 km2),[4] the Missouri's catchment encompasses nearly one-sixth of the area of the United States[8] or just over five percent of the continent of North America.[9] The mostly flat, arid basin, comparable to the size of the Canadian province of Quebec, encompasses most of the northern Great Plains, stretching over 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from the Rocky Mountains in the west to the Mississippi River valley in the east. From north to south it reaches well over 1,600 miles (2,600 km), from the southern extreme of western Canada in the north to the Arkansas River valley of the south. Compared with the Mississippi River above their confluence, the Missouri is actually much longer (150%) and drains a far greater area (309%). However, the flow of the Missouri at the confluence accounts for only 45 percent of the total amount of water below the meeting of the rivers.[5][10]

ملف:Niobrara State Park bridge E end.JPG
The Missouri River (background) near Niobrara, Nebraska, with marshes of a tributary, Niobrara River, in foreground

الروافد الرئيسية

Over 95 major tributaries and hundreds of smaller ones feed the Missouri River, with most of the larger ones coming in as the river draws close to the mouth.[11] The largest by discharge are the Yellowstone, Osage, Kansas and Platte. On the other end of the scale is the tiny Roe River in Montana, which at 201 feet (61 m) long is commonly held to be the world's shortest river.[12] Tributaries of the Missouri River over 40 miles (64 km) long[13] are listed going downstream also noting the state in which they enter.

Tributaries of the Missouri over 40 mi (64 km) long

The longest tributaries of the Missouri, as measured from the mouth to the farthest source (regardless of naming changes), are listed in the below table in addition to their respective drainage basins and discharges.

Statistics of the Missouri's ten longest tributaries
ملف:Yellowstone River, flowing through Paradise Valley.jpg
Yellowstone River, the largest tributary, which enters in North Dakota
الرافد الطول حوض التصريف التدفق
Platte River A1,025 mi
(1,650 km)[14][n 1]
A84,910 mi2
(219,900 km2)[15]
D7,037 cuft/s
(199 m3/s)[16]
Kansas River B779 mi
(1,250 km)[14][17][n 2]
C59,500 mi2
(154,100 km2)[15]
C7,367 cuft/s
(209 m3/s)[18]
Milk River C729 mi
(1,170 km)[17]
F15,300 mi2
(39,630 km2)[15]
H618 cuft/s
(17.5 m3/s)[19]
James River D710 mi
(1,140 km)[17]
E21,500 mi2
(55,680 km2)[15]
G646 cuft/s
(18.3 m3/s)[20]
Yellowstone River E702 mi
(1,130 km)[13][21]
B70,000 mi2
(181,300 km2)[15]
A13,800 cuft/s
(391 m3/s)[22]
White River F580 mi
(933 km)[17]
I10,200 mi2
(26,420 km2)[23]
I570 cuft/s
(16.1 m3/s)[23]
Little Missouri River G560 mi
(901 km)[17]
J9,550 mi2
(24,730 km2)[15]
j533 cuft/s
(15.1 m3/s)[24]
Osage River H493 mi
(793 km)[13][n 3]
G14,800 mi2
(38,330 km2)[15]
B11,980 cuft/s
(339 m3/s)[25]
Niobrara River I430 mi
(692 km)[17]
H13,900 mi2
36,000 km2)[15]
E1,720 cuft/s
(48.7 m3/s)[26]
Cheyenne River J347 mi
(558 km)[17]
D24,300 mi2
(62,940 km2)[15]
F874 cuft/s
(24.7 m3/s)[27]

التدفق


Missouri River monthly discharges at Hermann, MO[28]
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 bar:Mar text:Mar.
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 bar:Mai text:May
 bar:Jun text:Jun.
 bar:Jul text:Jul.
 bar:Aoû text:Aug.
 bar:Sep text:Sep.
 bar:Oct text:Oct.
 bar:Nov text:Nov.
 bar:Déc text:Dec.

PlotData=

 color:barra width:30 align:left
 bar:Jan from:0 till: 52400
 bar:Fév from:0 till: 67900
 bar:Mar from:0 till: 96300
 bar:Avr from:0 till: 119000
 bar:Mai from:0 till: 125000
 bar:Jun from:0 till: 124000
 bar:Jul from:0 till: 101000
 bar:Aoû from:0 till: 73600
 bar:Sep from:0 till: 75400
 bar:Oct from:0 till: 76500
 bar:Nov from:0 till: 76000
 bar:Déc from:0 till: 61000

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 bar:Jan at: 52400 fontsize:S
 bar:Fév at: 67900 fontsize:S
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 bar:Jun at: 124000 fontsize:S
 bar:Jul at: 101000 fontsize:S
 bar:Aoû at: 73600 fontsize:S
 bar:Sep at: 75400 fontsize:S
 bar:Oct at: 76500 fontsize:S
 bar:Nov at: 76000 fontsize:S
 bar:Déc at: 61000 fontsize:S

</timeline>

<center>First row indicates discharge in cfs; second row in m3/s
52400 67900 96300 119000 125000 124000 101000 73600 75400 76500 76000 61000
1484 1923 2727 3370 3540 3511 2860 2084 2135 2166 2152 1727

</center>

Missouri River average discharges at selected cities <timeline> Colors=

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BarData=

 bar:Jan text:Great Falls, MT
 bar:Fév text:Pierre, SD
 bar:Mar text:Sioux City, IA
 bar:Avr text:Omaha, NE
 bar:Mai text:Kansas City, MO
 bar:Jun text:Boonville, MO
 bar:Jul text:Hermann, MO

PlotData=

 color:barra width:30 align:left
 bar:Jan from:0 till: 10312
 bar:Fév from:0 till: 26500
 bar:Mar from:0 till: 28670
 bar:Avr from:0 till: 32190
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 bar:Jun from:0 till: 67160
 bar:Jul from:0 till: 86340

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 bar:Jun at: 67160 fontsize:S
 bar:Jul at: 86340 fontsize:S

</timeline>

<center>First row indicates discharge in cfs; second row in m3/s
10326 26500 28670 32190 54820 67160 86340
292 750 812 912 1552 1902 2445


References:[5][29][30][31][32][33][34] </center>

الجيولوجيا

أول البشر

نهر ميزوري
Big Bend Dam on the Missouri River in South Dakota

في القرن التاسع عشر، أصبح ميزوري مهما جدا كطريق للنقل. يلقب النهر "بالوحل الكبير"، لأنه يحتوي على الكثير من الغرين. لميزوري العديد من الروافد المهمة، منها: نهر يلوستون، ونهر بلات، ونهر كانزاس.


السدود والهندسة

Key
Pick-Sloan dam daggerRun of the river dam
ملف:Garrison Dam aerial.jpg
Garrison Dam, which forms Lake Sakakawea, the largest reservoir on the Missouri River
السد الارتفاع الولاية مـِگاواط الخزان Capacity
(KAF)[n 4]
Toston[35] M56 ft (17 m) MT O10dagger 3
Canyon Ferry[36] C225 ft (69 m) MT I50 Canyon Ferry Lake 1,973
Hauser[37] H80 ft (24 m) MT M19 Hauser Lake 98
Holter[38] F124 ft (38 m) MT J48 Holter Lake 243
Black Eagle[39] O13 ft (4.0 m) MT L21dagger Long Pool[n 5] 2
Rainbow[40] N29 ft (8.8 m) MT K36dagger 1
Cochrane[41] K59 ft (18 m) MT G64dagger 3
Ryan[42] J61 ft (19 m) MT H60dagger 5
Morony[43] L59 ft (18 m) MT J48dagger 3
Fort Peck[44] A250 ft (76 m) MT E185 Fort Peck Lake 18,690
Garrison[45] D210 ft (64 m) ND B515 Lake Sakakawea 23,800
Oahe[46] B245 ft (75 m) SD A786 Lake Oahe 23,500
Big Bend[47] G95 ft (29 m) SD C493 Lake Sharpe 1,910
Fort Randall[48] E165 ft (50 m) SD D320 Lake Francis Case 5,700
Gavins Point[49] I74 ft (23 m) NE/SD F132 Lewis and Clark Lake 492
Total 2,787 76,436


Left: Aerial view of the Missouri River winding through Omaha, Nebraska; Right: Painting of the steamboat Yellowstone, one of the earliest commercial vessels to run on the river, circa 1833. The dangerous currents in the river caused the ship to run aground on a sandbar in this illustration.
ملف:Gavins Point Dam.jpg
Gavins Point Dam at Yankton, South Dakota is the uppermost obstacle to navigation from the mouth on the Missouri today.


ملف:Missouririver1.jpg
The Missouri River near New Haven, Missouri, looking upstream – note the riprap wing dam protruding into the river from the left to direct its flow into a narrower channel


ملف:Missouri-Floyd Rivers Sioux City Iowa.jpg
The Missouri River at Sioux City, IA, near the upper most navigable reach of the river today

البيئة والأثر البشري


ملف:Nishnabotna River aerial.jpg
The Missouri's confluence with the Nishnabotna River in western Missouri – agricultural fields dominate most of the landscape, which was probably once floodplain.
The Missouri River in Upper Missouri Breaks National Monument, Montana, at the confluence with Cow Creek

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Length includes the 990-mile (1,590 km) figure from the USGS (obtained by combining the main stem and North Platte), plus the length of Big Grizzly Creek, which extends another 35 miles (56 km).[13]
  2. ^ Length includes those of the Republican and Arikaree rivers, to the farthest headwaters
  3. ^ Length includes the longest headwaters fork, the Marais des Cygnes River
  4. ^ KAF = 1,000 acre feet (1,200,000 m3)
  5. ^ Name used by area residents to refer to the smooth, almost lake-like 55 mi (89 km) stretch of the Missouri between the Black Eagle Dam and the town of Cascade. Only about 2 mi (3.2 km) of the so called "Long Pool" are actually part of the impoundment behind the dam.

ملاحظات

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج "Missouri River". نظام معلومات الأسماء الجغرافية، المسح الجيولوجي الأمريكي. 1980-10-24. Retrieved 2010-05-06. 
  2. ^ "Firehole River". نظام معلومات الأسماء الجغرافية، المسح الجيولوجي الأمريكي. 1979-06-05. Retrieved 2010-10-05. 
  3. ^ "Missouri River Environmental Assessment Program Summary". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  4. ^ أ ب "The Missouri River Story". Columbia Environmental Research Center. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-04-10. 
  5. ^ أ ب ت "USGS Gage #06934500 on the Missouri River at Hermann, Missouri: Water-Data Report 2009" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  6. ^ Pinter, Nicholas. "Hydrologic History of the Lower Missouri River". Geology Department. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Retrieved 2010-05-08.  More than one of |last1= and |last= specified (help); More than one of |first1= and |first= specified (help)
  7. ^ Athearn, p. 89
  8. ^ "Missouri River". Columbia Environmental Research Center. United States Geological Survey. 2009-09-08. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  9. ^ "North America". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  10. ^ "USGS Gage #07010000 on the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri: Water-Data Report 2009" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24.  Note: This gauge is just below the Missouri confluence, so the Missouri discharge was subtracted from 190,000 cubic feet per second (5,400 m3/s) to get this amount.
  11. ^ Stone, Clifton. "Missouri River". The Natural Source. Northern State University. Retrieved 2011-07-10. 
  12. ^ McFarlan and McWhirter, p. 32
  13. ^ أ ب ت ث خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة ACMEmapper
  14. ^ أ ب Kammerer, J.C. (May 1990). "Largest Rivers in the United States". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  15. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ "Boundary Descriptions and Names of Regions, Subregions, Accounting Units and Cataloging Units". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  16. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Platteflow
  17. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ "The National Map". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  18. ^ "USGS Gage #06892350 on the Kansas River at DeSoto, KS" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1917–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^ "USGS Gage #06174500 on the Milk River at Nashua, MT" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1940–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ "USGS Gage #06478500 on the James River near Scotland, SD" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1928–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ Miller, Kirk A. (1999). "Surface Water". Environmental Setting of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  22. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Yellowstoneflow
  23. ^ أ ب "USGS Gage #06452000 on the White River near Oacoma, SD" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1928–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. ^ "USGS Gage #06337000 on the Little Missouri River near Watford City, ND" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1935–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ "USGS Gage #06926510 on the Osage River below St. Thomas, MO" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1996–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. ^ "USGS Gage #06465500 on the Niobrara River near Verdel, NE" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1928–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  27. ^ "USGS Gage #06439500 on the Cheyenne River at Eagle Butte, SD" (PDF). National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1935–present. Retrieved 2011-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  28. ^ "USGS Gage #06934500 on the Missouri River at Hermann, Missouri: Monthly Average Flow". National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1957–present. Retrieved 2010-10-08.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  29. ^ "Sage Database for Great Falls". Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin–Madison. 
  30. ^ "Oahe Dam discharge rate". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, District, Missouri River Region. 
  31. ^ "USGS Gage #06486000 on the Missouri River at Sioux City, IA" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1953–present. Retrieved 2010-10-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  32. ^ "USGS Gage #06610000 on the Missouri River at Omaha, NE" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1953–present. Retrieved 2010-10-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  33. ^ "USGS Gage #06893000 on the Missouri River at Kansas City, MO" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1958–present. Retrieved 2010-10-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. ^ "USGS Gage #06909000 on the Missouri River at Boonville, MO" (PDF). National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1958–present. Retrieved 2010-10-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. ^ "Toston Dam (Broadwater-Missouri)" (PDF). Water Projects Bureau. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  36. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة CanyonFerryDam
  37. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Hauser
  38. ^ "Holter Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  39. ^ "Black Eagle Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  40. ^ "Rainbow Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  41. ^ "Cochrane Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  42. ^ "Ryan Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  43. ^ "Morony Dam". Producing Power. PPL Montana. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  44. ^ "Fort Peck Dam/Fort Peck Lake". Omaha District. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  45. ^ Wilson, Ron (2003-06). "Garrison Dam: A Half-Century Later" (PDF). ND Outdoors. North Dakota Game and Fish Department. p. 14. Retrieved 2011-03-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  46. ^ "Oahe Dam & Powerplant". Omaha District. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  47. ^ "Big Bend Dam/Lake Sharpe". Omaha District. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  48. ^ "Fort Randall Dam & Powerplant". Omaha District. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  49. ^ "Gavins Point Dam & Powerplant". Omaha District. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Missouri River

قالب:Protected Areas of Montana قالب:MissouriRiverDams قالب:Fur Trade in Nebraska