سانت لويس، مزوري

(تم التحويل من سانت لويس)
مدينة سانت لويس
City of St. Louis
Skyline of مدينة سانت لويس City of St. Louis
Flag of مدينة سانت لويس City of St. Louis
Flag
Official seal of مدينة سانت لويس City of St. Louis
Seal
Nickname(s): 
"Gateway to the West",[1] The Gateway City,[1] Mound City,[2] The Lou,[3] Rome of the West,[4] River City, The STL
الموقع في ولاية مزوري
الموقع في ولاية مزوري
سانت لويس is located in Missouri
سانت لويس
سانت لويس
سانت لويس is located in الولايات المتحدة
سانت لويس
سانت لويس
الموقع في مزوري##الموقع في الولايات المتحدة
الإحداثيات: 38°37′38″N 90°11′52″W / 38.62722°N 90.19778°W / 38.62722; -90.19778
بلدةالولايات المتحدة
ولايةمزوري
بلدةمدينة مستقلة
الحكم
 • عمدةFrancis G. Slay (D)
المساحة
 • المدينة171٫3 كم² (66٫2 ميل²)
 • البر160٫4 كم² (61٫9 ميل²)
 • الماء11٫0 كم² (4٫2 ميل²)
الارتفاع138٫7 m (455 ft)
التعداد[5]
 • المدينة353٬837
 • الكثافة2٬207٫1/km2 (5٬716٫3/sq mi)
 • العمرانية2٬803٬707
منطقة التوقيتCST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق-6)
 • الصيفيCDT (UTC-5)
مفتاح الهاتف314
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://stlouis.missouri.org

سانت لويس بالإنجليزية Saint Louis ، هي احدى المدن الرئيسية في الولايات المتحدة تقع في ولاية مزوري.[6] وهي من أكبر مدن ولاية مزوري ويوجد بها قوس النصر. ويخترق الولاية نهر الميسيسبي. وهي أكبر منطقة عمرانية في ولاية مزوري، إلا أن المدينة المستقلة سانت لويس هي ثاني أكبر مدينة في مزوري بعد كانزس سيتي.[7] It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which forms the state line between Illinois and Missouri. The Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River 15 river miles north of Downtown St. Louis, forming the fourth-longest river system in the world. The estimated 2018 population of the city proper was 302,838[8] and the bi-state metropolitan area was 2,804,724. Greater St. Louis is the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, second-largest in Illinois, seventh-largest in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American الثقافة المسيسپية. The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, and named after لويس التاسع من فرنسا. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.[9] During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River; at the time of the 1870 Census, it was the fourth-largest city in the country. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics.

A "Gamma" global city with a metropolitan GDP of more than $160 billion in 2017,[10] metropolitan St. Louis's diverse economy has strengths in the service, manufacturing, trade, transportation, and tourism industries. The metropolitan area is home to nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri. Major companies headquartered or with significant operations within the city proper include Ameren Corporation, Peabody Energy, Nestlé Purina PetCare, Anheuser-Busch InBev, Wells Fargo Advisors, Stifel Financial, Spire, Inc., MilliporeSigma, FleishmanHillard, Square, Inc., U.S. Bank, Anthem BlueCross and Blue Shield, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and AT&T.

Major research universities within the city proper include جامعة سانت لويس and a small portion of the east end of the main campus of Washington University in St. Louis, with the majority of the main campus located in unincorporated St. Louis County and Clayton. The Washington University Medical Center, located in the Central West End neighborhood, hosts an agglomeration of medical and pharmaceutical institutions, including the Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

St. Louis has three professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, and the St. Louis BattleHawks of the XFL. In 2019, the city was awarded a Major League Soccer franchise, which will begin play upon the completion of a 22,500-seat stadium in the city's Downtown West neighborhood in 2022. Among the city's notable sights is the 630-قدم (192 م) Gateway Arch in the downtown area. St. Louis is also home to the St. Louis Zoo, ranked as one of the nation's best,[11] and the Missouri Botanical Garden, with the second-largest herbarium in North America.[12]

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التاريخ

تأسست مدينة سانت لويس في عام 1673 لدى وصول المستكشفين الفرنسيين إلى تلك المنطقة في وسط دلتا المسيسيپي. وكان في المدينة العديد من التلال ولكنها قد زالت ولذلك تسمى "مدينة التلال".


الثقافة المسيسپية والاستكشاف

الارتباطات التاريخية
Artist's conception of the Mississippian culture Cahokia Mounds Site in Illinois.
Artist's conception of the Mississippian culture Cahokia Mounds Site in Illinois across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis.

The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City". These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek.

European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane.

The home of Auguste Chouteau in St. Louis. Chouteau and Pierre Laclède founded St. Louis in 1764.

The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River (e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s.

In 1764, after France lost the Seven Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis.[13] (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain were 18th-century allies. Louis XV of France and Charles III of Spain were cousins, both from the House of Bourbon.[14][مرجع دائرة مفرغة]) The French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city.

France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. These areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.[15]

تأسيس المدينة (فترة لويزيانا الفرنسية والاسبانية)

Drawing of the St. Louis street grid from the 1780s showing the river and a small village
A map of St. Louis, Illinois in 1780. From the archives in Seville, Spain

The founding of St. Louis was preceded by a trading business between Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent and Pierre Laclède (Liguest) in the fall of 1763. Maxent invested in a Mississippi River expedition led by Laclède, who searched for a location to base the company's fur trading operations. Though Ste. Genevieve was already established as a trading center, he sought a place less prone to flooding. He found an elevated area overlooking the flood plain of the Mississippi River, not far south from its confluence with the Missouri and Illinois rivers. In addition to having an advantageous natural drainage system, there were nearby forested areas to supply timber and grasslands which could easily converted for agricultural purposes. This place, declared Laclède, “might become, hereafter, one of the finest cities in America.” He dispatched his fourteen-year-old stepson, Auguste Chouteau, to the site, with the support of thirty settlers in February 1764.[16]


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الجغرافيا

التوزيع السكاني

A simulated-color satellite image of the St. Louis area taken on NASA's Landsat 4.

طبقا لإحصائيات مكتب التعداد في الولايات المتحدة ، فإن إجمالي مساحة سانت لويس تصل إلى 171.3 كم2 وذلك من أصل 160.4 كم2 حيث كانت المساحة الأصلية للمدينة والتي امتدت لمسافة من 100-200 قدم للضفة الغربية لنهر المسيسيبي. ويوجد في تلك المساحة كميات كبيرة من مظاهر السطح من تلال ومرتفعات ووديان. ويقطع نهر المسيسيبي و نهر ميسوري وسط مدينة سانت لويس.

المناخ

تتميز مدينة سانت لويس بمناخ شبه قاري متغير ، وتتمتع بطقسين متغيرين ، حيث أنه لا يوجد بها جبال مرتفعة أو مساحات كبيرة من المياه لتخفف من درجة حرارتها. ويأتي الهواء الساخن والطقس الإستوائي الرطب من خليج المكسيك ليؤثر على طقس المدينة. وتتداخل فصول السنة الاربعة في المدينة. تبلغ متوسطات درجات الحرارة في المدينة والمسجلة للفترة من 1970 - 2000 ، في شهر يوليو حيث تصل أعلى درجاتها 89 ف. (32 س) وشتاءا في يناير حيث تنخقش درجات الحرارة لتصل إلى 56.3 ف. (13.5 س). وتصل نسبة سقوط الأمطار على المدينة حوالي 37.15 بوصة سنويا. وأعلى درجة حرارة تم تسجيلها في المدينة كانت سنة 1954 حيث وصلت إلى 115 ف. (46.1 س.) ، وأقل درجة حرارة سجلت في المدينة كانت سنة 1873 حيث وصلت الحرارة إلى 23 ف. (-30.6 س.).[17]

متوسطات الطقس لسانت لويس، مزوري
شهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر السنة
متوسط العظمى °ف (°م) 39 (3) 44 (6) 54 (12) 67 (19) 76 (24) 85 (30) 89 (32) 87 (31) 80 (27) 69 (21) 54 (12) 43 (6) 66 (19)
متوسط الصغرى °ف (°م) 21 (-6) 25 (-3) 34 (1) 46 (7) 55 (12) 65 (18) 69 (20) 67 (19) 59 (15) 48 (8) 36 (2) 26 (-3) 46 (7)
هطول الأمطار بوصة (mm) 2.0 (51) 2.1 (53) 3.3 (84) 3.6 (91) 3.9 (99) 3.8 (97) 3.8 (97) 3.0 (84) 3.0 (84) 2.8 (71) 3.1 (79) 2.6 (66) 37٫1 (942)
المصدر: Weatherbase[18] يناير 2007


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الحياة النباتية والحيوانية

Metropolitan statistical area


المنظر العام للمدينة

منظر پانورامي لأفق سانت لويس. المبنى الكبير على الجانب الأيمن من القوس هو One Metropolitan Square. أعلى مبنى على يساره هو One AT&T Center. The tallest building on the right is One US Bank Plaza. المبنى المقبب إلى يسار القوس هو Thomas F. Eagleton Courthouse. The domed building beneath the arch is the Old Courthouse.
Benton Park West Streetscape
Soulard Homes


المعالم

الاسم الوصف صورة
Gateway Arch At 630 قدم (190 م), it is the world's tallest arch and tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere.[19] Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Park which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018. St Louis night expblend cropped.jpg
St. Louis Art Museum Built for the 1904 World's Fair, with a building designed by Cass Gilbert, the museum houses paintings, sculptures, and cultural objects. The museum is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. St. Louis Art Museum.JPG
Missouri Botanical Garden Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It spans 79 acres in the Shaw neighborhood, including a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese garden and the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis Dedicated in 1914, it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and the seat of its archbishop. The church is known for its large mosaic installation (which is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere with 41.5 million pieces), burial crypts, and its outdoor sculpture. Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis.JPG
City Hall Located in Downtown West, City Hall was designed by Harvey Ellis in 1892 in the Renaissance Revival style. It is reminiscent of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. St Louis MO City Hall 20150905-100.jpg
Central Library Completed in 1912, the Central Library building was designed by Cass Gilbert. It serves as the main location for the St. Louis Public Library. STLCentrallibrary.jpg
City Museum City Museum is a play house museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District. City Museum outdoor structures.jpg
Old Courthouse Built in the 19th century, it served as a federal and state courthouse. The Scott v. Sandford case was tried at the courthouse in 1846. The Old Courthouse, Saint Louis, Missouri.JPG
St. Louis Science Center Founded in 1963, it includes a science museum and a planetarium, and is situated in Forest Park. Admission is free. It is one of two science centers in the United States which offers free general admission. McDonnellPlanetarium.jpg
St. Louis Symphony Founded in 1880, the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra is the second-oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, preceded by the New York Philharmonic. Its principal concert venue is Powell Symphony Hall. 782px-Powell Symphony Hall.jpg
Union Station Built in 1888, it was the city's main passenger intercity train terminal. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the 1980s into a hotel, shopping center, and entertainment complex. Today, it also continues to serve local rail (MetroLink) transit passengers, with Amtrak service nearby. St. Louis Union Station (17577826564).jpg
St. Louis Zoo Built for the 1904 World's Fair, it is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. It is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. Monkey House at Forest Park. St. Louis. Mo (63214).jpg

الثقافة

السياحة

St. Louis Union Station is a National Historic Landmark which includes a hotel and shops.
Laclede's Landing is a downtown entertainment district with restaurants and nightclubs.
View of the Arch from the Old Cathedral.
Bald Eagle at the St. Louis Zoo.
Lewis and Clark sculpture on the riverfront

On the Riverfront two sculptural groups has been designated a National Lewis and Clark site by the National Park Service. This includes a twice life sized grouping of Lewis and Clark on the St. Louis Riverfront which commemorated the final celebration of the bicentennial of the expedition. These sculptures were done by Harry Weber

السياحة خارج المدينة

الترفيه والفنون المسرحية

الحدائق والأماكن المفتوحة

Old footbridge in Forest Park.
Missouri Botanical Garden

الرياضة

الفريق الرياضة الإتحاد سنة التأسيس المكان البطولات
St. Louis Blues هوكي National Hockey League-Western Conference 1967 Scottrade Center 0
St. Louis Cardinals بيسبول Major League Baseball-National League 1892 Busch Stadium 10
St. Louis Rams كرة قدم National Football League : NFC 1936(1995 for STL) Edward Jones Dome 1
River City Rascals بيسبول Frontier League 1999 T.R. Hughes Ballpark 1 (As Zanesville Greys)
Gateway Grizzlies بيسبول Frontier League 2001 GCS Ballpark 1
St. Louis Stunners كلة سلة American Basketball Association 2006 TBA
River City Rage Indoor Football United Indoor Football 2001 Family Arena
St. Louis Bandits هوكي North American Hockey League 2003 (STL since 2006) Hardee's Iceplex 2
St. Louis Aces تنس World TeamTennis Pro League 1994 Dwight Davis Memorial Tennis Center
Arch Rival Rollergirls Roller Derby WFTDA 2005 All American Sports Mall
St. Louis Hurling Club Hurling North American County Board (NACB) 2002 Tower Grove Park Kennedy Field Forest Park
St. Louis Sabres Women's Rugby Club Rugby USA Rugby 1976 Forest Park

الإعلام

الإقتصاد

السكان

التعداد تاريخياً
الإحصاء التعداد
18304٬977
184016٬469230.9%
185077٬860372.8%
1860160٬773106.5%
1870310٬86493.4%
1880350٬51812.8%
1890451٬77028.9%
1900575٬23827.3%
1910687٬02919.4%
1920772٬89712.5%
1930821٬9606.3%
1940816٬048-0.7%
1950856٬7965.0%
1960750٬026-12.5%
1970622٬236-17.0%
1980452٬801-27.2%
1990396٬685-12.4%
2000348٬189-12.2%
تقديري 2006353٬8371.6%

الحكومة والقانون

الجريمة والشئون الإجتماعية


Education

التعليم العام

التعليم الخاص

التعليم العالي

البنية التحتية

الطب

النقل

Interstate 70 in downtown St. Louis

الطرق والطرق السريعة

المطارات

النقل العام

مدن شقيقة

يوجد أربعة عشر مدينة شقيقة لمدينة سانت لويس:[20]

انظر أيضا


وصلات خارجية

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب "St. Louis United States – Visiting the Gateway to the West". Globosapiens.net. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  2. ^ St. Louis Public Library on "Mound City" Archived October 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine..
  3. ^ STLtoday.com on "The Lou".
  4. ^ "Rome of the West". Stltoday.com. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  5. ^ "Accepted Challenges to Vintage 2006 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
  6. ^ Missouri QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 9, 2019. Retrieved October 9, 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "American FactFinder Largest Cities". factfinder.census.gov. June 12, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  9. ^ "Louisiana Purchase - United States history". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  10. ^ "Regional Data - GDP & Personal Income". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  11. ^ "St. Louis Zoo named 'Best Zoo' and wins 'Best Zoo Exhibit' in Readers' Choice Awards". FOX2now.com (in الإنجليزية). 2018-05-04. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  12. ^ "Missouri Botanical Garden". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  13. ^ Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth, Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2.
  14. ^ Pacte de Famille#The third Pacte de Famille
  15. ^ www.usgennet.org. Attack On St. Louis: May 26, 1780.
  16. ^ Wade, Richard C. (1959). The Urban Frontier: The Rise of Western Cities, 1790–1830 (1996 Illini Books ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-252-06422-4.
  17. ^ St. Louis weather records at NOAA.
  18. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America". Retrieved 2007-01-29.
  19. ^ Lohraff, Kevin (2009). Hiking Missouri (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-7360-7588-6. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
  20. ^ "St. Louis Sister Cities". St. Louis Center for International Relations. Retrieved 2008-05-19.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:St. Louis

قالب:Stl neighborhoods

قالب:Missouri cities and mayors of 100,000 population

قالب:Midwestern United States قالب:Midwestern U.S. majority-minority counties