مراقبة

كاميرات مراقبة
كاميرا مراقبة لدعم شرطة العاصمة واشنطن

مراقبة Surveillance هي مراقبة السلوك أو الأنشطة أو المعلومات لغرض جمع المعلومات أو التأثير عليها أو إدارتها أو توجيهها.[1][2] يمكن أن يشمل ذلك المراقبة من مسافة بواسطة معدات إلكترونية، مثل الدوائر التلفزيونية (CCTV)، أو اعتراض المعلومات المرسلة إلكترونياً، مثل حركة الإنترنت. يمكن أن تتضمن أيضاً طرقاً تقنية بسيطة، مثل جمع المعلومات البشرية و الاعتراض البريدي.

تُستخدم المراقبة من قبل الحكومات لجمع المعلومات الاستخباراتية، أو منع الجريمة، أو حماية عملية، أو شخص، أو مجموعة أو شيء، أو التحقيق في الجريمة. كما يتم استخدامه من قبل المنظمات الإجرامية للتخطيط لارتكاب الجرائم، ومن قبل الشركات لجمع المعلومات الاستخبارية عن المجرمين أو منافسيهم أو الموردين أو العملاء. قد تقوم المنظمات الدينية المكلفة بالكشف عن هرطقة و عدم الاستقامة بالمراقبة.[3]حيث يقوم المدققون بشكل ما من أشكال المراقبة.[4]

يمكن للحكومات استخدام المراقبة لانتهاك خصوصية الأشخاص بشكل غير مبرر وغالباً ما يتم انتقادها من قبل نشطاء الحريات المدنية.[5]قد يكون لدى الديمقراطيات الليبرالية قوانين تسعى إلى تقييد الاستخدام الحكومي والخاص للمراقبة، بينما نادراً ما يكون لدى الحكومات السلطوية أي قيود محلية. ويبدو أن التجسس الدولي شائع بين جميع أنواع البلدان.[6][7]

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أساليب المراقبة

الحاسب

الختم الرسمي لـ مكتب التوعية الإعلامية - وهي وكالة أمريكية طورت تقنيات من أجل المراقبة الجماعية

تتضمن الغالبية العظمى من المراقبة الحاسوبية مراقبة البيانات و حركة الإنترنت.[8]في الولايات المتحدة على سبيل المثال، بموجب Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act، يجب أن تكون جميع المكالمات الهاتفية وحركة الإنترنت ذات النطاق العريض (رسائل البريد الإلكتروني، وحركة الوب، والرسائل الفورية، وما إلى ذلك) متاحة للمراقبة في الوقت الفعلي دون عوائق من قبل وكالات تنفيذ القانون الفيدرالية.[9][10][11]

يحوي الإنترنت الكثير من البيانات وبسبب عدم قدرة المحققون\المدققون البشريون من البحث فيها يدوياً، تقوم أجهزة الحاسب الآلية للمراقبة عبر الإنترنت بفحص الكم الهائل من حركة الإنترنت التي يتم اعتراضها لتحديد وإبلاغ المحققين البشريين عن الحركة التي تعتبر مثيرة للاهتمام أو مشبوهة. يتم تنظيم هذه العملية من خلال استهداف كلمات أو عبارات "محفزة" معينة، أو زيارة أنواع معينة من مواقع الوب، أو التواصل عبر البريد الإلكتروني أو الدردشة عبر الإنترنت مع أفراد أو مجموعات مشبوهة.[12] تنفق الوكالات مليارات الدولارات سنوياً، مثل وكالة الأمن القومي و مكتب التحقيقات الفدرالي و مكتب التوعية الإعلامية، لتطوير وشراء وتنفيذ وتشغيل أنظمة مثل كارنيڤور و ناروس إنسايت و إتشلون لاعتراض كل هذه البيانات وتحليلها لاستخراج المعلومات المفيدة فقط لأجهزة\وكالات تنفيذ القانون والاستخبارات.[13]

يمكن أن تكون أجهزة الحاسب هدفاً للمراقبة بسبب البيانات الشخصية المخزنة عليها. إذا كان شخص ما قادراً على تثبيت برنامج، مثل مادجك لانترن الخاص بـ FBI و CIPAV، على نظام الحاسب، فيمكنه بسهولة الوصول غير المصرح به إلى هذه البيانات. يمكن تثبيت مثل هذه البرامج مادياً أو عن بُعد.[14]هناك شكل آخر من أشكال المراقبة الحاسوبية، يُعرف باسم van Eck phreaking، يتضمن قراءة الانبعاث الكهرومغناطيسي من الأجهزة الحاسوبية لاستخراج البيانات منها على مسافات تصل إلى مئات الأمتار.[15][16] تدير وكالة الأمن القومي قاعدة بيانات تُعرف باسم "پنويل"، والتي تخزن وتفهرس أعداداً كبيرة من رسائل البريد الإلكتروني لكل من المواطنين الأمريكيين والأجانب.[17][18] بالإضافة إلى ذلك، تدير وكالة الأمن القومي برنامجاً يُعرف باسم پريزم، وهو نظام للتنقيب عن البيانات يمنح حكومة الولايات المتحدة الوصول المباشر إلى المعلومات من شركات التكنولوجيا. من خلال الوصول إلى هذه المعلومات، تستطيع الحكومة الحصول على محفوظات البحث ورسائل البريد الإلكتروني والمعلومات المخزنة والمحادثات الحية ونقل الملفات والمزيد. أثار هذا البرنامج جدلاً كبيراً فيما يتعلق بالمراقبة والخصوصية، خاصة من مواطني الولايات المتحدة.[19][20]

الهواتف

التنصت الرسمي وغير الرسمي على خطوط الهاتف منتشر على نطاق واسع. في الولايات المتحدة على سبيل المثال، يتطلب Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act (CALEA أن تكون جميع الاتصالات الهاتفية والمكالمات الصوتية عبر پروتوكول الإنترنت متاحة للتنصت على المكالمات الهاتفية في الوقت الفعلي من قبل سلطات إنفاذ القانون الفيدرالية ووكالات المخابرات.[9][10][11] تمتلك شركتا اتصالات رئيسيتان في الولايات المتحدة - أي تي أند تي و ڤرايزون - عقوداً مع مكتب التحقيقات الفيدرالي، تتطلب منهما الاحتفاظ بسجلات مكالماتهما الهاتفية سهلة البحث والوصول إليها للوكالات الفيدرالية، مقابل 1.8 مليون دولار لكل عام.[21]بين عامي 2003 و 2005، أرسل مكتب التحقيقات الفيدرالي (FBI) أكثر من 140.000 "خطاب الأمن القومي تطلب من شركات الهاتف تسليم معلومات حول مكالمات عملائها وتاريخ الإنترنت. طلب حوالي نصف هذه الرسائل معلومات عن المواطنين الأمريكيين.[22]

لا يلزم وجود وكلاء بشريين لمراقبة معظم المكالمات. ينشئ برنامج تمييز الكلام نصاً يمكن قراءته آلياً من الصوت المعترض، والذي تتم معالجته بعد ذلك بواسطة برامج تحليل المكالمات الآلية، مثل تلك التي طورتها وكالات مثل مكتب التوعية الإعلامية، أو شركات مثل كـ ڤيرنت و ناروس، اللذان يبحثان عن كلمات أو عبارات معينة، لتقرير ما إذا كان سيتم تكريس عامل بشري للمكالمة.[23]

تمتلك أجهزة إنفاذ القانون والاستخبارات في المملكة المتحدة والولايات المتحدة تقنية لتنشيط الميكروفونات في الهواتف المحمولة عن بُعد، من خلال الوصول إلى ميزات التشخيص أو الصيانة الخاصة بالهواتف من أجل الاستماع إلى المحادثات التي تجري بالقرب من الشخص الذي يحمل الهاتف.[24][25][26][27][28][29]

يعد تعقب ستنگراي مثالاً على إحدى هذه الأدوات المستخدمة لمراقبة استخدام الهواتف المحمولة في الولايات المتحدة والمملكة المتحدة. تم تطويرها في الأصل لأغراض مكافحة الإرهاب من قبل الجيش، وهي تعمل عن طريق بث إشارات قوية تجعل الهواتف المحمولة القريبة ترسل رقم IMSI، تماماً كما تفعل مع أبراج الهواتف المحمولة العادية. بمجرد توصيل الهاتف بالجهاز، لا توجد طريقة للمستخدم لمعرفة أنه يتم تعقبه. مشغل ستنگراي قادر على استخراج معلومات مثل الموقع والمكالمات الهاتفية والرسائل النصية، ولكن يُعتقد على نطاق واسع أن قدرات ستنگراي تمتد إلى أبعد من ذلك بكثير. يحيط الكثير من الجدل بشركة ستنگراي بسبب قدراتها القوية والسرية التي تحيط بها.[30]

تستخدم الهواتف المحمولة أيضاً بشكل شائع لجمع بيانات الموقع. يمكن تحديد الموقع الجغرافي للهاتف النقال (وبالتالي الشخص الذي يحمله) بسهولة حتى في حالة عدم استخدام الهاتف، وذلك باستخدام تقنية تُعرف باسم متعدد الأطراف لحساب الاختلافات في الوقت الذي تنتقل فيه الإشارة من الهاتف الخلوي إلى كل من الأبراج الخلوية بالقرب من صاحب الهاتف.[31][32]تم التشكيك في شرعية مثل هذه الأساليب في الولايات المتحدة، ولا سيما ما إذا كان أمر المحكمة مطلوباً.[33]أظهرت سجلات شركة النقل وحدها (Sprint) أنه في سنة معينة طلبت وكالات إنفاذ القانون الفيدرالية بيانات موقع العميل 8 ملايين مرة.[34]

المقر الرئيسي للأنشطة الاستخباراتية في المملكة المتحدة هو مركز الاتصالات الحكومية (بريطانيا)، شلتنهام، إنگلترا (2017)

استجابةً لمخاوف خصوصية العملاء في فترة ما بعد إدوارد سنودن،[35]تم تصميم آيفون 6 من أپل لتعطيل جهود التنصت على المكالمات الهاتفية الاستقصائية. يقوم الهاتف بتشفير رسائل البريد الإلكتروني وجهات الاتصال والصور باستخدام رمز تم إنشاؤه بواسطة خوارزمية رياضية معقدة فريدة من نوعها لهاتف فردي ولا يمكن الوصول إليها من قبل أپل.[36] أثارت ميزة التشفير على آيفون 6 انتقادات من مدير مكتب التحقيقات الفيدرالي جيمس ب. أفراد إنفاذ القانون إما لكسر الرمز بأنفسهم أو للحصول على الرمز من مالك الهاتف.[36] نظراً لأن تسريبات سنودن أظهرت أن الوكالات الأمريكية يمكنها الوصول إلى الهواتف في أي مكان في العالم، فقد اشتدت مخاوف الخصوصية في البلدان ذات الأسواق المتنامية للهواتف الذكية، مما يوفر حافزاً قوياً لشركات مثل أپل لمعالجة هذه المخاوف في من أجل تأمين مركزهم في السوق العالمية.[36]

على الرغم من أن CALEA تتطلب من شركات الاتصال عن بعد أن تبني في أنظمتها القدرة على إجراء تنصت قانوني، لم يتم تحديث القانون لمعالجة مشكلة الهواتف الذكية والطلبات للوصول إلى رسائل البريد الإلكتروني و البيانات الوصفية.[37]تُظهر تسريبات سنودن أن وكالة الأمن القومي كانت تستغل هذا الغموض في القانون من خلال جمع البيانات الوصفية حول "مئات الملايين على الأقل" من الأهداف "العرضية" من جميع أنحاء العالم.[37] تستخدم وكالة الأمن القومي أداة تحليلية تُعرف باسم CO-TRAVELER لتتبع الأشخاص الذين تتقاطع حركاتهم وإيجاد أي اتصالات خفية مع الأشخاص محل الاهتمام.[37]

كما كشفت تسريبات سنودن أن المقر الرئيسي للاتصالات الحكومية البريطانية (GCHQ) يمكنهم الوصول إلى المعلومات التي جمعتها وكالة الأمن القومي عن المواطنين الأمريكيين. بمجرد أن يتم جمع البيانات، يمكن لـ GCHQ الاحتفاظ بها لمدة تصل إلى عامين. يمكن تمديد الموعد النهائي بإذن من "مسؤول بريطاني كبير".[38][39]


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الكاميرات

كاميرا مراقبة في كيرنز، كوينزلاند
يتم تثبيت كاميرات مراقبة مثل هذه من قبل الملايين في العديد من البلدان، ويتم مراقبتها في الوقت الحاضر بواسطة برامج الحاسب الآلية بدلاً من البشر.

كاميرات المراقبة هي كاميرات فيديو تستخدم لغرض مراقبة منطقة ما. غالباً ما تكون متصلة بجهاز تسجيل أو شبكة IP، ويمكن مراقبتها بواسطة حارس الأمن أو مسؤول تنفيذ القانون. كانت الكاميرات ومعدات التسجيل باهظة الثمن نسبياً وتتطلب أفراداً بشريين لمراقبة لقطات الكاميرا، ولكن تحليل اللقطات أصبح أسهل من خلال البرامج الآلية التي تنظم لقطات الفيديو الرقمية في قاعدة بيانات قابلة للبحث، ومن خلال برامج تحليل الفيديو (كـ VIRAT و HumanID). يتم أيضاً تقليل كمية اللقطات بشكل كبير بواسطة مستشعرات الحركة التي تسجل فقط عند اكتشاف الحركة. مع تقنيات الإنتاج الأرخص، تكون كاميرات المراقبة بسيطة وغير مكلفة بما يكفي لاستخدامها في أنظمة الأمن المنزلية والمراقبة اليومية.

اعتباراً من عام 2016، هناك حوالي 350 مليون كاميرا مراقبة في جميع أنحاء العالم. حوالي 65٪ من هذه الكاميرات مثبتة في آسيا. تباطأ نمو الدوائر التلفزيونية في السنوات الأخيرة.[40]في عام 2018، أفادت التقارير أن الصين لديها شبكة مراقبة ضخمة تضم أكثر من 170 مليون كاميرا مراقبة مع 400 مليون كاميرا جديدة من المتوقع أن يتم تركيبها في السنوات الثلاث المقبلة ، وكثير منها يستخدم تقنية التعرف على الأوجه.[41]

في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لتركيب أجهزة حديثة للمراقبة بالفيديو. على سبيل المثال، استخدمت مدينة شيكاغو، بولاية إلينوي، مؤخراً موافقة الأمن الداخلي بقيمة 5.1 مليون دولار لتركيب 250 كاميرا مراقبة إضافية، وربطها بمركز مراقبة مركزي، جنباً إلى جنب مع شبكتها الموجودة مسبقاً التي تضم أكثر من 2000 كاميرا، في برنامج يعرف باسم قبة العمليات الافتراضية. في حديثه في عام 2009، أعلن عمدة شيكاغو رتشارد دالي أن شيكاغو سيكون لديها كاميرا مراقبة في كل زاوية شارع بحلول عام 2016.[42][43]تلقت مدينة نيويورك منحة قدرها 350 مليون دولار لتطوير ظام دومين أويرنس،[44] وهو عبارة عن نظام مترابط من أجهزة الاستشعار بما في ذلك 18000 كاميرا CCTV تستخدم للمراقبة المستمرة للمدينة[45]من قبل كل من ضباط الشرطة و أنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي.[44]

في المملكة المتحدة، لا يتم تشغيل الغالبية العظمى من كاميرات المراقبة بالفيديو من قبل الهيئات الحكومية، ولكن من قبل أفراد أو شركات خاصة، خاصة لمراقبة التصميمات الداخلية للمحلات التجارية والشركات. وفقاً لطلبات قانون حرية المعلومات لعام 2011، كان العدد الإجمالي لكاميرات الدوائر التلفزيونية المغلقة التي تديرها الحكومة المحلية حوالي 52000 في جميع أنحاء المملكة المتحدة.[46] غالباً ما يتم المبالغة في انتشار المراقبة بالفيديو في المملكة المتحدة بسبب التقديرات غير الموثوقة التي يتم إعادة تسعيرها;[47][48]على سبيل المثال تقرير واحد في 2002 استقراء من عينة صغيرة جداً لتقدير عدد الكاميرات في المملكة المتحدة بـ 4.2 مليون (منها 500000 كانت في لندن العظمى).[49]تشير تقديرات أكثر موثوقية إلى أن عدد الكاميرات التي تديرها الحكومة المحلية والخاصة في المملكة المتحدة يبلغ حوالي 1.85 مليون في عام 2011.[50]

في هولندا، أحد الأمثلة على المدن التي توجد بها كاميرات هي لاهاي. هناك، يتم وضع الكاميرات في أحياء المدينة التي يتركز فيها معظم الأنشطة غير القانونية. الأمثلة هي أحياء الأضواء الحمراء ومحطات القطار.[51]

كجزء من مشروع الدرع الذهبي في الصين، تعمل العديد من الشركات الأمريكية، بما في ذلك آي‌بي‌إم و جنرال إلكتريك و هني‌ول، بشكل وثيق مع حكومة الصين لتثبيت ملايين كاميرات المراقبة في جميع أنحاء الصين، جنباً إلى جنب مع تحليل محتوى الفيديو المتقدمة وبرامج التعرف على الوجه، والتي ستحدد وتتعقب الأفراد في كل مكان يذهبون إليه. سيتم توصيلهم بقاعدة بيانات مركزية ومحطة مراقبة، والتي ستحتوي، عند الانتهاء من المشروع، على صورة لوجه كل شخص في الصين: أكثر من 1.3 مليار شخص.[52] ينسب لين جانگ هواي، رئيس مكتب "تكنولوجيا أمن المعلومات" في الصين (المسؤول عن المشروع)، الفضل إلى أنظمة المراقبة في الولايات المتحدة والمملكة المتحدة باعتبارها مصدر إلهام لما يفعله مع مشروع الدرع الذهبي.[52]

كاميرا مراقبة للمعلومات تم تصنيعها بواسطة شركة كونتروپ وتوزيعها على الحكومة الأمريكية بواسطة ADI للتقنيات

تمول وكالة مشروعات الدفاع البحثية المتقدمة (DARPA) مشروعاً بحثياً يسمى Combat Zones That See الذي سيربط الكاميرات عبر المدينة بمحطة مراقبة مركزية، وتحديد الأفراد والمركبات وتتبعهم أثناء تحركهم عبر المدينة، والإبلاغ عن نشاط "مشبوه" (مثل التلويح بالأسلحة، والنظر جنباً إلى جنب، والوقوف في مجموعة، وما إلى ذلك).[53]

في Super Bowl XXXV في يناير 2001، استخدمت الشرطة في تامبا، فلوريدا، برنامج التعرف على الوجه آيدنتكس، فيس آي تي، لفحص الحشد بحثاً عن المجرمين المحتملين والإرهابيين الذين حضروا الحدث[54] (وجدت 19 شخصا لديهم أوامر توقيف معلقة).[55]

[56]غالباً ما تدعي الحكومات في البداية أن الكاميرات مخصصة للاستخدام مراقبة حركة المرور، ولكن ينتهي الأمر بالعديد منها لاستخدامها في المراقبة العامة. على سبيل المثال، كان لدى واشنطن العاصمة 5000 كاميرا "حركة مرور" مثبتة في إطار هذه الفرضية، وبعد أن تم تركيبها جميعاً في مكانها، تم توصيلهم جميعاً معاً ومن ثم منحهم حق الوصول إلى قسم شرطة العاصمة، حتى يتمكنوا من أداء "مرقبة المهام اليومية".[57]

تمت مناقشة تطوير شبكات مركزية لكاميرات الدوائر التلفزيونية التي تراقب المناطق العامة - المرتبطة بقواعد بيانات الحاسب لصور الأشخاص وهويتهم (المقاييس الحيوية)، وقادرة على تتبع تحركات الأشخاص في جميع أنحاء المدينة، وتحديد الأشخاص الذين كانوا معهم - من قبل البعض لتشكيل خطر على الحريات المدنية.[58]وتراپ واير مثال على مثل هذه الشبكة.[59]

Social network analysis

A graph of the relationships between users on the social networking site Facebook. Social network analysis enables governments to gather detailed information about peoples' friends, family, and other contacts. Since much of this information is voluntarily made public by the users themselves, it is often consider to be a form of open-source intelligence

One common form of surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data from social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call records such as those in the NSA call database,[60] and others. These social network "maps" are then data mined to extract useful information such as personal interests, friendships & affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities.[61][62][63]

Many U.S. government agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the National Security Agency (NSA), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are investing heavily in research involving social network analysis.[64][65] The intelligence community believes that the biggest threat to U.S. power comes from decentralized, leaderless, geographically dispersed groups of terrorists, subversives, extremists, and dissidents. These types of threats are most easily countered by finding important nodes in the network, and removing them. To do this requires a detailed map of the network.[66][67][68]

Jason Ethier of Northeastern University, in his study of modern social network analysis, said the following of the Scalable Social Network Analysis Program developed by the Information Awareness Office:

The purpose of the SSNA algorithms program is to extend techniques of social network analysis to assist with distinguishing potential terrorist cells from legitimate groups of people.... In order to be successful SSNA will require information on the social interactions of the majority of people around the globe. Since the Defense Department cannot easily distinguish between peaceful citizens and terrorists, it will be necessary for them to gather data on innocent civilians as well as on potential terrorists.

— Jason Ethier[63]

AT&T developed a programming language called "Hancock", which is able to sift through enormous databases of phone call and Internet traffic records, such as the NSA call database, and extract "communities of interest"—groups of people who call each other regularly, or groups that regularly visit certain sites on the Internet. AT&T originally built the system to develop "marketing leads",[69] but the FBI has regularly requested such information from phone companies such as AT&T without a warrant,[69] and, after using the data, stores all information received in its own databases, regardless of whether or not the information was ever useful in an investigation.[70]

Some people believe that the use of social networking sites is a form of "participatory surveillance", where users of these sites are essentially performing surveillance on themselves, putting detailed personal information on public websites where it can be viewed by corporations and governments.[61] In 2008, about 20% of employers reported using social networking sites to collect personal data on prospective or current employees.[71]


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Biometric

Fingerprints being scanned as part of the US-VISIT program

Biometric surveillance is a technology that measures and analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes.[72] Examples of physical characteristics include fingerprints, DNA, and facial patterns. Examples of mostly behavioral characteristics include gait (a person's manner of walking) or voice.

Facial recognition is the use of the unique configuration of a person's facial features to accurately identify them, usually from surveillance video. Both the Department of Homeland Security and DARPA are heavily funding research into facial recognition systems.[73] The Information Processing Technology Office ran a program known as Human Identification at a Distance which developed technologies that are capable of identifying a person at up to 500 قدم (150 م) by their facial features.

Another form of behavioral biometrics, based on affective computing, involves computers recognizing a person's emotional state based on an analysis of their facial expressions, how fast they are talking, the tone and pitch of their voice, their posture, and other behavioral traits. This might be used for instance to see if a person's behavior is suspect (looking around furtively, "tense" or "angry" facial expressions, waving arms, etc.).[74]

A more recent development is DNA profiling, which looks at some of the major markers in the body's DNA to produce a match. The FBI is spending $1 billion to build a new biometric database, which will store DNA, facial recognition data, iris/retina (eye) data, fingerprints, palm prints, and other biometric data of people living in the United States. The computers running the database are contained in an underground facility about the size of two American football fields.[75][76][77]

The Los Angeles Police Department is installing automated facial recognition and license plate recognition devices in its squad cars, and providing handheld face scanners, which officers will use to identify people while on patrol.[78][79][80]

Facial thermographs are in development, which allow machines to identify certain emotions in people such as fear or stress, by measuring the temperature generated by blood flow to different parts of the face.[81] Law enforcement officers believe that this has potential for them to identify when a suspect is nervous, which might indicate that they are hiding something, lying, or worried about something.[81]

In his paper in Ethics and Information Technology, Avi Marciano maps the harms caused by biometric surveillance, traces their theoretical origins, and brings these harms together in one integrative framework to elucidate their cumulative power. Marciano proposes four types of harms: Unauthorized use of bodily information, denial or limitation of access to physical spaces, bodily social sorting, and symbolic ineligibility through construction of marginality and otherness. Biometrics' social power, according to Marciano, derives from three main features: their complexity as "enigmatic technologies", their objective-scientific image, and their increasing agency, particularly in the context of automatic decision-making.

Aerial

Micro Air Vehicle with attached surveillance camera

Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle—such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane. Military surveillance aircraft use a range of sensors (e.g. radar) to monitor the battlefield.

Digital imaging technology, miniaturized computers, and numerous other technological advances over the past decade have contributed to rapid advances in aerial surveillance hardware such as micro-aerial vehicles, forward-looking infrared, and high-resolution imagery capable of identifying objects at extremely long distances. For instance, the MQ-9 Reaper,[82] a U.S. drone plane used for domestic operations by the Department of Homeland Security, carries cameras that are capable of identifying an object the size of a milk carton from altitudes of 30,000 قدم (9.1 kم), and has forward-looking infrared devices that can detect the heat from a human body at distances of up to 60 kiloمترs (37 mi).[83] In an earlier instance of commercial aerial surveillance, the Killington Mountain ski resort hired 'eye in the sky' aerial photography of its competitors' parking lots to judge the success of its marketing initiatives as it developed starting in the 1950s.[84]

HART program concept drawing from official IPTO (DARPA) official website

The United States Department of Homeland Security is in the process of testing UAVs to patrol the skies over the United States for the purposes of critical infrastructure protection, border patrol, "transit monitoring", and general surveillance of the U.S. population.[85] Miami-Dade police department ran tests with a vertical take-off and landing UAV from Honeywell, which is planned to be used in SWAT operations.[86] Houston's police department has been testing fixed-wing UAVs for use in "traffic control".[86]

The United Kingdom, as well, is working on plans to build up a fleet of surveillance UAVs ranging from micro-aerial vehicles to full-size drones, to be used by police forces throughout the U.K.[87]

In addition to their surveillance capabilities, MAVs are capable of carrying tasers for "crowd control", or weapons for killing enemy combatants.[88]

Programs such as the Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team program developed by DARPA have automated much of the aerial surveillance process. They have developed systems consisting of large teams drone planes that pilot themselves, automatically decide who is "suspicious" and how to go about monitoring them, coordinate their activities with other drones nearby, and notify human operators if something suspicious is occurring. This greatly increases the amount of area that can be continuously monitored, while reducing the number of human operators required. Thus a swarm of automated, self-directing drones can automatically patrol a city and track suspicious individuals, reporting their activities back to a centralized monitoring station.[89][90][91] In addition, researchers also investigate possibilities of autonomous surveillance by large groups of micro aerial vehicles stabilized by decentralized bio-inspired swarming rules.[92][93]

Corporate

Corporate surveillance is the monitoring of a person or group's behavior by a corporation. The data collected is most often used for marketing purposes or sold to other corporations, but is also regularly shared with government agencies. It can be used as a form of business intelligence, which enables the corporation to better tailor their products and/or services to be desirable by their customers. Although there is a common belief that monitoring can increase productivity, it can also create consequences such as increasing chances of deviant behavior and creating punishments that are not equitable to their actions. Additionally, monitoring can cause resistance and backlash because it insinuates an employer's suspicion and lack of trust.[94]

Data mining and profiling

Data mining is the application of statistical techniques and programmatic algorithms to discover previously unnoticed relationships within the data. Data profiling in this context is the process of assembling information about a particular individual or group in order to generate a profile — that is, a picture of their patterns and behavior. Data profiling can be an extremely powerful tool for psychological and social network analysis. A skilled analyst can discover facts about a person that they might not even be consciously aware of themselves.[95]

Economic (such as credit card purchases) and social (such as telephone calls and emails) transactions in modern society create large amounts of stored data and records. In the past, this data was documented in paper records, leaving a "paper trail", or was simply not documented at all. Correlation of paper-based records was a laborious process—it required human intelligence operators to manually dig through documents, which was time-consuming and incomplete, at best.

But today many of these records are electronic, resulting in an "electronic trail". Every use of a bank machine, payment by credit card, use of a phone card, call from home, checked out library book, rented video, or otherwise complete recorded transaction generates an electronic record. Public records—such as birth, court, tax and other records—are increasingly being digitized and made available online. In addition, due to laws like CALEA, web traffic and online purchases are also available for profiling. Electronic record-keeping makes data easily collectable, storable, and accessible—so that high-volume, efficient aggregation and analysis is possible at significantly lower costs.

Information relating to many of these individual transactions is often easily available because it is generally not guarded in isolation, since the information, such as the title of a movie a person has rented, might not seem sensitive. However, when many such transactions are aggregated they can be used to assemble a detailed profile revealing the actions, habits, beliefs, locations frequented, social connections, and preferences of the individual. This profile is then used, by programs such as ADVISE[96] and TALON, to determine whether the person is a military, criminal, or political threat.

In addition to its own aggregation and profiling tools, the government is able to access information from third parties — for example, banks, credit companies or employers, etc. — by requesting access informally, by compelling access through the use of subpoenas or other procedures,[97] or by purchasing data from commercial data aggregators or data brokers. The United States has spent $370 million on its 43 planned fusion centers, which are national network of surveillance centers that are located in over 30 states. The centers will collect and analyze vast amounts of data on U.S. citizens. It will get this data by consolidating personal information from sources such as state driver's licensing agencies, hospital records, criminal records, school records, credit bureaus, banks, etc. – and placing this information in a centralized database that can be accessed from all of the centers, as well as other federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.[98]

Under United States v. Miller (1976), data held by third parties is generally not subject to Fourth Amendment warrant requirements.

Human operatives

Organizations that have enemies who wish to gather information about the groups' members or activities face the issue of infiltration.[99]

In addition to operatives' infiltrating an organization, the surveilling party may exert pressure on certain members of the target organization to act as informants (i.e., to disclose the information they hold on the organization and its members).[100][101]

Fielding operatives is very expensive, and for governments with wide-reaching electronic surveillance tools at their disposal the information recovered from operatives can often be obtained from less problematic forms of surveillance such as those mentioned above. Nevertheless, human infiltrators are still common today. For instance, in 2007 documents surfaced showing that the FBI was planning to field a total of 15,000 undercover agents and informants in response to an anti-terrorism directive sent out by George W. Bush in 2004 that ordered intelligence and law enforcement agencies to increase their HUMINT capabilities.[102]

Satellite imagery

On May 25, 2007 the U.S. Director of National Intelligence Michael McConnell authorized the National Applications Office (NAO) of the Department of Homeland Security to allow local, state, and domestic Federal agencies to access imagery from military intelligence Reconnaissance satellites and Reconnaissance aircraft sensors which can now be used to observe the activities of U.S. citizens. The satellites and aircraft sensors will be able to penetrate cloud cover, detect chemical traces, and identify objects in buildings and "underground bunkers", and will provide real-time video at much higher resolutions than the still-images produced by programs such as Google Earth.[103][104][105][106][107][108]

Identification and credentials

A card containing an identification number

One of the simplest forms of identification is the carrying of credentials. Some nations have an identity card system to aid identification, whilst others are considering it but face public opposition. Other documents, such as passports, driver's licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards are also used to verify identity.

If the form of the identity card is "machine-readable", usually using an encoded magnetic stripe or identification number (such as a Social Security number), it corroborates the subject's identifying data. In this case it may create an electronic trail when it is checked and scanned, which can be used in profiling, as mentioned above.

Wireless Tracking

This section refers to methods that involve the monitoring of tracking devices through the aid of wireless signals.

Mobile phones

Mobile carrier antennas are also commonly used to collect geolocation data on mobile phones. The geographical location of a powered mobile phone (and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not), using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.[31][32] Dr. Victor Kappeler[109] of Eastern Kentucky University indicates that police surveillance is a strong concern, stating the following statistics from 2013:

Of the 321,545 law enforcement requests made to Verizon, 54,200 of these requests were for "content" or "location" information—not just cell phone numbers or IP addresses. Content information included the actual text of messages, emails and the wiretapping of voice or messaging content in real-time.

A comparatively new off-the-shelf surveillance device is an IMSI-catcher, a telephone eavesdropping device used to intercept mobile phone traffic and track the movement of mobile phone users. Essentially a "fake" mobile tower acting between the target mobile phone and the service provider's real towers, it is considered a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. IMSI-catchers are used in some countries by law enforcement and intelligence agencies, but their use has raised significant civil liberty and privacy concerns and is strictly regulated in some countries.[110]

In March 2020, British daily The Guardian, based on the claims of a whistleblower, accused the government of Saudi Arabia of exploiting global mobile telecom network weaknesses to spy on its citizens traveling around the United States.[111] The data shared by the whistleblower in support of the claims, showed that a systematic spying campaign was being run by the kingdom exploiting the flaws of SS7, a global messaging system. The data showed that millions of secret tracking commands originated from Saudi in a duration of four-months, starting from November 2019.[112]

RFID tagging

RFID chip pulled from new credit card

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging is the use of very small electronic devices (called "RFID tags") which are applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. The tags can be read from several meters away. They are extremely inexpensive, costing a few cents per piece, so they can be inserted into many types of everyday products without significantly increasing the price, and can be used to track and identify these objects for a variety of purposes.

Some companies appear to be "tagging" their workers by incorporating RFID tags in employee ID badges. Workers in U.K. considered strike action in protest of having themselves tagged; they felt that it was dehumanizing to have all of their movements tracked with RFID chips.[113]قالب:Vague Some critics have expressed fears that people will soon be tracked and scanned everywhere they go.[114] On the other hand, RFID tags in newborn baby ID bracelets put on by hospitals have foiled kidnappings.[113]

In a 2003 editorial, CNET News.com's chief political correspondent, Declan McCullagh, speculated that, soon, every object that is purchased, and perhaps ID cards, will have RFID devices in them, which would respond with information about people as they walk past scanners (what type of phone they have, what type of shoes they have on, which books they are carrying, what credit cards or membership cards they have, etc.). This information could be used for identification, tracking, or targeted marketing. اعتبارا من 2012, this has largely not come to pass.[115]

RFID tagging on humans

Hand with planned insertion point for Verichip device

A human microchip implant is an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being. A subdermal implant typically contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information.

Several types of microchips have been developed in order to control and monitor certain types of people, such as criminals, political figures and spies,[مطلوب توضيح] a "killer" tracking chip patent was filed at the German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA) around May 2009.

Verichip is an RFID device produced by a company called Applied Digital Solutions (ADS). Verichip is slightly larger than a grain of rice, and is injected under the skin. The injection reportedly feels similar to receiving a shot. The chip is encased in glass, and stores a "VeriChip Subscriber Number" which the scanner uses to access their personal information, via the Internet, from Verichip Inc.'s database, the "Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry". Thousands of people have already had them inserted.[114] In Mexico, for example, 160 workers at the Attorney General's office were required to have the chip injected for identity verification and access control purposes.[116][117]

Implantable microchips have also been used in healthcare settings, but ethnographic researchers have identified a number of ethical problems with such uses; these problems include unequal treatment, diminished trust, and possible endangerment of patients.[118]

Geolocation devices

Global Positioning System

Diagram of GPS satellites orbiting Earth

In the U.S., police have planted hidden GPS tracking devices in people's vehicles to monitor their movements,[119] without a warrant.[120] In early 2009, they were arguing in court that they have the right to do this.[121]

Several cities are running pilot projects to require parolees to wear GPS devices to track their movements when they get out of prison.[122]

Devices

Covert listening devices and video devices, or "bugs", are hidden electronic devices which are used to capture, record, and/or transmit data to a receiving party such as a law enforcement agency.

The U.S. has run numerous domestic intelligence operations, such as COINTELPRO, which have bugged the homes, offices, and vehicles of thousands of U.S. citizens, usually political activists, subversives, and criminals.[123]

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the U.K. and the United States possess technology to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones, by accessing the phone's diagnostic/maintenance features, in order to listen to conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone.[25][26][27]

Postal services

As more people use faxes and e-mail the significance of surveilling the postal system is decreasing, in favor of Internet and telephone surveillance. But interception of post is still an available option for law enforcement and intelligence agencies, in certain circumstances.[124] This is not a common practice, however, and entities like the US Army require high levels of approval to conduct.[125]

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation have performed twelve separate mail-opening campaigns targeted towards U.S. citizens. In one of these programs, more than 215,000 communications were intercepted, opened, and photographed.[126][127]

Stakeout

A stakeout is the coordinated surveillance of a location or person. Stakeouts are generally performed covertly and for the purpose of gathering evidence related to criminal activity. The term derives from the practice by land surveyors of using survey stakes to measure out an area before the main building project begins.

Internet of things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a term that refers to the future of technology in which data can be collected without human and computer interaction. IoTs can be used for identification, monitoring, location tracking, and health tracking.[128] While IoTs have the benefit of being a time-saving tool that makes activities simpler, they raise the concern of government surveillance and privacy regarding how data will be used.[128]

Controversy

Graffiti expressing concern about proliferation of video surveillance

Support

Supporters of surveillance systems believe that these tools can help protect society from terrorists and criminals. They argue that surveillance can reduce crime by three means: by deterrence, by observation, and by reconstruction. Surveillance can deter by increasing the chance of being caught, and by revealing the modus operandi. This requires a minimal level of invasiveness.[129]

Another method on how surveillance can be used to fight criminal activity is by linking the information stream obtained from them to a recognition system (for instance, a camera system that has its feed run through a facial recognition system). This can for instance auto-recognize fugitives and direct police to their location.

A distinction here has to be made however on the type of surveillance employed. Some people that say support video surveillance in city streets may not support indiscriminate telephone taps and vice versa. Besides the types, the way in how this surveillance is done also matters a lot; i.e. indiscriminate telephone taps are supported by much fewer people than say telephone taps done only to people suspected of engaging in illegal activities.

Surveillance can also be used to give human operatives a tactical advantage through improved situational awareness, or through the use of automated processes, i.e. video analytics. Surveillance can help reconstruct an incident and prove guilt through the availability of footage for forensics experts. Surveillance can also influence subjective security if surveillance resources are visible or if the consequences of surveillance can be felt.

Some of the surveillance systems (such as the camera system that has its feed run through a facial recognition system mentioned above) can also have other uses besides countering criminal activity. For instance, it can help on retrieving runaway children, abducted or missing adults and mentally disabled people. Other supporters simply believe that there is nothing that can be done about the loss of privacy, and that people must become accustomed to having no privacy. As Sun Microsystems CEO Scott McNealy said: "You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it."[130][131]

Another common argument is: "If you aren't doing something wrong then you don't have anything to fear." Which follows that if one is engaging in unlawful activities, in which case they do not have a legitimate justification for their privacy. However, if they are following the law the surveillance would not affect them.[132]

Opposition

Surveillance lamppost brought down in Hong Kong by citizens fearing state surveillance
An elaborate graffito in Columbus, Ohio, depicting state surveillance of telecommunications

With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program and ADVISE, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of their subjects.[133] Many civil rights and privacy groups, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, have expressed concern that by allowing continual increases in government surveillance of citizens we will end up in a mass surveillance society, with extremely limited, or non-existent political and/or personal freedoms. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T.[133][134]

Some critics state that the claim made by supporters should be modified to read: "As long as we do what we're told, we have nothing to fear.". For instance, a person who is part of a political group which opposes the policies of the national government, might not want the government to know their names and what they have been reading, so that the government cannot easily subvert their organization, arrest, or kill them. Other critics state that while a person might not have anything to hide right now, the government might later implement policies that they do wish to oppose, and that opposition might then be impossible due to mass surveillance enabling the government to identify and remove political threats. Further, other critics point to the fact that most people do have things to hide. For example, if a person is looking for a new job, they might not want their current employer to know this. Also if an employer wishes total privacy to watch over their own employee and secure their financial information it may become impossible, and they may not wish to hire those under surveillance.

In December 2017, the Government of China took steps to oppose widespread surveillance by security-company cameras, webcams, and IP Cameras after tens-of-thousands were made accessible for internet viewing by IT company Qihoo[135]

Totalitarianism

A traffic camera atop a high pole oversees a road in the Canadian city of Toronto

Programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act have led many groups to fear that society is moving towards a state of mass surveillance with severely limited personal, social, political freedoms, where dissenting individuals or groups will be strategically removed in COINTELPRO-like purges.[133][134]

Kate Martin, of the Center For National Security Studies said of the use of military spy satellites being used to monitor the activities of U.S. citizens: "They are laying the bricks one at a time for a police state."[107]

Some point to the blurring of lines between public and private places, and the privatization of places traditionally seen as public (such as shopping malls and industrial parks) as illustrating the increasing legality of collecting personal information.[136] Traveling through many public places such as government offices is hardly optional for most people, yet consumers have little choice but to submit to companies' surveillance practices.[137] Surveillance techniques are not created equal; among the many biometric identification technologies, for instance, face recognition requires the least cooperation. Unlike automatic fingerprint reading, which requires an individual to press a finger against a machine, this technique is subtle and requires little to no consent.[137]

Psychological/social effects

Some critics, such as Michel Foucault, believe that in addition to its obvious function of identifying and capturing individuals who are committing undesirable acts, surveillance also functions to create in everyone a feeling of always being watched, so that they become self-policing. This allows the State to control the populace without having to resort to physical force, which is expensive and otherwise problematic.[138]

With the development of digital technology, individuals have become increasingly perceptible to one another, as surveillance becomes virtual. Online surveillance is the utilization of the internet to observe one's activity.[139] Corporations, citizens, and governments participate in tracking others' behaviours for motivations that arise out of business relations, to curiosity, to legality. In her book Superconnected, Mary Chayko differentiates between two types of surveillance: vertical and horizontal.[139] Vertical surveillance occurs when there is a dominant force, such as the government that is attempting to control or regulate the actions of a given society. Such powerful authorities often justify their incursions as a means to protect society from threats of violence or terrorism. Some individuals question when this becomes an infringement on civil rights.[139]

Horizontal diverges from vertical surveillance as the tracking shifts from an authoritative source to an everyday figure, such as a friend, coworker, or stranger that is interested in one's mundane activities.[139] Individuals leave traces of information when they are online that reveal their interests and desires of which others observe. While this can allow people to become interconnected and develop social connections online, it can also increase potential risk to harm, such as cyberbullying or censoring/stalking by strangers, reducing privacy.[139]

In addition, Simone Browne argues that surveillance wields an immense racializing quality such that it operates as "racializing surveillance." Browne uses racializing surveillance to refer to moments when enactments of surveillance are used to reify boundaries, borders, and bodies along racial lines and where the outcome is discriminatory treatment of those who are negatively racialized by such surveillance. Browne argues racializing surveillance pertains to policing what is "in or out of place."[140][141]

Privacy

Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups oppose surveillance as a violation of people's right to privacy. Such groups include: Electronic Privacy Information Center, Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union and Privacy International.

There have been several lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T and EPIC v. Department of Justice by groups or individuals, opposing certain surveillance activities.

Legislative proceedings such as those that took place during the Church Committee, which investigated domestic intelligence programs such as COINTELPRO, have also weighed the pros and cons of surveillance.

Court Cases

People vs. Diaz (2011) was a court case in the realm of cell phone privacy, even though the decision was later overturned. In this case, Gregory Diaz was arrested during a sting operation for attempting to sell ecstasy. During his arrest, police searched Diaz's phone and found more incriminating evidence including SMS text messages and photographs depicting illicit activities. During his trial, Diaz attempted to have the information from his cell phone removed from evidence, but the courts deemed it as lawful and Diaz's appeal was denied on the California State Court level and, later, the Supreme Court level. Just three short years after, this decision was overturned in the case Riley vs. California (2014).[142]

Riley vs. California (2014) was an Supreme Court case in which a man was arrested for his involvement in a drive-by shooting. A few days after the shooting the police made an arrest of the suspect (Riley), and, during the arrest, the police searched him. However, this search was not only of Riley's person, but also the police opened and searched his cell phone, finding pictures of other weapons, drugs, and of Riley showing gang signs. In court, the question arose whether searching the phone was lawful or if the search was protected by the 4th amendment of the constitution. The decision held that the search of Riley's cell phone during the arrest was illegal, and that it was protected by the 4th Amendment.[143]

Countersurveillance, inverse surveillance, sousveillance

Countersurveillance is the practice of avoiding surveillance or making surveillance difficult. Developments in the late twentieth century have caused counter surveillance to dramatically grow in both scope and complexity, such as the Internet, increasing prevalence of electronic security systems, high-altitude (and possibly armed) UAVs, and large corporate and government computer databases.[144]

Inverse surveillance is the practice of the reversal of surveillance on other individuals or groups (e.g., citizens photographing police). Well-known examples include George Holliday's recording of the Rodney King beating and the organization Copwatch, which attempts to monitor police officers to prevent police brutality. Counter-surveillance can be also used in applications to prevent corporate spying, or to track other criminals by certain criminal entities. It can also be used to deter stalking methods used by various entities and organizations.

Sousveillance is inverse surveillance, involving the recording by private individuals, rather than government or corporate entities.[145]

Popular culture

In literature

  • George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four portrays a fictional totalitarian surveillance society with a very simple mass surveillance system consisting of human operatives, informants, and two-way "telescreens" in people's homes. Because of the impact of this book, mass-surveillance technologies are commonly called "Orwellian" when they are considered problematic.
  • The novel mistrust highlights the negative effects from the overuse of surveillance at Reflection House. The central character Kerryn installs secret cameras to monitor her housemates – see also Paranoia.
  • The book The Handmaid's Tale, as well as a film and TV series based on it, portray a totalitarian Christian theocracy where all citizens are kept under constant surveillance.
  • In the book The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Lisbeth Salander uses computers to get information on people, as well as other common surveillance methods, as a freelancer.
  • V for Vendetta, a British graphic novel written by Alan Moore
  • David Egger's novel The Circle exhibits a world where a single company called "The Circle" produces all of the latest and highest quality technologies from computers and smartphones, to surveillance cameras known as "See-Change cameras". This company becomes associated with politics when starting a movement where politicians go "transparent" by wearing See-Change cameras on their body to prevent keeping secrets from the public about their daily work activity. In this society, it becomes mandatory to share personal information and experiences because it is The Circle's belief that everyone should have access to all information freely. However, as Eggers illustrates, this takes a toll on the individuals and creates a disruption of power between the governments and the private company. The Circle presents extreme ideologies surrounding mandatory surveillance. Eamon Bailey, one of the Wise Men, or founders of The Circle, believes that possessing the tools to access information about anything or anyone, should be a human right given to all of the world's citizens.[146] By eliminating all secrets, any behaviour that has been deemed shameful will either become normalized or no longer considered shocking. Negative actions will eventually be eradicated from society altogether, through the fear of being exposed to other citizens[146] This would be achieved in part by everyone going transparent, something that Bailey highly supports, although it's notable that none of the Wise Men ever became transparent themselves. One major goal of The Circle is to have all of the world's information filtered through The Circle, a process they call "Completion".[146] A single, private company would then have full access and control over all information and privacy of individuals and governments. Ty Gospodinov, the first founder of The Circle, has major concerns about the completion of the circle. He warns that this step would give The Circle too much power and control, and would quickly lead to totalitarianism.

In music

Onscreen

See also

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  142. ^ California Fourth District Court of Appeal (June 25, 2014). "Riley v. California". Oyez – IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
  143. ^ "The Secrets of Countersurveillance". Security Weekly. June 6, 2007.
  144. ^ Birch, Dave (July 14, 2005). "The age of sousveillance". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  145. ^ أ ب ت Eggers, David (2013). The Circle. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, McSweeney's Books. pp. 288, 290–291, 486. ISBN 978-0-385-35139-3.

Further reading

  • Allmer, Thomas. (2012). Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-63220-8
  • Andrejevic, Mark. 2007. iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700616861
  • Ball, Kirstie, Kevin D. Haggerty, and David Lyon, eds. (2012). Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1138026026
  • Brayne, Sarah. (2020). Predict and Surveil: Data, Discretion, and the Future of Policing. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0190684097
  • Browne, Simone. (2015). Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0822359197
  • Coleman, Roy, and Michael McCahill. 2011. Surveillance & Crime. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. ISBN 1847873537
  • Feldman, Jay. (2011). Manufacturing Hysteria: A History of Scapegoating, Surveillance, and Secrecy in Modern America. New York, NY: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42534-9
  • Fuchs, Christian, Kees Boersma, Anders Albrechtslund, and Marisol Sandoval, eds. (2012). "Internet and Surveillance: The Challenges of Web 2.0 and Social Media". New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-89160-8
  • Garfinkel, Simson, Database Nation; The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century. O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-596-00105-3
  • Gilliom, John. (2001). Overseers of the Poor: Surveillance, Resistance, and the Limits of Privacy, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-29361-5
  • Haque, Akhlaque. (2015). Surveillance, Transparency and Democracy: Public Administration in the Information Age. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL. ISBN 978-0-8173-1877-2
  • Harris, Shane. (2011). The Watchers: The Rise of America's Surveillance State. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-311890-0
  • Hier, Sean P., & Greenberg, Joshua (Eds.). (2009). Surveillance: Power, Problems, and Politics. Vancouver, CA: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-1611-2
  • Jensen, Derrick and Draffan, George (2004) Welcome to the Machine: Science, Surveillance, and the Culture of Control Chelsea Green Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-931498-52-4
  • Lewis, Randolph. (2017). Under Surveillance: Being Watched in Modern America. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 1477312439
  • Lyon, David (2001). Surveillance Society: Monitoring in Everyday Life. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-20546-2
  • Lyon, David (Ed.). (2006). Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84392-191-2
  • Lyon, David (2007) Surveillance Studies: An Overview. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3591-0
  • Matteralt, Armand. (2010). The Globalization of Surveillance. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. ISBN 0-7456-4511-9
  • Monahan, Torin, ed. (2006). Surveillance and Security: Technological Politics and Power in Everyday Life. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415953931
  • Monahan, Torin. (2010). Surveillance in the Time of Insecurity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813547652
  • Monahan, Torin, and David Murakami Wood, eds. (2018). Surveillance Studies: A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-190-29782-4
  • Parenti, Christian The Soft Cage: Surveillance in America From Slavery to the War on Terror, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-05485-5
  • Petersen, J.K. (2012) Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition, Taylor & Francis: CRC Press, 1020 pp., ISBN 978-1-439873-15-1
  • Staples, William G. (2000). Everyday Surveillance: Vigilance and Visibility in Post-Modern Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-0077-2

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