عقد 1950

مع عقارب الساعة، من اليسار: الأمم المتحدة soldiers during the الحرب الكورية، which was the first UN authorized conflict; Two atomic explosions from the RDS-37 and Upshot-Knothole (Soviet and American, respectively) nuclear weapons, symbolizing the تصاعد تجاذبات الحرب الباردة بين الأمتين في عقد 1950؛ Israeli troops prepare to fight the Egyptians during the أزمة السويس في 1956; A replica of سپوتنيك 1, the world's first satellite, launched by the Soviet Union in 1957; فيدل كاسترو يقود الثورة الكوبية في 1959؛ فيضان بحر الشمال 1953
الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون: القرن 19القرن 20القرن 21
العقود: عقد 1920 عقد 1930 عقد 1940عقد 1950عقد 1960 عقد 1970 عقد 1980
Years: 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
التصنيفات: المواليدالوفياتالعمارة
التأسيساتالانحلالات

عقد 1950 أو الخمسينيات كانت عقداً بدأ في 1 يناير 1950 and ended on December 31, 1959. By its end, the world had largely recovered from World War II and the Cold War developed from its modest beginning in the late 1940s to a hot competition between the United States and the Soviet Union by the beginning of the 1960s.

Clashes between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. The conflicts included the الحرب الكورية في بداية العقد وبداية سباق الفضاء with the launch of Sputnik I. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons (such as RDS-37 and Upshot-Knothole), this created a politically conservative climate. In the United States, the Red Scare (fear of communism) caused public Congressional hearings by both houses in Congress and anti-communism was the prevailing sentiment in the United States throughout the decade. بداية إزالة الاستعمار في أفريقيا وآسيا occurred in this decade and accelerated in the following decade, the 1960s.

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الحروب والنزاعات

  • الحرب الباردة conflicts involving the influence of the rival superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States
    • الحرب الكورية (1950–1953) – The war, which lasted from June 25, 1950 until the signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement on July 27, 1953, started as a civil war between North Korea and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). When it began, North and South Korea existed as provisional governments competing for control over the Korean peninsula, due to the division of Korea by outside powers. While originally a civil war, it quickly escalated into a war between the Western powers under the United Nations Command led by the United States and its allies and the communist powers of the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. On September 15, General Douglas MacArthur conducted Operation Chromite, an amphibious landing at the city of Inchon (Song Do port). The North Korean army collapsed, and within a few days, MacArthur's army retook Seoul (عاصمة كوريا الجنوبية). He then pushed north, capturing Pyongyang in October. Chinese intervention the following month drove UN forces south again. MacArthur then planned for a full-scale invasion of China, but this was against the wishes of President Truman and others who wanted a limited war. He was dismissed and replaced by General Matthew Ridgeway. The war then became a bloody stalemate for the next two and a half years while peace negotiations dragged on. The war left 33,742 American soldiers dead, 92,134 wounded, and 80,000 Missing in action (MIA) or Prisoner of war (POW). Estimates place Korean and Chinese casualties at 1,000,000–1,400,000 dead or wounded, and 140,000 MIA or POW.
    • حرب ڤيتنام بدأت في 1959. Diem instituted a policy of death penalty against any communist activity in 1956. The Vietminh began an assassination campaign in early 1957. An article by French scholar Bernard Fall published in July 1958 concluded that a new war had begun. The first official large unit military action was on September 26, 1959, when the Vietcong ambushed two ARVN companies.[1]
  • Arab–Israeli conflict (Early 20th century-present)
  • Algerian War (1954–1962) – An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians, use of torture on both sides and counter-terrorism operations by the French Army. The war eventually led to the independence of Algeria from France.


النزاعات الداخلية

راؤل كاسترو (يسار), with his arm around his second-in-command, Ernesto "Che" Guevara, in their Sierra de Cristal mountain stronghold in Oriente Province، كوبا، في 1958.

ازالة الاستعمار والاستقلال

القضايا الدولية

  • Establishment of the Non-aligned Movement, consisting of nations not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

Africa

  • Africa experienced the beginning of large-scale top-down economic interventions in the 1950s that failed to cause improvement and led to charitable exhaustion by the West as the century went on. The widespread corruption was not dealt with and war, disease, and famine continued to be constant problems in the region.
  • Egyptian general Gamel Abdel Nasser overthrew the Egyptian monarchy, establishing himself as President of Egypt. Nasser became an influential leader in the Middle East in the 1950s, leading Arab states into war with Israel, becoming a major leader of the Non-Aligned Movement and promoting pan-Arab unification.
The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961


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الكوارث

Natural:

  • On 15 August 1950 an earthquake and floods in Assam, India killed 574 and left 5,000,000 homeless.
  • On 18 January 1951 Mount Lamington erupted in Papua New Guinea, killing 3,000 people.
  • On 31 January 1953 the North Sea flood of 1953 killed 1,835 people in the southwestern Netherlands (especially Zeeland) and 307 in the United Kingdom[2]
  • On 9 September 1954 an earthquake centered on the city of Orléansville, Algeria killed 1,500 and left thousands homeless.


الاقتصاد

العلوم والتكنولوجيا

التكنولوجيا

30k USSR postage stamp depicting Sputnik 1

Television, which first reached the marketplace in the 1940s, attained maturity during the 50s and by the end of the decade, most American households owned a TV set. A rush to produce larger screens than the tiny ones found on 40s models occurred during 1950-52. In 1954, RCA introduced the CTC-1, the first color TV to utilize the NTSC video standard. It was expensive however, and black-and-white sets would remain the norm for the next decade. The Chevrolet Corvette becomes the first car to have an all-fiberglass body in 1953. In 1954 Bell Telephone Labs produced the first Solar battery. In 1954 you could get a yard of contact paper for only 59 cents. Polypropylene was invented in 1954. In 1955 Jonas Salk invented a polio vaccine which was given to more than seven million American students. In 1956 a solar powered wrist watch was invented. A surprise came in 1957; a 184-رطل (83 kغ) satellite named Sputnik 1 was launched by the Soviets. The space race began 4 months later as the United States launched a smaller satellite. In 1958 the first plastic Coke bottle appeared.

Operation Castle became the highest-yield nuclear test series ever conducted by the United States.


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العلوم

  • Francis Crick and James Watson discover the double-helix structure of DNA.
  • An immunization vaccine is produced for polio.
  • The first successful ultrasound test of the heart activity.
  • The CERN is established.
  • The world's first nuclear power plant is opened in Obninsk near Moscow.
  • NASA is organized.
  • President Harry S. Truman inaugurated transcontinental television service on September 4, 1951 when he made a speech to the nation. AT&T carried his address from San Francisco and it was viewed from the west coast to the east coast at the same time.
  • The first human [cervical] cancer cells were cultured outside of a body in 1951, From Henrietta Lacks, the cells are known as the immortal cells

Popular culture

الموسيقى


In the mid-1950s Elvis Presley became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll

الأفلام

كاري گرانت في دور روجر اُ. ثورن‌هل في شمال بشمال غربي (1959)

Sports

Paavo Nurmi and the Olympic Flame in the opening ceremony of the 1952 Summer Olympics.

Olympics

FIFA World Cups


أشخاص

زعماء العالم

السياسة

  • Aleksey Innokentevich Antonov, Chief of General Staff of the Unified Armed Forces Warsaw Treaty Organization
  • يوجين بلاك، رئيس البنك الدولي
  • William Sterling Cole, Director-general International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Manuel Fraga Iribarne, Secretary-general Latin Union
  • André François-Poncet, Chairman of the Standing Commission International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
  • Louis Goffin, Secretary-general Western European Union
  • Walter Hallstein, President of the European Commission
  • Fritz Hess, Director Universal Postal Union
  • Ivan Stepanovich Konev, Commander-in-chief of the Unified Armed Forces Warsaw Treaty Organization
  • Henri St. Leger, Secretary-general International Organization for Standardization
  • Robert C. Lonati, Secretary-general World Tourism Organization
  • David A. Morse, Director-general International Labour Organization
  • Arnold Duncan McNair, Baron McNair, President of the European Court of Human Rights
  • Ove Nielsen, Secretary-general International Maritime Organization
  • Maurice Pate, Executive Director United Nations Children's Fund
  • Robert Schuman, President of the European Parliamentary Assembly
  • Gustav Swoboda, Chief of the Secretariat World Meteorological Organization
  • José Guillermo Trabanino Guerrero, Secretary-general Organization of Central American States
  • Eric Wyndham White, Executive Secretary World Trade Organization

Entertainers

Musicians

Bands

Timeline

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

1950195119521953195419551956195719581959

الهامش

  1. ^ The Pentagon Papers, Volume 1, Chapter 5, Section 3, "Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954-1960"
  2. ^ Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 978-0-212-97022-3.

للاستزادة

  • Bessel, Richard and Dirk Schumann, eds. Life after Death: Approaches to a Cultural and Social History of Europe During the 1940s and 1950s (2003), essays by scholars on recovery from the war
  • Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005)
  • London Institute of World Affairs, The Year Book of World Affairs 1957 (London 1957) full text online, comprehensive reference book covering 1956 in diplomacy, international affairs and politics for major nations and regions

وصلات خارجية