الأسرة الثالثة من أور

(تم التحويل من أسرة اور الثالثة)
الأسرة الثالثة من أور

الأسرة الثالثة من أور
حوالي 2112 ق.م. — حوالي 2004 ق.م.
Empire of the Third Dynasty of Ur. West is at top, North at right.
Empire of the Third Dynasty of Ur. West is at top, North at right.
العاصمة أور
اللغات الشائعة اللغة السومرية
الدين الديانة السومرية
الحكومة ملكية
Ensí  
• ca. 2047–2030 BC
Ur-Nammu (first)
• ca. 1963–1940 BC
Ibbi-Sin (last)
الحقبة التاريخية العصر البرونزي
• تأسست
حوالي 2112 ق.م.
حوالي 2004 BCE
• انحلت
حوالي 2004 ق.م.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Gutian dynasty of Sumer
Old Elamite period
First Babylonian Dynasty
Dynasty of Isin
Old Assyrian Empire
Old Hittite Empire
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Today part of

 العراق

 سوريا

 لبنان

الأسرة الثالثة من أور, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire, refers to both a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of أور and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is commonly abbreviated as Ur III by historians studying the period.

خريطةتوضح دولة أور الثالثة ومحيط نفوذها.

The Third Dynasty of Ur was the last Sumerian dynasty which came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia. It began after several centuries of control by Akkadian and Gutian kings. It controlled the cities of Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna and extended as far north as the الجزيرة.

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خط زمني للحكام

Assyriologists employ many complicated methods for establishing the most precise dates possible for this period, but controversy still exists. Generally, scholars use either the conventional (middle) or the low (short) chronologies. They are as follows:

Ruler Middle Chronology
All dates BC
Short Chronology
All dates BC
Utu-hengal 2119–2113 2055–2048
Ur-Nammu 2112–c. 2095 2047–2030
Shulgi 2094–2047 2029–1982
Amar-Sin 2046–2038 1981–1973
شو-سن 2037–2029 1972–1964
Ibbi-Sin 2028–2004 1963–1940


شريعة قانونية مبكرة

لوح يحمل نص نعي تدمير أور, متحف اللوڤر.
خريطة العراق تبين المواقع الهامة التيازدهرت فيها الأسرة الثالثة من أور (خريطة قابلة للنقر)

One salient feature of Ur III is its establishment of one of the earliest known law-codes, the Code of Ur-Nammu. It is quite similar to the famous Code of Hammurabi, resembling its prologue and bodily structure. Extant copies, written in Old Babylonian, exist from Nippur, Sippar, and also Ur itself. Although the prologue credits Ur-Nammu, the author is still somewhat under dispute; some scholars attribute it to his son, Shulgi.

The prologue to the law-code, written in the first person, established the king as the beacon of justice for his land, a role that previous kings normally did not play. He claims to want justice for all, including traditionally unfortunate groups in the kingdom like the widower or the orphan.

More legal disputes were dealt with locally by government officials called mayors, although their decision could be appealed and eventually overthrown by the provincial governor. Sometimes legal disputes were publicly aired with witnesses present at a place like the town square or in front of the temple. However, the image of the king as the supreme judge of the land took hold, and this image appears in many literary works and poems. Citizens sometimes wrote letters of prayer to the king, either present or past.


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