موسترية

Mousterian
خريطة توضح امتداد موسترية
Artistic impression of the head of a Homo neanderthalensis male, at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
النطاق الجغرافيAfrica and Eurasia
الفترةMiddle Paleolithic
التواريخح. 160,000–40,000 BP[1]
الموقع النمطيLe Moustier
المواقع الرئيسيةCreswell Crags, Lynford Quarry, Arcy-sur-Cure, Vindija Cave, Atapuerca Mountains, Zafarraya, Gorham's Cave, Devil's Tower, Haua Fteah, Jebel Irhoud
سبقهاAcheulean, Micoquien, Clactonian
تلاهاChâtelperronian, Emiran, Baradostian, Aterian
العصر الحجري
قبل Homo (پليوسين)

العصر الحجري القديم

Lower Paleolithic
العصر الحجري المتأخر
Homo
التحكم في النار
أدوات حجرية
Middle Paleolithic
Middle Stone Age
نياندرتال
Homo sapiens
الخروج من أفريقيا
Upper Paleolithic
العصر الحجري المتأخر
الحداثة السلوكية، Atlatl,
أصل الكلب المستأنس

Epipaleolithic
العصر الحجري المتوسط

Microliths, Bow, Canoe
النطوفية
الخيامية
Tahunian
العصر الحجري الحديث الثقيل
العصر الحجري الحديث الرعوي
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic

العصر الحجري الحديث

ثورة العصر الحجري الحديث،
استئناس الحيوانات
العصر الحجري الحديث الفخاري
فخار
العصر النحاسي

الثقافة الموستيرية Mousterian culture، أدوات ثقافة إنسان نياندرتال Neanderthal ، وهو مخلوق بشري عاش في البليستوسين المتأخر.[2]

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التسمية

Restoration of Le Moustier Neanderthals by Charles R. Knight

The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, three superimposed rock shelters in the Dordogne region of France.[3] Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and also the Near East and North Africa. Handaxes, racloirs, and points constitute the industry; sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes.[4]


السمات

يسار: Findspot : Beuzeville, Eure, France. يمين: Proximal Phalanges يسار: Findspot : Beuzeville, Eure, France. يمين: Proximal Phalanges

يسار: Findspot : Beuzeville, Eure, France.

يمين: Proximal Phalanges
Le Moustier remains
Le Moustier 1 Neanderthal skull, today in the Neues Museum, Berlin.[5]
Mousterian point
Production of points & spearheads from a flint stone core, Levallois technique, Mousterian culture, Tabun Cave, Israel, 250,000–50,000 BP. Israel Museum
Distribution of Homo neanderthalensis, and main sites. Mousterian industries have been found outside this range (e.g., Jordan, Saudi Arabia).
Cave entrance of Raqefet Cave, where Mousterian remains have been found.

The European Mousterian is the product of Neanderthals. It existed roughly from 160,000 to 40,000 BP.[6] Some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l'Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.[7]

In North Africa and the Near East, Mousterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Eastern Mediterranean, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans.[8] The Mousterian industry in North Africa is estimated to be 315,000 years old.[9]

Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian (Ferrassie & Quina) named after the Charente region,[10] Typical, and the Mousterian Traditional Acheulian (MTA) Type-A and Type-B.[11] The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period.[12]


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المواقع

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  1. ^ Callaway, Ewen (20 August 2014). "Neanderthals: Bone technique redrafts prehistory". Nature. 512 (7514): 242. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..242C. doi:10.1038/512242a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 25143094. From the Black Sea to the Atlantic coast of France, these [Mousterian] artefacts and Neanderthal remains disappear from European sites at roughly the same time, 39,000–41,000 years ago, Higham's team conclude. The data challenge arguments that Neanderthals endured in refuges in the southern Iberian Peninsula until as recently as 28,000 years ago
  2. ^ عبد الجليل هويدي، محمد أحمد هيكل (2004). أساسيات الجيولوجيا التاريخية. مكتبة الدار العربية للكتب.
  3. ^ Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (24 February 2009). The Essence of Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-495-59981-4. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  4. ^ Aldenderfer, Mark; Andrea, Alfred J.; McGeough, Kevin; Mierse, William E.; Neel, Carolyn (29 April 2010). World History Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-85109-929-0. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  5. ^ Bekker, Henk (23 October 2017). "Neues Museum in Berlin 1175".
  6. ^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (1999). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Blackwell. p. 408. ISBN 0-631-17423-0. Retrieved 1 August 2016. "the classic Mousterian can be identified after perhaps 160,000 BP and lasts until c. 40,000 BP in Europe."
  7. ^ Dibble, Harold L.; McPherron, Shannon P. (October 2006). "The Missing Mousterian". Current Anthropology. 47 (5): 777–803. doi:10.1086/506282.
  8. ^ Shea, J. J. (2003). "Neandertals [sic], competition and the origin of modern human behaviour in the Levant". Evolutionary Anthropology. 12: 173–187. doi:10.1002/evan.10101.
  9. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :0
  10. ^ Lock, Andrew; Peters, Charles R. (1999). Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution. "Oxford Science Publications" series. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21690-1. Retrieved 6 January 2012.[صفحة مطلوبة]
  11. ^ "Mousterian Industries". Stone Age Reference Collection. Institutt for Arkeologi, Kunsthistorie og Konservering, University of Oslo. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  12. ^ Higham, Tom; Douka, Katerina; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Basell, Laura; Camps, Marta; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecillio; Bergman, Christopher; Boitard, Coralie; Boscato, Paolo; Caparrós, Miguel; Conard, Nicholas J.; Draily, Christelle; Froment, Alain; Galván, Bertila; Gambassini, Paolo; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Grimaldi, Stefano; Haesaerts, Paul; Holt, Brigitte; Iriarte-Chiapusso, Maria-Jose; Jelinek, Arthur; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Maíllo-Fernández, José-Manuel; Marom, Anat; Maroto, Julià; et al. (2014). "The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance". Nature. 512 (7514): 306–309. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..306H. doi:10.1038/nature13621. PMID 25143113.
  13. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.
  14. ^ Levy, T., ed. (2001). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. London: Leicester University Press.[صفحة مطلوبة]
  15. ^ Lan Shaw, Robert Jameson, ed. (2008). A Dictionary of Archaeology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470751961.[صفحة مطلوبة]
  16. ^ Dolukhanov, Pavel (2004). The Early Slavs: Eastern Europe from the Initial Settlement to the Kievan Rus. Routledge. ISBN 9781317892229.[صفحة مطلوبة]
  17. ^ Karavanić, Ivor; Vukosavljević, Nikola; Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C.M.; Smith, Fred H. (November 2018). "Paleolithic hominins and settlement in Croatia from MIS 6 to MIS 3: Research history and current interpretations". Quaternary International (in الإنجليزية). 494: 152–166. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2017.09.034.
  18. ^ "Paleolithic hominins and settlement in Croatia from MIS 6 to MIS 3: Research history and current interpretations". ResearchGate.
  19. ^ Simek, Jan F.; Smith, Fred H. (1997-06-01). "Chronological changes in stone tool assemblages from Krapina (Croatia)". Journal of Human Evolution (in الإنجليزية). 32 (6): 561–575. doi:10.1006/jhev.1996.0129. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 9210018.
  20. ^ Ahern, James C. M; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja; Janković, Ivor; Smith, Fred H (2004-01-01). "New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia". Journal of Human Evolution (in الإنجليزية). 46 (1): 27–67. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2003.09.010. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 14698684.
  21. ^ "The Mousterian industry of Veternica Cave". ResearchGate.
  22. ^ Harvati, Katerina; Roksandic, Mirjana (2017-01-18). Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia: Human Evolution and its Context (in الإنجليزية). Springer. ISBN 978-94-024-0874-4.
  23. ^ Boschian, Giovanni; Gerometta, Katarina; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Karavanić, Ivor (2017-09-02). "Late Neandertals in Dalmatia: Site formation processes, chronology, climate change and human activity at Mujina Pećina, Croatia". Quaternary International. Prehistoric hunter-gatherers and farmers in the Adriatic and neighboring regions (in الإنجليزية). 450: 12–35. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2016.09.066. ISSN 1040-6182.
  24. ^ "Kasni musterijen na istočnom Jadranu – temelj za razumijevanje identiteta kasnih neandertalaca i njihovog nestanka" (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  25. ^ "Karavanić, Ivor & Janković, Ivor & Ahern, Jim & Smith, F.. (2014). Current research on the Middle Paleolithic cave, open-air and underwater site in Dalmatia, Croatia. Dolní Věstonice Studies. 20. 31-36". ResearchGate.
  26. ^ أ ب Karavanić, Ivor (2015), Sázelová, Sandra; Novák, Martin; Mizerová, Alena, eds. (in en), Research on underwater Mousterian: The site of Resnik – Kaštel Štafilić, Dalmatia, Croatia., Masaryk university, pp. 73–79, doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-7781-2015-6, ISBN 978-80-210-7781-2, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287643498, retrieved on 2020-05-18 
  27. ^ Rossi, Irena Radić; Karavanić, Ivor; Butorac, Valerija (2020), Bailey, Geoff; Galanidou, Nena; Peeters, Hans et al., eds. (in en), Croatia: Submerged Prehistoric Sites in a Karstic Landscape, Coastal Research Library, Springer International Publishing, pp. 347–369, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-37367-2_18, ISBN 978-3-030-37367-2 
  28. ^ Bekker, Henk (23 October 2017). "Neues Museum in Berlin 1175".

وصلات خارجية

سبقه
Micoquien
Mousterian
300,000-30,000 BP
تبعه
Châtelperronian

قالب:Clarify radiocarbon calibration