|التواريخ||c. 424,000 – c. 400,000 BP|
|المواقع الرئيسية||Barnham, Nile, Swanscombe Heritage Park|
|السمات||Clactonian Hand-axe from Rickson’s Farm pit, Clacton, Essex.|
الكلاكتونية Clactonian هي الاسم الذي أطلقه الجيولوجيون على صناعة للأدوات European flint tool تعود إلى الجزء المبكر من الفترة interglacial المعروفة بإسم Hoxnian, the Mindel-Riss or the Holstein stages (c. 400,000 years ago). Clactonian tools were made by Homo heidelbergensis.
It is named after 400,000-year-old finds made by Hazzledine Warren in a palaeochannel at Clacton-on-Sea in the English county of Essex in 1911. The artefacts found there included flint chopping tools, flint flakes and the tip of a worked wooden shaft along with the remains of a giant elephant and hippopotamus. Further examples of the tools have been found at sites including Barnfield Pit and Rickson's Pit, near Swanscombe in Kent and Barnham in Suffolk; similar industries have been identified across Northern Europe. The Clactonian industry involved striking thick, irregular flakes from a core of flint, which was then employed as a chopper. The flakes would have been used as crude knives or scrapers. Unlike the Oldowan tools from which Clactonian ones derived, some were notched implying that they were attached to a handle or shaft. Retouch is uncommon and the prominent bulb of percussion on the flakes indicates use of a hammerstone.
- ^ Ashton, Nick (2017). Early Humans. London: William Collins. p. 145-47, 314. ISBN 978-0-00-815035-8.
- ^ Tester, P. J. (1984). "Clactonian Flints from Rickson's Pit, Swanscombe" (PDF). Archaeologia Cantiana - Vol. 100 1984. KENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.
Butler, C, Prehistoric Flintwork, Tempus : Strood, 2005
|العصر الحجري القديم|
|↑ Pliocene (before Homo)|