الكلاكتونية

(تم التحويل من Clactonian)
Clactonian
Clactonian Hand-axe from Rickson’s Farm pit, Clacton, Essex.
النطاق الجغرافيEngland
الفترةLower Paleolithic
التواريخc. 424,000 – c. 400,000 BP
الموقع النمطيClacton-on-Sea
المواقع الرئيسيةBarnham, Nile, Swanscombe Heritage Park
السماتClactonian Hand-axe from Rickson’s Farm pit, Clacton, Essex.
سبقهاAcheulean
تلاهاMousterian

الكلاكتونية Clactonian هي الاسم الذي أطلقه الجيولوجيون على صناعة للأدوات European flint tool تعود إلى الجزء المبكر من الفترة interglacial المعروفة بإسم Hoxnian, the Mindel-Riss or the Holstein stages (c. 400,000 years ago). Clactonian tools were made by Homo heidelbergensis.[1]

It is named after 400,000-year-old finds made by Hazzledine Warren in a palaeochannel at Clacton-on-Sea in the English county of Essex in 1911. The artefacts found there included flint chopping tools, flint flakes and the tip of a worked wooden shaft along with the remains of a giant elephant and hippopotamus. Further examples of the tools have been found at sites including Barnfield Pit and Rickson's Pit,[2] near Swanscombe in Kent and Barnham in Suffolk; similar industries have been identified across Northern Europe. The Clactonian industry involved striking thick, irregular flakes from a core of flint, which was then employed as a chopper. The flakes would have been used as crude knives or scrapers. Unlike the Oldowan tools from which Clactonian ones derived, some were notched implying that they were attached to a handle or shaft. Retouch is uncommon and the prominent bulb of percussion on the flakes indicates use of a hammerstone.

An "Egyptian verson" of the Clactonian industry was proposed in 1972, based on excavations on the banks of the Nile River, at the 100 foot terrace.[3]

خريطة إنگلترة تبين المواقع الهامة في الصناعة الكلاكتونية (الخريطة قابلة للنقر).

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See also


المراجع

  1. ^ Ashton, Nick (2017). Early Humans. London: William Collins. p. 145-47, 314. ISBN 978-0-00-815035-8.
  2. ^ Tester, P. J. (1984). "Clactonian Flints from Rickson's Pit, Swanscombe" (PDF). Archaeologia Cantiana - Vol. 100 1984. KENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  3. ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.

Butler, C, Prehistoric Flintwork, Tempus : Strood, 2005

وصلات خارجية

العصر الحجري القديم
Pliocene (before Homo)
Mesolithic